TESOL Methodology Week 4: Lecture A Review Quiz: ALM Homework Commentary Silent Way 1 * Review Quiz Question One Which of the following did not form
an important part of the theory & practice of ALM? a) Structural Linguistics b) Behaviorist Psychology c) Aural-Oral Approach d) Direct Method 1 * Review Quiz Question Two Identify the appropriate order of the
learning chain in Behavioral Psychology. a) stimulus, response, reinforcement b) stimulus, reinforcement, response c) response, stimulus, reinforcement 1 * Review Quiz
Question Three Which is not one of the levels of structural linguistics? a) morphology b) phonetics c) psychology d) phonology 1 * Review Quiz Question Four
Which of the following is not an example of LL reinforcement? a) praise from teacher b) disapproval from teacher c) praise from other students d) self-satisfaction of TL ability 1 * Review Quiz Question Five One of the purposes of drilling in
ALM is to promote overlearning, which is said to lead to _____________. a) mispronunciation b) automaticity c) backward build-up d) negative reinforcement 1 *Homework Commentary uestion: Good & Bad LL Habits
GOOD HABITS: Flashcards and labeling Change phone & PC settings to TL Find authentic TL sources that you like, and enjoy them!! Find a TL texting buddy 1 *Homework Commentary uestion: Good & Bad LL Habits
BAD HABIT: being content with what you already know TESOL Methodology Silent Way 1 Intro & Background
Criticism of ALM Difficult to transfer skills to communication in the real world In ALM, Ss memorize chunks and set dialogues which they never use in the outside world Chomsky challenged the learning theory of LL as habit formation 1 Intro & Background Chomskys Challenge to ALM
People create & understand utterances they have never heard Universal Grammar: all humans have innate knowledge of underlying abstract rules & elements LL is rule formation. Acquisition requires learners to apply thinking process, i.e. cognition. 1 Intro & Background
Cognitive Code Approach CCA stemmed from Chomskys ideas, with an emphasis on human cognition Learners are not just organisms responding to stimuli, but are humans actively responsible for own learning LL is a process of formulating hypotheses to discover rules of TL 1 Intro & Background
Cognitive Code Approach Errors are inevitable, a sign that learner is actively formulating & testing new hypotheses CCA caused a flood of new thinking about language, learners, learning and teaching, and led to development of several new methods, including Silent Way, TPR, Suggestopedia, Communicative Language
1 Intro & Background ilent Way Creator: Caleb Gattegno Developed SW not directly from CCA, but sharing principles with it Teaching should be subordinated to learning to teach is to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it Looked at LL from the learners perspective by studying the way
children and babies learn 1 Intro & Background ilent Way Creator: Caleb Gattegno 1 Intro & Background Video Introduction In this video you will watch Professor Luisa Piemontese. She will discussing her experience with the
Silent Way. Professor Piemontese is an experienced language teacher and teacher trainer who is wellversed in a variety of different teaching methods, but the Silent Way is her personal favorite. 1 Intro & Background Video Introduction In this video you hear her discussing key aspects of the Silent Way and see her using the method in a
Spanish language course. You will also hear one of her students describing his impressions of the method. 1 Intro & Background Video Introduction Things to Look For Gattegnos motivations Students impression Characteristics of the method
Requirements and demands on teacher and students Dr. Piemonteses passion for SW 1 Intro & Background er the Video: SW Characteristics Based on discovery of language, not on translation, memorization & drills Slower than other methods because of focus on quality,
not quantity Instead of vocab & structure overload, SW is about the basis or essence of language the building blocks used to 1 Intro & Background deo Summary: SW Characteristics T is silent, stays in the background, focuses on the Ss learning
No textbook, only props that facilitate learning Only limited planning is possible curriculum is guided by the students Lots of improvisation & thinking 1 Intro & Background deo Summary: SW Characteristics Requirements & Demands on Teacher
Must be silent, focus on Ss learning Patient, observant, understanding LOVE: love the language, love to teach, love the Ss, love to see Ss go through process of learning Must have a positive attitude (just 1 Intro & Background deo Summary: SW Characteristics Requirements & Demands on
Students Must be on board (cooperative and willing to participate & accept) Need to understand the SW process so they are not afraid of it Must be observant Must be ready to let go and discover language. Nothing to 1Principles & Characteristics 2 Basic Concepts
In the SW classroom T should be as silent as possible Ss should produce as much as possible T should help Ss develop awareness of their own capacities Ss should acquire inner criteria to monitor & self-correct their own language production 1Principles & Characteristics 2
Basic Concepts Gattegnos Learning Hypotheses Learning happens through discovery & creation, not memorization & repetition Learning is facilitated by accompanying physical objects Learning involves problem solving Lets take a closer look at these 1Principles & Characteristics 2
Basic Concepts Discovery Learning is an active, creative process which involves: Increase in intellectual potency Shift from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards Heuristics: exploratory autonomous trial-and-error experimentation strategy 1Principles & Characteristics 2
Basic Concepts Mediating Physical Objects Rods & color-coded pronunciation charts provide physical foci for learning Allow more direct connections between meaning & sound Serve as associative mediators to facilitate learning & recall (see Techniques for further details) 1Principles & Characteristics
2 Basic Concepts Problem solving is a participatory approach to learning: Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn. -Benjamin Franklin 1Principles & Characteristics 2
View of Language Spirit vs. Rules LL should focus on the spirit of the language, not just component forms Spirit: phonemic & suprasegmental aspects that form each lg.s unique sound system, rhythm and melody, as well as functional vocabulary Grasping the spirit is an essential goal from the very beginning of SW 1Principles & Characteristics
2 View of Language Vocabulary: a central dimension Choice of vocab is crucial in SW Functional Vocabulary is a small set of the most functional & versatile words of the language, many of which may not have a direct translation in L1 FV presented, practiced and referred to using word charts (see
Techniques) 1Principles & Characteristics 2 View of Learning State of Surrender Learners need to return to state of mind that characterizes a babys learning Yet L2 processes are radically different from those of L1 because
of what Ss already know T should build from previous knowledge 1Principles & Characteristics 2 View of Learning Silent Awareness & Active Trial The self is composed of a learning system and a retaining system Learning system activated by
intelligent, silent awareness Learners must continually & actively test their powers to abstract, analyze, synthesize and integrate 1Principles & Characteristics 2 View of Learning Silence: the best vehicle for learning Allows Ss to concentrate on task at hand and the potential means
towards its accomplishment L&R consumes time and encourages the scattered mind to remain scattered Silence (avoidance of repetition) is an aid to alertness, concentration, and mental organization 1Principles & Characteristics 2 View of Learning
Learning to Learn Ss develop powers of awareness to increase learning capacity Awareness development: attention, production, self-correction, absorption Ts silence forces Ss to generalize, formulate rules, come to their own conclusions, acquire inner criteria 1Principles & Characteristics 2
View of Learning Inner Criteria Play a central role throughout life Allow self-monitoring & selfcorrection Decrease reliance on T and encourage independence, autonomy, responsibility Self-correction through selfawareness is one of the most unique 1Principles & Characteristics 2
Teachers Silence Most demanding aspect of SW for traditionally trained teachers Ts must resist urge to model, assist or direct desired responses T must also be creative & inventive, using gestures, facial expressions, charts, rods and various objects to elicit & shape responses (See Tony)
1Principles & Characteristics 2 Teachers Silence Teach, test, get out of the way Teach: present an item once Test: elicit & shape production Get out of the way: T lets Ss interact while monitoring production and attending to errors. T often fades into the background or even leaves the room to let Ss struggle
with new tools. TESOL Methodology Week 4: Lecture B Video: Silent Way Demo Lesson Lesson Analysis Techniques & Application Homework Questions
1 Video: Silent Way Video Introduction In this video, you will see an upperintermediate level Silent Way lesson taught by Professor Donald Freeman to a group of mixed-level English language learners with various countries of origin. Professor Diane Larsen-Freeman presents an introduction to the lesson and brief commentary at the end.
1 Video: Silent Way Video Introduction Things to watch for Use of rods, charts, pointer Ts gestures, facial expressions Ts attitude Attention to errors and correction techniques Learner participation 1 Video: Silent Way
After the Video Did the techniques used in the lesson match your expectations? What did you think about the charts? Would you like to use them in your class? How? How did you feel about the Ts attitude? Why was he like this? What types of verbal and nonverbal cues did the T use to indicate mistakes?
1 Video: Silent Way Supplementary Resources Additional Videos are available through my website Using the vowel color chart Tony Tokyo 2009 Silent Way Pop Up TV Caleb Gattengno I especially recommend Tonys class 1 Lesson Analysis
2 1. Goals of Teacher Encourage Ss to use the language for themselves. As LF said, it is the Ss who should be practicing the language, not the teacher. SLT: T was silent much of the time. He did not model language but rather directed Ss in using it. Since T doesnt provide a model, Ss learn to give their full attention
to Ts cues. 1 Lesson Analysis 2 . Role of Teacher & Students The teacher works with the Ss while the Ss work on the language. T respects the intelligence and autonomy of Ss and gives only what help is necessary. SLT: T elicited vocabulary for floor
plan situation and had the basic structure in mind, but let Ss take responsibility for guiding the construction and layout of the floor plan. T let Ss give him 1 Lesson Analysis 2 . Teaching / Learning Process Build from the known to the unknown.
SLT: T starts lesson with Word chart, which is familiar to Ss, before moving on to more challenging material the floor plan activity. Most SW classes start with vocabulary work led by T or Ss using charts. 1 Lesson Analysis 2 . Teaching / Learning Process
Language is not learned by repeating after a model. Ss dev. their own inner criteria for correctness & Ss are responsible for production. SLT: T offered occasional cues but did not model the responses. When another S offered a sentence to a student having trouble, the T did not affirm or deny it but turned back to the S
1 Lesson Analysis 2 . Teaching / Learning Process Teaching should be subordinated to learning. T bases lesson on what Ss are learning at the moment, not on what he wants to teach them. SLT: T gave students a great deal of freedom in response. T asked the students directly What did you
learn that was new? Feedback sessions can help the T guide 1 Lesson Analysis 2 Teacher-Student Interaction T should be silent as much as possible. Ss are encouraged to cooperate and learn from each other. SLT: During rod work Ss standing in back were observing and learning
from those seated at table, then switched. SLT: When one S had trouble, other 1 Lesson Analysis 2 Teacher-Student Interaction Though silent, T attempts to force awareness and focus Ss perceptions SLT: T used charts & pointer to focus attention on aspects of
pronunciation and word choice, rods to focus attention on the situation they are constructing, and questions, comments and signals to force awareness of 1 Lesson Analysis 2 . Feelings of Students Feelings should not interfere with learning. Inner criteria means
relying on oneself for intrinsic satisfaction in learning, not on the T. SLT: T actually seems a little cold sometimes doesnt provide overly positive, encouraging feedback, just acknowledges and 1 Lesson Analysis 2 . Language Areas / Skills
The spirit of the language is essential, especially its sound, rhythm and melody as reflected through phonemic & suprasegmental aspects. SLT: T works on pronunciation with the word chart (the vs. the), and stress and intonation by tapping on the table. 1 Lesson Analysis 2
9. Evaluation Students are expected to progress, not to perform perfectly. Different Ss have different paths of progress. SLT: T tailors responses to each individual S for some Ss he works on pronunciation of particular words, for others basic sentence structures, and for others higher-level aspects such
as appropriate word choices (end 1 Lesson Analysis 2 10. Error Analysis Errors are important and necessary to learning. They show T how much Ss understand, and what is unclear. SLT: a lot of time working with Ss errors.
Verbal: No. Theyre not the same. Careful. Dont forget. Mm-mm. 1 Lesson Analysis 2 10. Error Analysis Ss must develop autonomy and inner criteria for self-correction. If Ss are just given answers rather than given the chance to find the
corrections themselves, they wont retain them. SLT: to get Ss to self-correct, T used a variety of techniques hand gestures, chart work, blackboard writing, and asking other Ss. 1 Techniques 3 Sound Color Chart
1 Techniques 3 Sound Color Chart Each color block: one TL sound Vowels above, consonants below T/S points to blocks to form sounds, syllables, words Indicate prosody by tapping Charts draw Ss attention, allowing them to focus on language, not on T
Allows T to give feedback on sounds without modeling 1 Techniques 3 Fidel Charts 1 Techniques 3 Fidel Charts
Associates sound to spelling through color, matches the sound color chart Different letter combinations with the same sound have the same color (e.g. ay, ea, ei, eigh, a in say, steak, veil, weigh, rate), and vice versa. Due to large number of spellingsound mismatching, there are 1 Techniques 3
Word Charts Pronunciation work without modeling Point to words in sequence to elicit phrases, etc. 12 charts for English contain about 500 words (Functional Vocabulary)
1 Techniques 3 Cuisenaire Rods 1 Techniques 3 Cuisenaire Rods Provide visible actions or situations for introducing & practicing
language structure Rods trigger meaning directly and make things clear Amazingly versatile, can represent virtually anything, allow Ss to be creative, inventive, imaginative 1 Techniques 3 Self-correction Gestures Vowel lengthening: palms
together, move apart Error correction: each finger is a word, tap the trouble spot Intonation: wave finger like conductor Hands: stop, continue, wrong, slower, faster, louder 1 Techniques 3 Peer Correction
T is silent, but Ss encouraged to help each other during difficult times Ss need to feel comfortable offering & accepting corrections back from peers Help should be offered in cooperatively, not competitively T monitors aid to make sure it is helpful, not interfering 1Homework Questions
4 Question 1 Why do you think the method is called: The Silent Way and how does this name reflect its principles? 1Homework Questions 4 Question 2 What are the main principles of The Silent Way?
1Homework Questions 4 Question 3 Do you agree that Ts should be as silent as possible? Please describe any learning or teaching experiences that shape your opinion. 1Homework Questions 4
Question 4 Which other principles do you agree with? Which other ones dont you agree with? Why? Please describe any learning or teaching experiences that shape your opinion.
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