6.8 Shapes and Polarity of Molecules - Anvari.Net

6.8 Shapes and Polarity of Molecules - Anvari.Net

6.8 Shapes and Polarity of Molecules In a molecule of methane, CH4, the central C atom is bonded to four H atoms. The best geometry for minimal repulsion is tetrahedral, with bond angles of 109. Learning Goal Predict the three-dimensional structure of a molecule, and classify it as polar or nonpolar. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. VSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) describes the orientation of electron groups around the

central atom. states that electron groups are arranged as far apart as possible around the central atom. states that the specific shape of a molecule is determined by the number of atoms attached to the central atom. Core Chemistry Skill Predicting Shape General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Atoms with Two Electron Groups In a molecule of CO2 two electron groups are placed around the central atom, carbon.

the repulsion is minimized by placing the two groups on opposite sides of the carbon atom, giving this a linear arrangement with bond angles of 180. the shape with two electron groups around the central atom is linear. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Atoms with Three Electron Groups In a molecule of formaldehyde, H2CO3, three electron groups are placed around the central atom, carbon. the repulsion is minimized by placing the three groups as far apart

as possible at bond angles of 120. the shape with three electron groups around the central atom is trigonal planar. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Atoms with Three Electron Groups In a molecule of SO2, there are three electron groups around the central atom S: 1. a single-bonded O atom 2. a double-bonded O atom 3. a lone pair of electrons

The repulsion is minimized by placing the three electron groups as far apart as possible. The shape with two bonds and a lone pair on the central atom is bent with a bond angle of 120. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Atoms with Four Electron Groups In a molecule of CH4 four electron groups are attached to H atoms around the central atom, carbon. the repulsion is minimized by placing the four electron groups at

corners of a tetrahedron with bond angles of 109. the shape with four bonds on the central atom is called tetrahedral. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Atoms with Four Electron Groups In a molecule of NH3 four electron groups, three bonds to H atoms and one lone pair, are around the central atom, N. the repulsion is minimized by placing the four electron groups at corners of a tetrahedron with bond angles of 109.

the shape with three bonds and a lone pair on the central atom is called trigonal pyrimidal. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Central Atoms with Four Electron Groups In a molecule of H2O four electron groups, two bonds to H atoms and two lone pairs, are around the central atom, O. the repulsion is minimized by placing the four electron groups at corners of a tetrahedron with bond angles of 109. the shape with two bonds and two lone pairs on the central atom

is called bent. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Molecular Shapes, Electron-Groups General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Predicting Molecular Shape

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Predict Molecular Shape of H2S Predict the shape of a molecule of H2S. STEP 1 Draw the Lewis structure. STEP 2 Arrange electron groups around the central atom to minimize repulsion. To minimize repulsion, electron groups have a tetrahedral arrangement. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e

Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Predict Molecular Shape of H2S Predict the shape of a molecule of H2S. STEP 3 Use the atoms bonded to the central atom to determine the shape. The central atom S has two bonds and two lone pairs. The shape is bent, 109. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Study Check State the number of electron groups and lone pairs and use VSEPR theory to determine the shape of the following molecules or ions as tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, or bent. A. PF3 B. H2O C. CCl4 General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Solution State the number of electron groups and lone pairs and use VSEPR theory to determine the shape of the following molecules or ions as tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, or bent. STEP 1 Draw the Lewis structure. A. PF3 B. H2O C. CCl4 O H H General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Solution State the number of electron groups and lone pairs and use VSEPR theory to determine the shape of the following molecules or ions as tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, or bent. STEP 2 Arrange electron groups around the central atom to minimize repulsion. A. PF3: To minimize repulsion, the electron groups would have a tetrahedral arrangement. B. H2O: To minimize repulsion, the electron groups would have a tetrahedral arrangement. C. CCl4: To minimize repulsion, the electron groups would have a tetrahedral arrangement. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e

Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Solution State the number of electron groups and lone pairs and use VSEPR theory to determine the shape of the following molecules or ions as tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, or bent. STEP 3 Use the atoms bonded to the central atom to determine the molecular shape. A. PF3: With three bonds and one lone pair on the central atom, the shape is trigonal pyrimidal. B. H2O: With two bonds and two lone pairs on the central atom, the shape is bent. C. CCl4: With four bonds on the central atom, the

shape is tetrahedral. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Polarity of Molecules Nonpolar molecules such as H2, Cl2, and O2 are nonpolar because they contain nonpolar bonds. with polar bonds can be nonpolar if the polar bonds (dipoles) cancel in a symmetrical arrangement, such as in CO2 and CF4. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e

Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Polarity of Molecules Polar molecules such as HCl are polar because one end of the molecule is more negatively charged than the other. the polar bonds in the molecule do not cancel each other. the electrons are shared unequally in the polar covalent bond. Core Chemistry Skill Identifying Polarity of Molecules General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Polarity of Molecules In a polar molecule such as H2O, there are two lone pairs and two bonds around the central atom. are dipoles that do not cancel since the shape is bent, making the molecule positive at one end and negative at the other end. is a partial negative charge on the central atom. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Polarity of Molecules In a polar molecule such as NH3, there is one lone pair and three bonds around the central atom. are dipoles that do not cancel since the shape is trigonal pyramidal, making the molecule positive at one end and negative at the other end. is a partial negative charge on the central atom. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Determining the Polarity of a Molecule

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Determination of Polarity Determine if the molecule OF2 is polar or nonpolar. STEP 1 Determine if the bonds are polar covalent or nonpolar covalent. O (3.5) and F (4.0) give an electronegativity difference of 0.5, which makes the bonds polar covalent. STEP 2 If the bonds are polar covalent, draw the Lewis structure and determine if the dipoles

cancel. OF2 is a polar molecule. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake F O F 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Study Check Identify each of the following molecules as polar or nonpolar.

A. PBr3 B. HBr C. CH4 General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Solution Identify each of the following molecules as polar or nonpolar. STEP 1 STEP 2 Bonds, polar or Draw molecule to see if

nonpolar any polar bonds cancel A. PBr3 P = 2.1 P Br Br Br = 2.8, polar polar Br B. HBr H = 2.1 Br = 2.8, polar C. CH4 C = 2.5 H = 2.1, nonpolar

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, 5/e Karen C. Timberlake polar H Br H nonpolar C H H H

2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

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