スライド 1 - Too-Much-TV

スライド 1 - Too-Much-TV

1 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan March Yasu TANIWAKI ([email protected]) Director, Telecommunications Policy Division Telecommunications Bureau Ministry of Internal Affairs & Communications (MIC), JAPAN 2 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era Transition in the Number of Japans Broadband Subscribers Number of Telecommunication Service Users Number of Broadband Service Users Unit: 10 thousand 12,000 13,483,359 13,483,359 As of Jan. '08.1 2008 10548.6 Mobile db ig db+o g rj Communications (telephony) E C ^ [lb g Broadband service

IPdb IP Telephony 10,000 16,000,000 db i db+h r cm j Fixed Communications (telephony) 10429 10307.8 9982.6 9764 14,000,000 9475 8,112 9869 9648 9,361 9,147 12,000,000 FTTH FTTH 8,665 8,000 10,518,659 10,518,659 10,000,000 7,482 6,028 5,781 6,000 6,263

5,456 6,678 6,285 6,164 6,223 6,263 6,196 6,133 5,685 5,907 6,077 5,961 6,022 5878 5917 5808 5,636 5,245 As of Dec. 2007 5239.8 5745 5602.9 5421.7 5333 5678 4,731 4,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 CATV CATV 3,825 As of Sep. 2007 2776.3 2,691

2,148 2,237 1,951 2,000 2,330 1,541 943 1,170 213 49 87 138 171 433 22 2,576 2,422 2,504 1676.6 1375.9 830.5 1060.4 976.7 387 85 1209.7 1145.7 1300 '92/3 '94/3 '96/3 '98/3 '00/3 '04/3 2,000,000 12,451 12,451 527.6

'02/3 4,000,000 As of Dec. 2007 0 0 '90/3 3,748,618 3,748,618 '05/9 '06/3 '06/9 '07/3 '07/9 00/12 01/3 01/6 01/901/1202/3 02/6 02/9 02/1203/3 03/6 03/903/12 04/3 04/6 04/904/1205/3 05/6 05/9 05/1206/3 06/6 06/906/12 07/3 07/6 07/9 3 4 Tariff for Broadband Services (yen/month) IP phone charge PSTN phone charge 6,510 internet charge 6000 5,985 IP phone charge 5,991 5,754 5,250 5,200 5000 4,693 4,900 4000 4,389

4,095 3,505 3,570 3000 2,980 4,095 4,206 3,969 3,465 2,908 2000 1,344 1000 0 1,050 NTT East(1) (100 M) K-opticom (100 M) FTTH (single residences) NTT East (100 M) (1) (2) USEN (100 M) FTTH (multiple residences) Note 1: When using BB.excite as the ISP Note 2: When the service can be provided to 8 or more residences Note 3: Includes basic IP telephone charges as well NTT East (1) (47 M) Softbank BB

(50 M) (3) (3) KDDI (50 M) KDDI (5 M) Itscom (30 M) ADSL Sources: Respective company web sites Itscom (512k) Cable Japanese Broadband Service in Global Comparison Speed of DSL Broadband prices (100kbit/s) Mbit/s (US dollar) J apan 0.07 J apan 51.2 Korea 0.08 Korea 51.2 Netherlands Singpore 0.14 30.72 Sweden 0.23 Sweden 24

Singapore 0.24 Finland 24 0.3 Italy Taiwan,Chaina Netherlands 0.34 France 0.36 Finland 0.36 United States 20.48 Taiwan,Chaina 12.288 Italy 12.288 France 0.49 0.51 Germany The U.K. 0.63 Lithuania 0.69 Hong Kong,China 0.83 10.24 Kazakhstan 8.192

The U.K. 8.128 Portugal 8.128 Brazil 8 Portugal 0.93 Iceland 6.144 BosniaE Herzegovina 0.93 Hong Kong,China 6.144 Poland 6.144 6.016 Canada 1.01 Macao,China 1.07 Germany Brazil 1.08 Philippines Belgium 1.21 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

0.8 1 1.2 5 1.4 5.12 0 10 20 30 Source ITU Internet Reports 2006 40 50 60 Next Generation Broadband Strategy 2010 (August 2006) 6 Status of broadband service availability FY FY as of the end of March 2006 as of the end of March 2007 FY Target set by the government) broadband service 47.3 million 94 48.6 million 95 100 super high speed broadband 40.2 million 80

42.7 million 84 90 Legal Framework of Telecom Related Market In Japan Content Telecom service Content Cable modem service Content CATV Service Broadcast Telecom Network Telecom Business Law CATV network CATV Law Broadcast Law 7 8 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era 9 From monopoly to competition 1985 Further promotion of competition 1997 Introduction of market

principles Privatization of NTT--PC Reorganization of NTT (1999) Deregulation of market entry restriction Abolition of foreign investment regulation (except for NTT and NTT regional companies) Establishment of interconnection rules (introduction of LRIC model) Age of Telephony 2001 Strengthening of asymmetric regulations Establishment of USF mechanism Setting up of Telecommunications Business Dispute Committee From ex-ante regulation to expost regulation 2004 Abolition of Type I and Abolition Type II business categories Drastic deregulation of Drastic price and tariff regulations Introduction of competition review mechanism Emergence of Internet Transition to Full IP-based networks Transition from to -based networks Review of competition rules through transparent procedures Review of Competition Rules corresponding to transition to full IP-based networks Outline of Japanese Telecom Competition Policy 10 Current Status of Japanese Telecom Market Number of competitive telecom carriers

April 1985 87 April 1989 April 1993 April 1997 738 1,259 4,726 April 2001 Feb 2008 14,441 9,348 Structure of NTT group (reorganized in July 1999) Regulated under NTT Law NTT (Holding company) NTT DoCoMo NTT Communication NTT regional companies own 93% of all the access lines. (as of the end of March 2007) NTT East NTT West Market Share of NTT East and West (as of the end of March 2007) share by number of line s Copper lines Copper&fiber& lines FTTH share by revenue Fixed

telephone including ISDN FTTH service 11 Development of DSL Service Market and Introduction of Interconnection Rules 12 (millions) 16 14 Others Approx. 62.0% NTT E/W Approx. 38.0% End-Mar. 07 12 10 8 6 Autumn 2000 DSL Establishment of collocation and access networks 0unbundling rules for 7 8 of NTT E/W Cable Modem 4 2 0 Mar-99 Sep-99 Mar-00 Sep-00 Mar-01 Sep-01 Mar-02 Sep-02 Mar-03 Sep-03

Mar-04 Sep-04 Mar-05 Sep-05 Mar-06 Sep-06 Mar-07 Changes in Market Environment and Review of Competition Policy Changes in competitive environment (1) Progress of broadband deployment (2) Development of horizontal market integration (3) Development of vertical market integration Development of horizontal market integration Development of vertical market integration New Competition Promotion Program 2010 (Sep 2006, revised in Oct 2007) Related to a review of a framework of competition rules to address the transition to IP-based networks, define a road map for deliberation to be implemented by the early 2010s. 13 14 Mutual Interaction among Different Layers Content and Applications Utilization Functions to ensure smooth delivery of content and applications Platform - Ensuring security (Charging and Authorization etc.) - QoS control - Copyright clearance (DRM etc.) Mutual Interaction Telecom Service Physical Networks Infrastructure 15 Development of Comprehensive Broadband Policies Transition to IP Networks (Mainly Broadband Networks)

Full Transition from PSTN to IP networks ( Everything over IP ) Everything over IP ) Emergence of a variety of new business models ( Everything over IP ) review of vertically Integration business models) Transition to IP Networks makes lost the rational for the concept of distance Direction of Implementing Policies Promotion to use information & communication network as the basis to support the socio-economic system. Acceleration of effective interaction between communication networks and content/applications. (Creation of Good Circulation Related to Development of Markets). Development of the competitive environment allowing for smooth response to rapidly changing market situations. Development of Broadband Policies Balanced development of infrastructure Eliminating the Broadband-Zero Areas by 2010 Next Generation Broadband Strategy 2010 (August 2006) Improvement of environment to Promote Competition Fair Competition Predictability of Competition Rules New Competition Promotion Program 2010 (Sep 2006) Promotion of protecting users Innovation of new industries International contribution Prevention of spam Protect of private (personal) Information Prevention of distributing illegal/harmful Information Protection against viruses Protection from cyber attacks Establishment of legal System in correspondence to convergence between telecom & broadcasting R&D Promotion of Standardization Promotion of content Markets

Promotion of Asia Broadband Program Contribution to Activities in international organizations (ITU,OECD,APEC) Promotion of bilateral/ multilateral policy consultations The worlds fastest achievement of the IT revolution in FY2010 (Realization of u-Japan) Position of the New Competition Promotion Program 2010 Present (2006 ) Early 2010s IP based networks recognized as principal networks to replace PSTN Transition from PSTN to full IP based networks Establish fair competition rules * New Competition Promotion Program 2010 Periodical review (on annual basis) and revolving of the program Comprehensive review Facility-based competition promoted by: Promote further opening of poles, etc. owned by NTT E/W and electric power companies Promotion of opening fiber-optic network installed by local governments to telecom carriers Promote introduction of new wireless access technology Competition environment improved by: Progressive revision of dominant regulations Establishment of competition safeguard in response to NTTs med-term management strategy Establishment of interconnection rules related to NGNs to be developed by NTT Review of access charge calculation method (copper and optic fibre) Promotion of MVNOs into the mobile market Other key measures include: Promotion of further competition in terminal layer Review of USF mechanism Improvement of dispute settlement mechanism Consideration of comprehensive legal framework including telecommunications and broadcasting Status of NTT* NTT will be concluded following consideration in 2010,

based on status of broadband deployment and the progress of NTTs medium-term management strategy Comprehensive legal framework* including telecommunications and broadcasting will be concluded by 2010 16 17 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era 18 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era Basic Viewpoints on Network Neutrality Change of Market Structure Progress of Market Integration Changes on network structure Transition from PSTNs to IP based networks Progress of market integration such as FMC Proliferation of new communications such as P2P Network Neutrality Ensuring utilization of networks with proper cost allocation A and without any discrimination B A) Equitable cost allocation to networks

Consideration on equitable cost allocation systems among relevant players (CPs, ISPs, common carriers, users) in the progress of network congestion. B) Equal access to networks Consideration on equal access to networks to prevent abuse of market dominance and to ensure fair competition in the progress of changes of network structures and market integration. SG on Network Neutrality (Nov. 2006 Sep. 2007) Considered the new competition rules to ensure proper network utilization from mid-term perspectives 19 Basic Framework for etwork eutrality 20 Network neutrality (from the user perspective) (1) IP-based networks should be accessible to users and easy to use, allowing ready access to content and application layers. (2) IP-based networks should be accessible and available to any terminal that meets the relevant technical standards, and should support terminal-to-terminal (or end-to-end) communication. (3) Users should be provided with equality of access to telecommunications and platform layers at a reasonable price. Note: In this case, "the user" refers not just to end users but also includes content providers and other related companies that conduct business using IP networks. Policy evaluation parameters for ensuring network neutrality Equal access to networks Equitable cost distribution of networks Neutrality of telecommunications layer with respect to other layers Neutrality of cost sharing models for upgrading the communications networks Specific policies deployed in an integrated manner for parameters IP Traffic on the Networks (Total Volume) The Thetotal totalamount amountofofIP IPtraffic trafficininJapan Japanwas wasestimated estimatedatat812.9Gbps 812.9GbpsininNov Nov2007, 2007, increased increasedby byabout

about2.5 2.5times timesinin33years. years. [Gbps] 900 812.9Gbps (2007.11) 800 Estimated download traffic of broadband users in Japan 721.7Gbps (2007.5) 700 636.6Gbps (2006.11) 600 523.6Gbps (2006.5) 500 468.0Gbps (2005.11) 339.8Gbps (2007.11) 424.5Gbps (2005.5) 400 323.6Gbps (2004.11) 303.2Gbps (2004.10) 300 294.0Gbps (2007.11) (ref.1) Monthly average of daily peak traffic exchanged at major IXs in Japan 269.4Gbps (2004.9) 200 199.4Gbps (2007.11) 100 0 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 10 11 12 10

11 12 10 11 12 10 11 2 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 112 10 11 12 10 112 10 11 12 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Monthly average of daily traffic of Broadband customers (ADSL/CATV/FTTH) of major ISPs in Japan (ref.2) Monthly average of daily traffic exchanged at major IXs in Japan 2007 Efforts for Grasping Current Status of Internet Traffic in Japan , MIC 21

Traffic Exchanged among s as of Nov 2007 22 The traffic flowing into domestic ISPs from foreign ISPs Inbound traffic, B3 has been remarkably increasing by twice in 1.5 year. It has exceeded the traffic exchanged at any place outside domestic major IXs (mainly private peering, B2) at Nov 2007. left diagram In the traffic exchanged among domestic ISPs, the percentage of the traffic exchanged at domestic major IXs (B1) has turned upward again. B the traffic exchanged at domestic major IXs B the traffic exchanged at any place outside domestic major IXs B the traffic flowing into domestic ISPs from foreign ISPs [Gbps] Outbound traffic from domestic ISPs Inbound traffic to domestic ISPs [Gbps] 160 160 B1 B2 B3 140 107.6 80.9 73.3 80 40 20 116.4 94.9 100 60 140 129.0 120 93.5 100

124.5 120 55.1 53.1 47.9 48.2 38.0 36.3 35.9 40.1 28.5 25.3 27.7 108.4 90.5 66.2 68.4 77.4 68.1 05.5 41.6 54.0 06.5 06.11 07.5 07.11 33.0 30.9 31.8 16.7 14.1 15.4 04.5 48.1 43.3 37.8 20 05.11 60.1 58.4 60

40 83.4 77.6 0 04.11 B3 113.3 80 0 04.5 B2 94.5 68.5 57.1 B1 133.7 04.11 41.6 62.3 70.8 81.8 71.2 57.8 47.8 39.8 24.1 05.5 05.11 06.5 06.11 07.5 07.11 Efforts for Grasping Current Status of Internet Traffic in Japan , MIC IP Traffic (Downstream) P2P traffic has a significant impact on networks rather than streaming and web surfing.

Average P2P occupation rate increased by 30% at peak traffic level and by 10% at off peak level in 6 months period. Occupation rate of bandwidth Others (web, mail etc.) Randomly selected day in April 2006 Randomly selected day in April 2006 Occupation rate of bandwidth Randomly selected day in November 2005 Randomly selected day in November 2005 Top Bottom 23 IP Traffic (Upstream) P2P occupation rate is higher in upstream than in downstream. P2P traffic occupied no less than approx.50% throughout 24h in Apr.2006. Others (web, mail etc.) Occupation rate of bandwidth Occupation rate of bandwidth Randomly selected day in November 2005 Randomly selected day in November 2005 Randomly selected day in April 2006 Randomly selected day in April 2006 Top Bottom 24 Bandwidth Usage and P2P Users 10% of all users occupy 60 through 90% of the traffic 25 Distribution of uses in all traffic Traffic volume 75% P2P traffic 25% Other traffic (more than 90% of all users) (less than 10% of all users) P2P users (10%) controls 60 through 90% of the traffic.

63% Heavy users (10% of P2P users) 37% average users (90% of P2P users) User (ascending sort ) Top 10% of P2P users(*) occupy more than 60% of the traffic Bandwidth used by heavy users completely differs from that used by average users. Traffic volume average user : 550Mbyte Top 10% among P2P users occupy over 60% of the traffic x 30 x 190 P2P user : 17Gbyte P2P heavy users: 104Gbyte P2P User (ascending sort ) (*) the P2P users are considered as the users whose P2P traffic exceeds over 1 Mbyte within 24 hrs. (Note) The data was provided by Plala Networks) (partly extracted) Measured : 2003/6/30 2003/7/1 11:59 (*) the Plala Networks has controlled its P2P bandwidth since November 2003, therefore the latest published data in uncontrolled situation is for 2003. Background of Dramatic Traffic Increase Broadly usage of P2P-based file exchange, driven by increasing availability for broader upload bandwidth in response to proliferation of FTTH service In addition to increase of rich content including video, many new business models with CGC (Consumer Generated Content) have emerged. Content may flow into the network from a variety of network edges Some new factors possibly to making Internet traffic increase. Emergence of new communications represented by M2M in line with progress of ubiquitous economy Increase of network utilization including SaaS within firms Proliferation of grid computing 26 Dispersion of Intelligence in Networks Newly emerging services coordinated between terminal equipment and intelligence in servers networks meshed

End user as a private content provider Remarkable improvement of computing capability of terminal equipment such as s Ubiquitous economy, CGC(Consumer Generated Media), diversity of content delivery mode including P2P 27 Relationship between Upper tier ISP and Lower-tier ISPs 28 CP ISP-A has an opportunity to compensate for the increasing equipment cost by collecting from CPs and ISP-B. ISP-A Rich content video streaming, etc. transit ISP-B ISP-B has no opportunity to compensate for the increasing equipment cost difficult to collect directly from end users. End user 30 Coping with the Traffic Increase 29 Additional charge on heavy users? User charges are a fixed rate on a best-effort basis. Possibility to disturb equality of cost burden among heavy users and light users. In general, it is acceptable to collect an additional charge from heavy users. On the other hand, issues to be considered exist: acceptable to develop multi-tiered Internet structures (fast lane and slow lane)? possible to find rational price differentiation between heavy users and light users? In the meantime, a case-by-case approach should be taken. Additional charge for CPs? Both the CP and ISP markets are competitive. Market principle may work. Equality on cost allocation among ISPs? Market mechanism may not work due to several factors such as asymmetry of information (eg. upper-tier ISP vs. lower-tier ISP), and increasing burden for enhancing network capacity.

It is appropriate to allow for packet shaping without any bit discrimination. Actions to Be Taken to Cope with Network Congestion Using Currently unclear if technological innovation can absorb incremental cost due to increasing traffic. For coping with dramatic traffic increase (network congestion), ensuring dynamic Interaction is required between networks and terminals, allowing networks to flexibly absorb traffic fluctuating. Everything over IP ) network scalability Advantage of P2P in allow for improving content delivery efficiency should be utilized. Flexible choice of content delivery technologies such as C/S model and CDN as well as P2P should be ensured. Under as a first step has been traffic dispersal methodology using P2P. consideration 30 P2P Network Experiment Council 31 P2P Network Experiment Council was established in August 2007. Result of experiments will be summarized by end-March 2009. Purposes Participants(in alphabetical order) P2P Network Experiment Council was established with the aim of promoting new content delivery businesses using broadband network, and diffusing the use of broadband services to regional areas. To achieve the above targets, the council participants exchange their information and views on new network services applying P2P application technologies, support P2P-experiments and P2P-services, and examine the results of experiments. Bitmedia Inc., BitTorrent K.K., BROTHER INDUSTRIES LTD., DREAMBOAT Co.Ltd., INFOCITY Inc., Internet Initiative Japan Inc., Grid Solutions inc., Japan Broadcasting Corporation, J-Stream Inc., Kadokawa Digix INC., Mandala, NEC Corporation, NHK ENTERPRISES Inc., NTT Communications Corporation, SOFTBANK BB Corp., TOKYO SHOSEKI CO.LTD., TOYAMA INTERNET SHIMINJUKU, TV Bank Corp., VeriSign Japan K.K. -MIC (as an observer) P2P Network Experiment Council SG on P2P Delivery Model SG on Joint Delivery Architecture P2P Security Guideline Drafting Group Content delivery service providers Content holders Culture Education Movies/ Cartoon Films Sports Games

Study Group On Effective Delivery Network Telecommunication carriers, CDN service providers, P2P service providers ISPs, IXs, Content holders Local Government A Local Government B Local Government C Local Government D Challenges to Making Packet Shaping Operational 32 Since a large amount of Internet traffic volume is caused by P2P, some ISPs set out the traffic restriction for P2P in order to maintain the current flat-rate fee system for broadband Internet access services. A conference composed of four telecom business associations Japan Internet Providers Association, Telecommunications Carriers Association, Telecom Service Association, Japan Cable and Telecommunications Association has been established. MIC is participating as an observe r. The report is scheduled for provision in Spring 2008. At the outset, the conference will set the basic standards regarding packet shaping rules. Based on the standards, ISPs will establish and implement their own operating rules. Establishment of Guideline for Packet Shaping The guideline will clarify the basic standards; such as information coverage which ISPs are required to set as their contract conditions; the fundamental requirements for operating the packet shaping; relevant legal interpretation including secrecy of communication . Enforcement of dispute resolution system Arrangement for figuring out the details of Internet traffic volume. Facilitation of efficient content distribution systems including the utilization of local IXs. 31 Specific Policy Issues on Network Neutrality Equitable cost allocation of networks Revealing network congestion traffic volume doubled in years Necessity for developing cost sharing model on building up additional network capacity Additional charge for heavy users Everything over IP ) no specific factor to disturb healthy competition. More detail discussion on reasonable differentials between heavy users

and light users etc. are to be required. Additional payment by CPs to ISPs --- not required under the healthy competitive environment in CP and ISP market (dependent on market mechanism) cost cost allocation between upper tier ISPs and lower tier ISP (possibility for market mechanism not working effectively Necessary to develop scalable networks to absorb fluctuations of traffic Basic principles on packet sharing to be specified to avoid disturbing competition, ensuring confidentiality of communications, proper measures to provide Information on packet shaping to subscribers etc. Easing traffic congestion by taking advantage of technology certain level of criteria on packet shaping to be developed Field trials on traffic dispersion using technology Development of Guideline for packet shaping 33 Equal access to networks Development of NGNs Progress of Market Integration Necessity of preventing abuse of market dominance ensuring horizontal and vertical fair competition Establishment of interconnection rules on NGNs developed by NTT East and West Issues to be considered include: scope of facilities required to be opened calculation method of access charges terms for interconnection by competitive carriers other issues including measures to ensure openness for video delivery platform, smooth coalition between fixed networks and mobile networks Consideration of interconnection rules on NGN Review of dominant regulation in correspondence to market integration Issues to be considered include:

Review of threshold definition on market dominance Prevention on abuse of market dominance among plural markets (Collective dominance, leverage of market dominance with other closely related markets) Establishment of mechanism to prohibit market dominance jointly abused by dominant carriers and related entities Utilization of competition review system Consideration of reform of dominant regulations Change of Market Structure and Network Neutrality Physical network layer Collaborative business models Communication service layer Business model developed by one single player Vertical integration Platform layer a variety of content and applications Ubiquitous networks Horizontal integration Users including A variety of intelligence aroud networks Content and application layer 34 Layers --- Comparison among Different Models Layered Competition Model NGN ITU-T Recommendation Content Content&&Application ApplicationLayer Layer Network Neutrality

Edge users Application ApplicationFunctions Functions Platform PlatformLayer Layer Content ContentDelivery, Delivery,etc. etc. Platform PlatformService ServiceFunction Function Communication CommunicationService Service Layer Layer Session Sessioncontrol, control,authentication, authentication, security, charging system, security, charging system,etc. etc. Core Networks Physical PhysicalNetwork NetworkLayer Layer Networks Telecom TelecomCarriers Carriers including includingISPs ISPs Access Networks Terminals Terminals PCs PCsincluding includingOS OS

Edge users 35 Differences between the Internet and NGNs 36 Internet a) No scheme to ensure overall QoS on end-end basis. b) Each NW is interconnected on a multilayer basis and the Internet itself is an open and autonomous network. c) Best effort model to find out best solution through collaboration among anonymous players. Interconnection with IP B A C X D Next Generation Networks s a) IP-based networks are to be restructured from legacy PSTN networks. b) Networks are controlled by carriers to ensure QoS and security though the functions of SDP (Service Delivery Platform). video Network Restructuring Message Video telephony IP based networks PSTNs Freedom to Choose Networks Next Generation Network Application Servers Application function Video phone 37 Internet collaboration Content delivery

Interconnection among ISPs B C Platform/Service function Session Control Authentication Security Network function transmission) Core node Core Networks Edge node Access Networks Optical access Charging collaboration D X Wireless LAN PCs Tier 1 collaboration Other accesses cell phones QoS may differ according to network A

Security and authentication system may depend on applications used in terminals telephones ubiquitous network TVs E Networked home appliances Interconnection Rules on Next Generation Networks 38 Application Servers Application function Video phone Session Control Platform/Service function Access Networks xDSL Authentication Charging Security Core node Core Networks Network function transmission) Content delivery Edge node Optical access Wireless LAN Other accesses Fixed/Mobile phones, networked home appliances , PCs.

Issues to be considered Scope of facilities required to be opened In addition to NNI and SNI, additional measures should be taken to ensure openness between different layers, taking care of requests by competitive carriers as well as NTT East and West. Necessary to let unbundling rules flexible, reflecting characteristics of IP based networks. Calculation Calculation methodology for access charges Methodology to set access charges reflecting characteristics of IP based networks (appropriate profit level should be achieved for NTT East and West). Developing charge settlement system between NGN and ISPs Setting Setting appropriate terms required for interconnection (equivalency between NTT East & West and competitive carriers) Other Other issues including measures to ensure openness for video delivery platform, smooth coalition between fixed networks and mobile networks Interconnection rules for NGN developed by NTT East/West are currently under discussion at Telecommunications Council. (The report is expected to be finalized by the end of March 2008.) Study Group on Internet Policy Study Group on Network Neutrality Nov 2006 September 2007 New Competition Promotion Program 2010 revised in October 2007 New Competition Promotion Program 2010 Study Group on Internet Policy February December 2008 Revised on 23 October 2007 Development of Environments Intended to Ensure Network Neutrality In the transition to IP-based networks, a study shall be undertaken concerning the framework for network neutrality, such as fair usage of networks (neutrality of the communications layer to the other layers) and fairness in cost sharing for the networks (neutrality of the cost sharing model for increasing network capacity). For this reason, MIC shall, based on the "Study Group on Network Neutrality" report (released in September 2007), continue to consider the following regarding several issues over network neutrality. (b) Consideration of How Network Neutrality and Competition Models should Be While network structures and market environments are changing drastically in front of us, MIC shall establish a new venue for consideration in FY2007 to extract and summarize a wide range of medium-term policy issues related to how network neutrality and the competition model should be, be such as the appearance of business models with earnings models that differ from the existing ones, effects on the competition environment from increasing borderlessness driven by the Internet and the nature of the internet governance related to it, how market environments should be developed as IPv4 is transitioning to IPv6, and the direction of

business expansion in local regions by entities such as ISPs and CATV operators, and draw a definite conclusion, with 2008 as the approximate due date. 39 Issues to be Considered at Study Group on Internet Policy SG on Network Neutrality Phase Equitable cost allocation of networks SG on Internet Policy Phase network experiment FY08 Follow-up further study Development for smooth content delivery systems Other possible solutions for network congestion Business environment for ISPs Review on impact on market structure In the transition to IPv6 Network neutrality to be concluded by the end of March 2008 Equal access to networks Promotion of diversity of access networks Other relevant matters Enhancement of Development of models for sharing responsibility Review of dominant regulations (to be concluded by the end of 2008) Internet governance issues Review of legal framework In correspondence to Emerging new business models Consideration on new business models New competition rules in response to borderless internet

SG on Platform Functions Development of overall internet strategy Development of guideline for packet shaping Spring 2008 Interconnection rules for NGN developed by NTT regional companies 40 Outline of Designated Telecommunications Facilities Applied as one Service regulations Restrictions Interconnection rules Applied as necessary in case of exceeding 25% of the above weight returns Tariff and price (cap) regulation Restriction of information usage only for specified business Equal treatment of other companies Equal treatment of manufacturers, etc. Firewall with specified carriers Authorization of interconnection tariffs Restriction of information usage only for specified business Equal treatment of other companies Equal treatment of manufacturers, etc. Notification of interconnection tariffs Rules for interconnection tariffs (e.g. LRIC) Development of interconnection accounts Telecommunications facilities (fixed) designated as essential facilities Telecommunications facilities serving a relatively larger proportion of subscribers Facilities without any essentiality although the number of providers is limited due to availability of frequency Facilities Access lines and related telecommunications facilities Criteria 41

Access lines with more than 50% share (designa ed on a prefectural basis) NTT East and West Type I designated facilities (fixed) Base station lines and related mobile telecommunications facilities Access lines with more than 25% of share (designated on a business area basis) NTT DoCoMo etc. Type II designated facilities mobile) 42 Basic Directions for Reviewing Dominant Regulations Service regulations Share of access lines bottleneck Identify the market having possibility to abuse market dominance* (vertically and Essential facility horizontally) Interconnection related regulations to open up bottleneck facilities Conduct restrictions Market dominance Identify submarkets (converged markets) * (Focus to be shed mainly on the horizontal equivalent competition) Other market dominance Caused by Market share * oligopolistic + market environment Identify the market having possibility to abuse market control power* (vertically and

horizontally) Notification of tariff for interconnection Conduct restrictions Add these concepts Leverage of market dominance on relevant markets Possibilities of collective dominance in collaboration with allied companies *mark indicates the possibility to take advantage of competition review mechanism. 43 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era Study Group on Platform Functions (Feb Nov 2008) Content/Applications layer Telecom services layer Content providers, etc. Participation of new entrants (new business model) Strengthening Strengtheningcooperation cooperationofof platform platformfunctions functions NGN Platform layer Mobile telecom carriers Fixed telecom carriers

Market MarketIntegration Integration Terminal layer 44 Vendors, etc. Creation Creationofofvarious variousbusiness businessmodels models Sound Soundgrowth growthofofICT ICTmarket market created createdby byopen openplatform platform policies policies Compatibility of Platform Functions and Diversification of Business Models Compatible platform functions in mobile service and fixed service create ubiquitous network environment. Content /Application Content /Application Layer Layer Content & Applications Linkage of authentication and billing functions, etc. Mobile Services Fixed Services Telecom Telecom services layer services layer Terminal Terminal Layer Layer

Variety of Ubiquitous Terminals (including networked home appliances) Ubiquitous Network Platform Platform Layer Layer Platform functions roughly include various functions of changing data (changing format, adding value, etc.). For securing network neutrality, compatibility of platform functions is necessary. CASE 1 CASE 2 Cooperatio n between Terminals and NWs Equipped In NWs Cooperatio n between Terminals and NWs CASE 3 Equipped in Terminals Various of platform players are expected to deliver the diversified business model. 45 46 Benefits of Compatible Platform Functions Benefits of compatible platform functions include; 1 Economic efficiency: Economy-of-scale and economy-of-scope 2 Innovation: Creation of new business and new services 3 Fair competition: Reduction of consumers cost, improvement of competition environment 4 Consumer benefit: Network effects, etc. [1 Economic efficiency] Cost will drop by gaining a large number of the users who connect to the network (economy of scale). Business will diversify by gaining different business fields (economy of scope) . User expansion by platform

communalization. [2 Innovation] Open platform functions enable SMEs to concentrate on their related fields, which promotes innovation. By using a platform, small-scale operators are able to provide original and creative services. [3 Fair competition] Consumers switching cost will decline, which would contribute to the fair competition between operators. The fair competitive environment in the content and application field will be realized. Contents services Contents services The costs spent as the burden of changing operators fall. [4 Consumer benefits] The number of the consumers using the same services will increase. The benefit for consumers will improve through the expansion of the diversity of contents/applications, supporting services, etc. (network effects). ... The diversity of services will expand. Basic Concept of ID Portability (Tentative Plan) content content content content content Affinity with MVNE business Utilization of authentication and billing functions of other business fields 47 content content Possibility of creating new profit

model of content delivery business Possibility of constructing new value chain in cooperation with tagged information (new business creation) User UserID IDPortability Portability Is it possible to ensure consumers control of User ID? (Consumer's Centric ID Portability) content Possibility of new business, such as advertising on the Internet, which utilizes attribution information 48 Schedule for platform promoting policies O Based on NOI, the interim report on the analysis of the influence of platform functions on market competition will be released as a part of the annual competition review in December 2007. O A new SG was established in February and will complete a final report in November 2008. Nov Dec Jan 08 NOI (October 26 to November 22) Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul ....... Nov Study group on Platform Functions The purpose of the SG is to promote the cooperation of platform functions, such as authentication (user ID), QoS management and DRM, and the creation of new business. The SG will be established by the end of FY2007 and will complete a final report in 2008. The openness of APIs of mobile terminals will also be discussed in the SG. Competition Review Analysis of the influence of platform functions on market competition" (Interim Report)

In order to grasp the actual condition of platform-relevant markets, a strategic review entitled, Analysis of the influence of platform functions on market competition has been started as a part of the Competition Review of the Telecommunications Business Field 2007. An interim report will be released in 2007 and a final report will be concluded in June 2008. Feedback 49 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era 50 Number of Mobile Service Subscribers i 10,000 people subscribedj (Unit : 10 thousand subscribers) i rate of increasei j j 12,000 10,000 180 number of subscribers rate of increase from previous year 10,170 160 9,648 9,147 140 8,665 8,112 8,000 120

7,482 6,678 100 5,685 6,000 80 4,731 3,825 4,000 60 2,691 40 2,000 1,171 0 End of the year 49 87 138 171 213 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 20 433 1994 1995 1989 1990 1991 1992

1993 1994 Number of subscribers 49 87 138 171 213 Rate of increase from previous year 101. 6 77.3 58.8 24.3 24.5 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 0 1995 1996 1997

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 433 1,171 2,691 3,825 4,731 5,685 6,678 7,482 8,112 8,665 9,147 9,648 10,17 0 103.2 170.4 129.7 42.2 23.7 20.2 17.5 12.0 8.4

6.8 5.6 5.5 5.4 51 Change of APRU for Mobile Business Change of the ratio by service in the whole APRU i Yen/ personj 15,000 12,000 9,000 6,000 3,000 8,235 7,853 7,570 7,004 6,769 6,662 1,607 1,805 1,740 1,867 1,992 6,889 6,245 5,766 5,263 4,902 4,670 2001 2002 2003

2004 2005 2006 1,346 data ARPU voice ARPU 0 US$ per year) Year ratio of the f[ data ^ RP A UAPRU in the whole APRU (%) The ARPU 30 1,000 25 800 20 600 15 24 20 18 17 14 13 13 400 10 6 200

5 0 Japan U.S. Australia Korea France Italy U.K. Germany * Average Rate Per User 0 { p hCc C^A tX I[Xg MIC Market share by main mobile phone operators 52 * share 100% 5.6% 5.3% 5.2% 5.0% 5.0% 4.9% 4.8% 4.6% 4.5% 4.3% 4.2% 4.1% 4.0% 3.8% 3.7% 3.5% 3.6% 3.7% 3.9% 4.1% 4.2% 4.3% 4.4% 4.5% 6000 90% 15.2% 15.6% 15.9% 16.3% 16.5% 16.7%16.8% 17.2% 17.4% 17.3% 17.3% 17.2% 17.1% 17.0% 16.9% 16.4% 16.2% 16.0% 16.0% 15.8% 15.6% 15.5% 15.5% 15.6% 80% 5000 70% 22.4% 22.2% 21.7% 21.5% 21.6% 21.7% 21.8% 21.9% 22.2% 22.5% 23.0% 23.7% 24.0% 24.4% 24.8% 25.3% 25.6% 25.9% 26.1% 26.4% 26.6% 26.8% 27.3% 27.7%

60% 3989 4000 4023 4024 4001 3993 3983 3966 50% 3941 3943 3924 3903 3897 3902 3901 3926 3915 3896 3875 3855 3843 3827 3796 3756 4000 40% 30% 56.8% 56.9% 57.2% 57.2% 56.9% 56.7% 56.6% 56.3% 55.9% 55.8% 55.5% 55.0% 54.9% 54.8% 54.7% 54.8% 54.6% 54.4% 54.1% 53.8% 53.6% 53.4% 52.8% 52.2% 3000 20% 10% 0% 2000 01.6 01.9 01.12 02.3 02.6 h Docomo R O group [v 02.9 02.12 03.3 03.6 03.9 03.12 auO au group [v (including (c[J[ Tu-ka)

fij 04.3 04.6 04.9 04.12 05.3 05.6 05.9 05.12 06.3 Softbank fi fi i mobile u ej i o Others g r^ fi j (previous Vodafone) (exclude PHS/Docomo) 06.6 06.9 06.12 07.3 g g h (E (right) j * Herfindahl-Hirschman Index one of the indicator to measure the degree of monopolizing market. Squares the number of each operators market share and adds up. its range is from 0 to 10,000, and means higher degree of monopoly when it close to 10,000. from MIC) 53 Changes required in Mobile Business Business Model 1.0

Content application layer Content application layer Business Model 2.0 Content & Applications Content & Application Platform layer Platform layer Mobile Service Vertically integrated Business models Progress broadband development and IP transition Open Mobile Business Environment Fixed Service Network layer Network layer Terminal layer Terminal layer Mobile terminal Users variety of ubiquities terminals including home appliances A various ways to utilize telecommunications services including M2M (machine to machine) Ubiquities Network Telecommunications Telecommunications service layer service layer Mobile Service Review of Sales Model for Mobile Business (1) Role of sales incentives

Matters to be considered Activating Activating the potential demand for high end terminals by providing users with low price. Facilitating Facilitating diversification of services through bundling terminals and services. 1. Lack of users recognition that cost for terminals is implicitly financed by service price. 2. Rational and equal cost bearing has not been ensured among users. 3. increase of cost owed by carriers due to increasing sales incentives consisting of one forth of APRU 4. Lack of diversity resulted by unifies sales method 5. Concerns for fair competition caused by that access charge or wholesale price is calculated based on rate base where sales incentives are included. 6. Limitation for diversity of terminal development with only carriers can decide details of terminals. 7. Concerns for letting the terminal market shrink Necessity for revising the current sales model discuss policy to clearly show users the terminal cost and the connection cost Current sales model terminal price Lack of transparency caused by bundling terminal price and service price Existence of unfairness among users sales Incentive users cover service fee Cost equivalent to sales incentives can be recovered from service revenues within a certain period of time. rational service fee 54 Review of Sales Model for Mobile Business (2) Current Model New Model Terminal price Terminal price

(initial cost) Sales Incentives User Excluded from rate base for access charge and/or wholesale price in the telecom business accounting rule User Terminal Fee [Monthly] (equivalent to the sales incentives for terminals) 55 Promotion of MVNO entry through reductions in access charge and wholesale price Clarification of earnings and expenses related to terminal sales (implicit pressure to decrease sales incentives) Compensated for sales incentives Service fee [Monthly] Partial introduction in 2008 Consideration of full-scale introduction by 2010, at the latest Service fee [Monthly] Separation Plan (separation of terminal fees from service fees) Period Contract Status of SIM unlock The real significance of SIM locks will disappear through the introduction of service period contracts. However, differences in 3G systems do exist (W-CDMA [Docomo / Softbank] and cmda2000 [au]); thus, SIM unlocks at this time could distort competition. In In principle, SIM unlock is desirable. Looking at the direction of future development for BWA and the terminal market, by 2010, this issue of SIM unlock will be concluded at the timing of 2010.

Correction of inequality on burden of terminal costs Promotion of terminal diversification through SIM unlock Promotion of New Entries of MVNOs MVNOs (Mobile Virtual Network Operators) provide telecommunications service without setting up their own wireless facilities. MNO goes beyond simple telecommunications service provision to implement vertically integrated business including content/application layer, represented by music and game distribution, and alliance with financial services. It is expected players in other areas come as MVNOs into the mobile communications market and build up new business models. A win-win relationship can be built between MNO and MVNO. Service Diversification Service provision Users (Enjoy a diversity of services) New Market Creation MVNO (Entry from a variety of business categories) Added Value (Services and terminals) MVNO Wholesale service and/or interconnections MNO (incumbent mobile telecom carriers) Linkage of existing services with mobile services Creation of New Markets Economic Revitalization games, e-money and more MNO (incumbent mobile telecom carriers) Revitalization Revitalizationof ofthe themobile mobilebusiness businessand andachieving achievingservice servicediversification diversification through promotion of new entries as MVNO

into the mobile through promotion of new entries as MVNO into the mobilemarket market 56 Implementation of Comprehensive Measures aimed at achieving an Open-style Mobile Business Environment Content Application Layer Platform Layer Mobile Business Vitalization Plan (draft) Study on business interoperability at platform layer (ID portability etc.) (Study to be launched by the end of FY 2007) Communication Service Layer Physical Network Layer Provision of information on applicability of related legal frameworks for MNOs and MVNOs (starting within FY2007) Considerations for MVNO acceptance when allocating frequencies for new systems Clarification of accounting related to sales incentives (revision of ordinances on Telecommunications Business Accounting by the end of FY2007) Partial introduction of new fee plan (separation plan for service fees and terminal price) in 2008 (final conclusion to be considered by 2010 at the latest) Reexamination of important explanatory items for consumers relating to terminal price and service fees (reexamination Consumer Protection Guidelines by the end of FY2007) Terminal Layer Consideration of SIM unlocking (final decision to require for SIM unlock to be made by 2010) Discussion of comprehensive legal system for communications and broadcasting (ongoing discussion) Consideration of standard tariff for wholesale service provided by MNOs to MVNOs Creation of special ubiquitous zones (discussion aimed at implementation) Revision of MVNO Business guidelines* (implemented by the end of 2007) Diversification of mobile access network (ongoing discussion) Promotion of terminal platform standardization (creation of terminal testbed, etc.) Consumer Interface Discussion of measures for strengthening consumer protections

Maximize benefit for Japanese users and help give Japans ICT industry a comparative advantage 57 Road map for the Mobile Business Vitalization Realization of cutting edge mobile business environment 1st 1stphase phase 7 facts in the mobile market market maturity fixed market share complicated tariff plan business strategy Combining terminal Equipment and service development of terminal Equipment market Focusing on high speck terminals potentiality of mobile Content market potentiality of Solution business (SIers) In the business market 2nd 2ndphase phase by by2011 2011 Review of sales market of mobile business Measures to promote Further competition Action Sales Incentive lock etc Promotion for MVNO Development of Mobile business vitalization plan Promotion of developing Healthy market environment Measures to Develop healthy market

environment promotion for improving variation and speed strength of cooperation of platform functions promotion for mutual terminal platform challenge for making new business in mobile business Strength of consumer protection Annual review by Review Conference release of progress report 58 59 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era Universal Service in the Transition to IP Networks Present 60 early 2010s 2010 Ensuring all regions can have broadband access (National Broadband Strategy 2010) Approximately 30 million FTTH subscribers (NTT mid-range corporate strategy) Market integration through the spread of broadband and IP (phased disappearance of service demarcation) (PSTN is mainstream) Subscriber line access Service Public telephones Full IP networks (Phase 2) Transition Period (Phase 1)

Universal System for telephony (Coexistence of PSTN and IP network) (Completion of shift to IP network) Scope to be included as universal provision Emergency calls IP Network How public telephones and emergency notification will be handled Inclusion and/or exclusion of mobile service, broadband service, IP phone service with regard to the spread of IP rational of the change of the concept from universal service to universal access Everything over IP ) Voice service becomes just one component of broadband services. Eligible Telecommunications Carriers (ETCs) Supply System Provision by NTT East / West The way to ensure last resort of universal service provision Requirements for ETCs, taking into consideration factors such as the diversity of primary entities providing broadband infrastructure (ex: local governments), etc. Relationship between network maintenance costs and service maintenance costs Service area requirements ETCs are expected to meet Rational for fee regulations (price-cap system), etc. Cost Calculation Method Mechanisms for Preservation Cost calculation which assumes PSTN (system where costs are borne in relation to the number of numbers owned) Cost calculation method for multiple transmission configurations (fixed, wireless, etc.)

Measures for avoiding increased cost burdens upon users Cost Allocation Method Rational for specifying beneficiaries and for cost allocation method in case the range of universal service is enhanced Issues to be considered for the transition period Other central office Measures to replace number priority DB existing in the each local The way to finance the cost for removing legacy networks. Other How long will PSTN be preserved? The way to preserve universality with regard to factors other than geographic disparity 61 Broadband Competition Policy in Japan Current Status of Broadband Market in Japan Outline of New Competition Policy Program 2010 Specific Issues Network Neutrality Issues Focus on Openness for Platform Functions Revitalization of Mobile Business Review of Universal Service System Terminal Equipment Policy in the IP era Study on Communications Terminals in the IP Era Background New Competition Promotion Program 2010 (Sep. 26, 2006) (b) Review of terminal authentication systems, etc. Aiming to develop open ubiquitous networks early on and improve the international competitiveness of the entire IT industry in Japan by leading the world in product development and standardization, a study group to discuss basic functions and authentication systems for IP-based terminals should be established in 2006 to reach conclusions by the end of 2007. Started the study on communications terminals in the IP era in Dec. 2006 Functions required for communications terminals in the IP era IP-based network Existing analog telephone network IP-based IP-based network network Switching

system IP-based IP-based network network Optical access, etc. Analog telephones IP-based IP-based network network Any terminal is just connected to one end of the network Improved connectivity IP-based IP-based network network Quality of communications can be freely changed as terminals and networks are linked; Diverse terminals can be connected to each other Ubiquitous devices Broadband IP terminal IP-based networks Various functions/services become possible as terminals and networks are linked Improved convenience Ensured safety/security IP-based IP-based network network IP-based network IP terminal IP-based IP-based network network

IP-based network IP-based network Firewall Malformed packet Terminals linked to networks detect and eliminate viruses and malformed packets My terminal Get connected anywhere! A user can use various terminals with his user ID, and change services and functions freely by downloading software Need to develop a terminal authentication system for new functions by 2010 62 Initiatives to Develop Communications Terminals in the IP Era Studying authentication systems for the IP era Studying authentication systems by considering new terminal functions, with an aim to realize open connectivity for diverse terminals Telecommunications Council will start studying the technical requirements in Sep. 2007 and institutionalize them in 2008 Promoting R&D and standardization Developing testbeds for verifying connection between different devices To be reflected in FY 2008 budget Promoting standardization for the provision of new services as well as global launch Developing the environment in which users can use terminals safely Established a study forum in Sep. 2007 Developing a shared responsibility model that identifies responsible players (e.g., provider, vendor, user) to respond to terminal failures Establishing a forum where providers, lawyers and consumers can discuss issues for consumer protection in relation to terminal use Developing certification systems for the IP era, which includes the use of installation technicians for diverse terminal installations and troubleshooting 63 64 Any Question?

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