1.1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

CET 3640 Lecture 2 Java Syntax Chapters 2, 4, 5 Java How to Program, 9/e Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Hello World Java application A computer program that executes when you use the java command to launch the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text (Cont.) Line Comments in Java // indicates that from that point what follows is a comment. Traditional or Block comment, can be spread over several lines as in /* This is a traditional comment. It

can be split over multiple lines */ This type of comment begins with /* and ends with */. All text between the delimiters is ignored by the compiler. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text (Cont.) Class declaration public class Welcome1 Every Java program consists of at least one class that you

define. class keyword introduces a class declaration and is immediately followed by the class name. Java is completely object-oriented, for that reason everything is a class. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text (Cont.) Class names By convention Pascal Case is used which begins with a capital letter and capitalize the first letter of each word

(e.g., SampleClassName). A class name is an identifiera series of characters consisting of letters, digits, underscores (_) and dollar signs ($) that does not begin with a digit and does not contain spaces. Java is case sensitiveuppercase and lowercase letters are distinctso a1 and A1 are different (but both valid) identifiers. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text (Cont.)

Braces A left brace, {, begins the body of every class declaration. A corresponding right brace, }, must end each class declaration. Code between braces should be indented. It is Good Software Engineering to indent you code. Eclipse IDE helps you with indentation and code completion. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text (Cont.)

Declaring the main Method public static void main( String[] args ) YES, all that!!! Starting point of every Java application. Parentheses after the identifier main indicate that its a program building block called a method. Java class declarations normally contain one or more methods. main must be defined as shown; otherwise, the JVM will not execute the application. Methods perform tasks and can return information when they complete their tasks. Keyword void indicates that this method will not return any information. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson

Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text (Cont.) Body of the method declaration Enclosed in left and right braces. Output statements: System.out object Standard output object. Allows Java applications to display strings in the command window from which the Java application executes.

System.out.println method Displays (or prints) a line of text in the command window. Positions the output cursor at the beginning of the next line. System.out.println("Welcome to Java Programming!"); Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.2 Our First Program in Java: Printing a Line of Text (Cont.) Compiling and Executing Your First Java Application Open a command window and change to the directory where the program is stored.

To compile the program, type javac Welcome1.java If the program contains no syntax errors, preceding command creates a.class file (known as the class file). To run the program, type java Welcome The JVM calls method main in Welcome to execute the program. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Escape Sequences (Same as C+ +) Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.5 Another Application: Adding Integers Integers Whole numbers, like 22, 7, 0 and 1024)

Programs remember numbers and other data in the computers memory and access that data through program elements called variables. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.5 Another Application: Adding Integers (Cont.) Variable declaration statements int number1; // first number to add int number2; // second number to add int sum; // sum of number1 and number2

declare that variables number1, number2 and sum hold data of type int They can hold integer. Range of values for an int is 2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647. Actual int values may not contain commas. Several variables of the same type may be declared in one declaration with the variable names separated by commas. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.5 Another Application: Adding Integers (Cont.)

Arithmetic sum = number1 + number2; // add numbers Assignment statement that calculates the sum of the variables number1 and number2 then assigns the result to variable sum by using the assignment operator, =. sum gets the value of number1 + number2. Portions of statements that contain calculations are called expressions. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.5 Another Application: Adding Integers (Cont.) import declaration Helps the compiler locate a class that is used in this program.

Rich set of predefined classes that you can reuse rather than reinventing the wheel. Classes are grouped into packagesnamed groups of related classesand are collectively referred to as the Java class library, or the Java Application Programming Interface (Java API). You use import declarations to identify the predefined classes used in a Java program. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.5 Another Application: Adding Integers (Cont.)

Scanner Enables a program to read data for use in a program. Data can come from many sources, such as keyboard or a file. Before using a Scanner, you must create it and specify the source of the data. Variable declaration statement Scanner input = new Scanner( System.in ); Specifies the name (input) and type (Scanner) of the variable.

The equals sign (=) indicates that the variable should be initialized with the result of the expression to the right of the equals sign. The new keyword creates an object. Standard input object, System.in, enables applications to read bytes of information typed by the user. Scanner object translates bytes into types that can be used in a program. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2.5 Another Application: Adding Integers (Cont.)

Scanner method nextInt number1 = input.nextInt(); // read first number from user Obtains an integer from the user at the keyboard. Program waits for the user to type the number and press the Enter key to submit the number to the program. The result of the call to method nextInt is placed in variable number1 by using the = operator. number1 gets the value of input.nextInt(). Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4.4 Control Structures if, if/else statements: switch statement while loop for loop dowhile

Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4.5 if Single-Selection Statement An if statement in Java: if ( studentGrade >= 60 ) System.out.println( "Passed" ); An IfElse statement in Java: if ( grade >= 60 ) System.out.println( "Passed" ); else

System.out.println( "Failed" ); Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4.6 ifelse Double-Selection Statement (Cont.) Nested Ifelse statements in Java if ( studentGrade >= 90 ) System.out.println( "A" ); else if ( studentGrade >= 80 ) System.out.println( "B" ); else

if ( studentGrade >= 70 ) System.out.println( "C" ); else if ( studentGrade >= 60 ) System.out.println( "D" ); else System.out.println( "F" ); Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4.6 ifelse Double-Selection Statement (Cont.) A more elegant way to write a nested ifelse statement

if ( studentGrade >= 90 ) System.out.println( "A" ); else if ( studentGrade >= 80 ) System.out.println( "B" ); else if ( studentGrade >= 70 ) System.out.println( "C" ); else if ( studentGrade >= 60 ) System.out.println( "D" ); else System.out.println( "F" ); The two forms are identical except for the spacing and indentation, which the compiler ignores.

Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4.6 ifelse Double-Selection Statement (Cont.) The Java compiler always associates an else with the immediately preceding if unless told to do otherwise by the placement of braces ({ and }). The following code is not what it appears: if ( x > 5 ) if ( y > 5 ) System.out.println( "x and y are > 5" );

else System.out.println( "x is <= 5" ); Beware! This nested ifelse statement does not execute as it appears. The compiler actually interprets the statement as if ( x > 5 ) if ( y > 5 ) System.out.println( "x and y are > 5" ); else System.out.println( "x is <= 5" ); Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4.6 ifelse Double-Selection Statement (Cont.) To force the nested ifelse statement to execute as it was originally intended, we must write it as follows: if ( x > 5 ) { if ( y > 5 ) System.out.println( "x and y are > 5" ); } else System.out.println( "x is <= 5" );

The braces indicate that the second if is in the body of the first and that the else is associated with the first if. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4.7 while Repetition Statement Syntax while ( Boolean condition) Statements Example of Javas while repetition statement: find the first

power of 3 larger than 100. Assume int variable product is initialized to 3. while ( product <= 100 ) product = 3 * product; Program execution continues with the next statement after the while statement. Same rules for nested commands apply. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4.11 Compound Assignment Operators Compound assignment operators abbreviate assignment expressions. Statements like variable = variable operator expression; where operator is one of the binary operators +, -, *, / or % can be written in the form variable operator= expression; Example:

c = c + 3; can be written with the addition compound assignment operator, +=, as c += 3; The += operator adds the value of the expression on its right to the value of the variable on its left and stores the result in the variable on the left of the operator. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4.12 Increment and Decrement Operators Unary increment operator, ++, adds one to its operand Unary decrement operator, --, subtracts one from its operand An increment or decrement operator that is prefixed to (placed before) a variable is referred to as the prefix increment or prefix decrement operator, respectively. An increment or decrement operator that is postfixed to (placed after) a variable is referred to as the postfix increment or postfix decrement operator, respectively. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4.13 Primitive Types Java requires all variables to have a type. Java is a strongly typed language. Primitive types in Java are portable across all platforms. Instance variables of types char, byte, short, int, long, float and double are all given the value 0 by default. Instance variables of type boolean are given the value false by default.

Reference-type instance variables are initialized by default to the value null. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.3 for Repetition Statement for repetition statement Specifies the counter-controlled-repetition details in a single line of code. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5.3 for Repetition Statement (Cont.) When the for statement begins executing, the control variable is declared and initialized. Next, the program checks the loop-continuation condition, which is between the two required semicolons. If the condition initially is true, the body statement executes.

After executing the loops body, the program increments the control variable in the increment expression, which appears to the right of the second semicolon. Then the loop-continuation test is performed again to determine whether the program should continue with the next iteration of the loop. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.5 dowhile Repetition Statement The dowhile repetition statement is similar to the while statement.

The dowhile statement tests the loop-continuation condition after executing the loops body; therefore, the body always executes at least once. When a dowhile statement terminates, execution continues with the next statement in sequence. Syntax: do { statements } while ( condition ); Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5.6 switch Multiple-Selection Statement switch multiple-selection statement performs different actions based on the possible values of a constant integral expression of type byte, short, int or char. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.6 switch Multiple-Selection Statement (Cont.)

The switch statement consists of a block that contains a sequence of case labels and an optional default case. The program evaluates the controlling expression in the parentheses following keyword switch. The program compares the controlling expressions value with each case label. If a match occurs, the program executes that cases

statements. The break statement causes program control to proceed with the first statement after the switch. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.6 switch Multiple-Selection Statement (Cont.)

switch does not provide a mechanism for testing ranges of valuesevery value must be listed in a separate case label. Each case can have multiple statements. switch does not require braces around multiple statements in a case. BEWARE: Without break statements will continue execution until a break or the end of the switch is encountered. If no match occurs, the default case executes. If no match occurs and there is no default case, program control continues with the first statement after the switch. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5.6 switch Multiple-Selection Statement As of Java SE 7, you can use Strings in a switch statement : Syntax: switch( borough) { case Manhattan": county = New York"; break; case The Bronx": county = Bronx"; break;

case Brooklyn": county = Kings"; break; case Queens": county = Queens"; break; case Staten Island": county = Richmond"; break; } // end switch Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.7 break and continue Statements The break statement, when executed in a while,

for, dowhile or switch, causes immediate exit from that statement. Execution continues with the first statement after the control statement. Common uses of the break statement are to escape early from a loop or to skip the remainder of a switch. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.7 break and continue Statements

(Cont.) The continue statement, when executed in a while, for or dowhile, skips the remaining statements in the loop body and proceeds with the next iteration of the loop. In while and dowhile statements, the program evaluates the loop-continuation test immediately after the continue statement executes. In a for statement, the increment expression executes, then the program evaluates the loop-continuation test. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson

Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.8 Logical Operators Javas logical operators enable you to form more complex conditions by combining simple conditions. The logical operators are && (conditional AND) || (conditional OR) & (boolean logical AND) | (boolean logical OR) ^ (boolean logical exclusive OR) ! (logical NOT).

[Note: The &, | and ^ operators are also bitwise operators when they are applied to integral operands.] Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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