21. Materialism

21. Materialism

21. Materialism 21.1. Sissejuhatuseks Materialism on selline suundumus, milles peetakse esmaseks ainet. Objektiivne reaalsus on mateeria, millest tuleneb teadvus. Materialistide jrgi on maailm oma olemuselt aineline. 2

Materialismi ks tnapeval levinumaid vorme on dialektiline ja ajalooline materialism, mille lid Karl Marx ja Friedrich Engels. Dialektiline ja ajalooline materialism seletab looduse ja hiskonna nhtusi teaduse saavutuste abil. 3

21.2. ldiseloomustus a) b) c) Materialism on seisukoht, mis: vastandub idealismile, mis peab esmaseks vaimu vi teadvust; vidab, et kik olemasolev on materiaalne ja sltub materiaalsest

olemisest; eitab maailma loomist ja hinge surematust; 4 d) ajalooliselt sai alguse Vanas-Kreekas, kus tekkis petus nimega atomism; sellele vastavalt on maailmas ainult aatomid ja thjus, ka hing koosnes atomistide arvates aatomitest (17. sajandil leidis atomism taas tunnustust, ent tnapeval on arusaam aatomitest palju muutunud); e) marksistliku ksitluse jrgi on konfliktis

idealismiga esindanud hte teravaimat vastuolu kogu filosoofia ajaloo vltel. 5 21.3. Teaduslik materialism See on arusaam, mille jrgi maailmas ei ole mingeid muid entiteete kui need, mida postuleerib tnapeva fsika. Silmaga nhtamatud osakesed (aatomid, elektronid jt) on samuti materiaalsed. Ka energiat vib vaadelda mateeriana,

kuna ldrelatiivsusteooria seisukohalt ei ole energia ja mateeria enam selgelt eristatavad. 6 21.4. Thomas Hobbesi (1588-1679) materialism (kokkuvte E. Saarinen. Symposium. Avita 2003, lk 84-85): Inimene pole midagi muud kui mateeria.

Inimene on elundite liikumine. Sest mis muud on sda kui vibu, mis muud on nrvid kui mitu vibu ja mis muud on liigesed kui rattad, mis annavad liikumist edasi kogu kehale. http://www.island-of-freedom.com/HOBBES.GIF 7

Inimene on automaat, mille sda paneb liikuma samamoodi, nagu pingul vibu lennutab noole teele. Ei nooles ega vibus ole elu, ka kellas mitte. Kui kell kib, siis ta kll tiksub, kuid see tiksumine on kunstlik. Elu kui vaimset protsessi pole olemas, on vaid liikumine ja tiksumine. hesugused mehhanismid on kell, automaat ja inimene. Mehhanismid ja nende ksikasjad vivad kll olla kvantitatiivselt olemas, ent phimte on

sama. 8 21.5. Materialismi ja idealismi vrdlus Materialism: Inimene = keha (mateeria/aineosakesed) Idealism: Inimene = vaim/teadvus 9

Loe lisaks http://www.hot.ee/indrme/keha_vaim.htm Loe palun lbi sellelt aadressilt leitavalt lehelt jrgmised ligud (seda ei ole palju, 10. klassis le vaadatud): Klassikaline materialism Identsusteooria Idealism 10 Kasutatud infoallikad

E. Saarinen. Symposium. Avita 2003 Meos, Indrek. Filosoofia snaraamat. Tallinn, Koolibri 2002 http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materialism 11

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