2014 WI Nutrient Management - Wisconsin Land+Water

2014 WI Nutrient Management - Wisconsin Land+Water

Wisconsin Crop Management Conference Wisconsin Nutrient Management and the NRCS 590 NM Standard DATCP DNR LCD NRCS 1 What is NM? Definition Managing the amount (rate), source, placement (method of application), and timing of plant nutrients and soil amendments. Purposes To budget, supply, and conserve nutrients for plant production. To minimize the risk of agricultural nonpoint source pollution of surface and groundwater resources. To properly utilize manure or organic by-products as a plant nutrient

source. To reduce odors and reactive nitrogen emissions (ammonia, inorganic oxidized forms, and organic compounds). To maintain or improve the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil. 2 2005 NRCS 590 NM Standard Includes 6 solely Agronomic based provisions Ex. Available nitrogen from all sources shall not exceed the annual N requirement ofcrops consistent with UWEX Publication A2809 Includes ~30 Water Quality based provisions Ex. First and second-year legume credits shall be applied Ex. Do not apply nutrients in the winter within the Surface Water Quality Management Area (SWQMA) 300 ft. from streams, 1,000 ft. from lakes and ponds 3 590 Standard Revision Team Members

Joe Bragger, Bragger Family Dairy, UW Discovery Farms John Koepke, Koepke Farms, UW Discovery Farms Kevin Masarik, Groundwater Education Specialist, UW Stevens Point Todd Schaumberg, CCA, Polenske Agronomic Consulting Nikki Wagner, CAFO NM Specialist, Frontier-Servco FS Sue Porter, Nutrient Management Specialist, DATCP Laura Chern, Hydrogeologist, WDNR Sara Walling, Nutrient Management and

Andrew Craig, Nutrient Management Tony Smith, Resource Conservationist, Specialist, WDNR Terrence Kelly, State Agronomist, Wisconsin NRCS Pat Murphy, State Resource Water Quality Section Chief, DATCP Manitowoc Soil & Water Conservation Dept. Matt Zoschke, County Conservationist, Clarke County LCD Conservationist, NRCS Carrie Laboski, Associate Professor and Soil Scientist, UW - Madison

4 Proposed 590 Changes General Restrictions Adds Winter Spreading Risk Evaluation and Winter Spreading Plan (details later) When gleaning or pasturing occurs verify through computations that nutrients deposited do not exceed the P and N requirements of the standard. Consider the use of manure analysis for Ammonium-N for liquid manure (potential for more than 50% of N to be immediately available Consider the use of a Nitrogen Index 5 Proposed 590 Changes Nutrient Application Prohibitions and Restrictions Adds prohibition for nutrient application during periods of active snow melt

Adds prohibition for nutrient application within 50 feet of a well or direct conduits to groundwater (excludes pasturing animals) Adds prohibitions for mechanical application of untreated manure within 250 feet of a public water supply designated as a non-community potable water well Adds a restriction that all untreated manure components applied within locally identified areas contributing direct runoff to wells or direct conduits to groundwater shall be effectively incorporated within 24 hours of application (refined effectively incorporate to require full burial of manure) 6 Proposed 590 Changes Winter Spreading Current: Prohibition on manure spreading on steep slopes (>12%) w/in SWQMAs (300

ft. from streams, 1,000 ft. from lakes and ponds) Locally identified areas in a conservation plan that contribute direct runoff of nutrients to surface waters 7 Proposed 590 Changes Winter Spreading New: Current prohibitions, plus Prohibition of liquid manure application in February and March on: Soils with 60 to Silurian dolomite (NE Karst) Contribution Areas to wells replaced with DNR Well Compensation

Funds for livestock manure contamination 8 Proposed 590 Changes Fall Nitrogen Restrictions Current: No fall commercial N on N restricted soil types W - Shallow to water (12) R - Shallow to bedrock (20) P - Highly Permeable (sands) w/in 1,000 ft. of municipal wells Split or delay applications

Use N inhibitors New: No fall commercial N on: N restricted soils Areas w/in 1,000 ft. of a community well (to be mapped by DNR) 5 ft. or less to bedrock (to be mapped by NRCS) EXCEPTION where a blended fertilizer is needed to meet UWEX A2809 guidelines, limited to 30 lbs. N/ac 9 Proposed 590 Changes Fall Nitrogen Restrictions Current:

New: When manure is applied to W, R, or P soils: Limit applications in the fall based on soil temperatures (50o or Sept. 15) and crop type/ uptake/nutrient need Mitigation practices for liquid manure applications More specific limits W soils: W soils can receive lesser of 120 lbs N, crop N rec, or legume N removal R, P soils: Before Oct. 1st or >50o 60 lbs N/acre

After Oct. 1st or <50o follow limits for W soils 10 Proposed 590 Changes Operation and Maintenance Visually monitor tile outlets for discharge of land applied manure Concentrated Flow Channels shall be maintained in permanent vegetation 11 Proposed 590 Changes Winter Spreading Plan Current: New: Requires a winter spreading plan that identifies:

Plan ahead to reduce risk of manure land applied in the winter (min. 30 days of manure for all livestock farms) Areas of fields that dont have a winter restriction ID Fields with low slope and erosion, high roughness, farthest from surface waters ID and rank fields for winter applications based on risk ranking. Install mitigation practices. Spread on lowest risk field available Keep spreading logs Identify stacking sites 12

Proposed 590 Changes Winter Spreading Plan Plan shall reflect a minimum 30 day capacity for manure and process wastewater generated on the farm or all manure and process wastewater anticipated to be spread on frozen and snow covered ground The plan shall identify a minimum of 3 temporary manure stacking sites Land application of manure on frozen and snow covered soil shall occur on the fields accessible at the time of application that have the lowest risk for runoff Current prohibition for manure application to the SWQMA and slope restricted soils remain in effect 13 Winter Spreading Plan Development Begin with standard restriction maps. Add: Field boundaries, field numbers, acres locally identified risk areas added Topographic features (land slope and aspect)

Add the larger of: 200 foot risk zone around each direct conduit to surface water OR the locally identified direct contribution area Add the larger of: 300 foot risk zone around each conduit to ground water OR the locally identified direct contribution area Soils with greater than 6% slopes 14 Winter Spreading Plan Development Visually assess the Winter Spreading Plan Map Winter Spreading Risk Value No Risk 0% Limited Risk 1-35% Substantial Risk >35% 1 2 4

Assign Fall Soil Conditions Factor Tillage and Slope Fall Chisel No Contour Contour <2% Contour 2-6% Contour >6% Fall Moldboard Plow No Contour Contour <6% Contour >6% No-till, Strip-till, Spring till w/ cover crop, Vertical till No Contour Contour Overwintering crops with no tillage or harvested crops with no tillage No contour or contour Fall Soil Factor 1.2

0.2 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.1 0.4 2 1.5 2 15 Winter Spreading Plan Development Multiply the Winter spreading Risk value for each field by the Fall Soil Conditions Factor. Assign a Winter Spreading Risk Evaluation Category for each field using the table below Winter Spreading Risk Category WRE

Low Medium High <2 2-3 >3 Winter Spreading Risk Mitigation Practices Low no mitigation required Medium minimum of 1 mitigation practice required High minimum of 2 mitigation practices required 16 Winter Spreading Plan Development Manure Application Mitigation Practices Contour Buffer Strip/Contour Strip Cropping Contour farming with all crop residues left No-till planting with all crop residue left AND < 4 inches of snow cover on the soil surface at the time of manure application

Divert up-slope overland flow and spread manure below the diversion or lowest terrace channel Contour till minimum 30 foot wide strips prior to freezing Intermittent strip spread no more than 50% of the field Reduce application rate to lessor of 3500 gal/ac or 30 lbs. P2O5 Avoid applying all slopes greater than 6% if present Avoid spreading all identified surface water risk areas if present Avoid spreading all identified ground water risk areas if present 17 Winter Spreading Plan Implementation Create a summary of Winter Spreading Risk Evaluation ratings by field Document selected mitigation practices by field and ensure fall layout of practices (till strips, maintain residue etc.) Verify winter stacking areas have been identified and access strategies during winter have been prepared Create simplified applicator maps with access and implementation documentation guidance Document implementation (spreading logs, photos) including

field selection based on actual conditions at time of application Summarize action a FINAL As-applied Winter Spreading Plan 18 Summary 590 Team comprised of experts in their field 590 Standard is likely to change to reflect comments by internal review group and public comment Draft available for public review March 23, 2015 19

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