CHAPTER 8 The Unification of China 1 End of the Zhou Dynasty Chaos of the Warring period ended the Zhou Dynasty 3 schools of thought emerged from the Period of Warring states Confucianism Daoism Legalism Each of these philosophies would deeply impact
Chinese political and cultural traditions for many years Confucius Kong Fuzi (551-479 B.C.E.) Master philosopher Kong Aristocratic roots Unwilling to compromise principle, strong willed and hard to get along with. His personality led him to clash with state policy Decade of unemployment, wandering trying to get hires to an influential state position Returned home a failure,
died soon thereafter Teachings: Analects Confucian Ideals His followers composed the Analects from his sayings and teachings Moral, ethics and politics Avoided religion, metaphysics Believed that political and social harmony came from proper human relationships
Junzi: superior individuals Role in government service Good and conscientious individuals, not influenced by personal interests Emphasis on Zhou dynasty texts Later formed core texts of Chinese education Since there was no formal education system, Confucius used the texts from
the Zhou dynasty Book of Songs, Book of History, Book of Rites This education system implemented by Confucius was used until the 1900s in China Confucian Values Ren Kindness, benevolence towards humanity
Courteous, respectful, diligent and loyal Most needed value for government officials Li Propriety Behave in a socially accepted manner Special care for the elderly Xiao Filial piety Importance of family bonds, welfare and support The combination of these values
made the perfect citizen or Junzi which would lead to a peaceful dynasty Disciplines of Confucius Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.) Principal Confucian scholar during Warring Period Optimist, belief in power of ren, people were basically good Light taxes, no wars, support education Not influential during lifetime Considered prime expert of Confucian thought since tenth century Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) Career
as government administrator Belief in fundamental selfishness of humanity Emphasis on li, clear, well publicized standards of conduct Harsh social discipline to achieve appropriate li Confucianism 1. 2. 3. consisted of three main concepts: Importance of family Respect of ones elders Reverence for the past and ones ancestors. Confucius was concerned with political and social unrest
and how moral and ethical leadership could solve those problems. Confucius believed that his ideals could be followed by completing two steps: 1. Every person should willingly accept his or her role in society and should perform the duties of that role. 2. Government and its leaders should be virtuous. It was these ideals that helped to create the civil service system in China. Daoism Critics of Confucianism Passivism,
rejection of active attempts to change the course of events Life happens and through introspection you learn to live in harmony with life Over time, this inner harmony would bring unity and harmony to society Founder: Laozi, sixth century B.C.E. The Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue) Zhuangzi (named for author, 369-286 B.C.E.) The Dao The Way The way of nature- it does nothing yet accomplished everything Water: soft and yielding, but capable of eroding rock Cavity of pots, wheel hubs: empty spaces, but useful tools Humans should mold their behavior to be passive and yielding Retreat from engaging in the world and politics
Live as simple as possible Doctrine of Wuwei (Daoism) Attempt to control universe results in chaos, therefore simple is better Restore order by disengagement No advanced education No ambition Self sufficient communities Simple living in harmony with nature Cultivate
self-knowledge Political Implications of Daoism Confucianism Daoism Ironic as public doctrine as private pursuit combination allowed intellectuals to pursue both Legalism Emphasis on development of the state Ruthless, practical, end justifies the means Role of law Strict punishment for violators Principle of collective responsibility
Shang Shang Yang (390-338 B.C.E.), The Book of Lord Feared for his ruthlessness. Killed by enemies Han Feizi (280-233 B.C.E.) Forced to commit suicide by political enemies Different than Confucian and Daoism Did not care about morality or ethics Did not care about harmony in the universe Legalist Doctrine Two strengths Agriculture
Military Emphasized of the state development of peasant, soldier classes Strict laws that outlined expectations and punishments Collective responsibility Distrust of pure intellectual, cultural pursuits like art and literature Harsh but effective way to rule Helped end the period of Warring States Unification of China Qin dynasty develops, fourth to third centuries B.C.E.
Generous land grants under Shang Yang Private farmers decrease power of large landholders Increasing centralization of power Improved military technology This allowed the Qin to expand and absorb neighboring states The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221-210 B.C.E.) founds new dynasty as First Emperor Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedent Basis of rule: centralized bureaucracy (like Persian Achaemenids) Massive public works begun Precursor to Great Wall
China Under the Qin Dynasty, 221-207 B.C.E. Resistance to Qin Policies Emperor Orders Some orders execution of all critics burning of all ideological works 460 scholars buried alive Others exiled
Massive cultural losses Qin Centralization Standardized: Laws Currencies Weights and measures Script Previously: Building single language written in distinct scripts
of roads, bridges Massive Tomb Projects Built by 700,000 workers Slaves, buried concubines, and craftsmen sacrificed and Excavated in 1974, 15,000 terra-cotta sculptures of soldiers, horses, and weapons unearthed
https://youtu.be/mP5p4QbvPtc The Han Dynasty Civil disorder brings down Qin dynasty in 207 B.C.E. Liu Bang forms new dynasty: the Han (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.) Former Han (206 B.C.E.-9 C.E.) Interruption 9-23 C.E. Later Han (25-220 C.E.) Liu Bang wasnt anything like Qin Shihuangdi Surrounded himself around loyal and brilliant advisors Became
one of the longest dynasties in Chinese history Early Han Policies Relaxed Qin tyranny without returning to Zhou anarchy Created large landholdings But maintained control over administrative regions After failed rebellion, took more central control when Liu Bang realized he couldnt count on his family and friends Han Centralization The Martial Emperor: Han Wudi (141-87 B.C.E.)
Increased taxes to fund more public works Huge demand for government officials, decline since Qin persecution Emphasized 2 things: Administrative centralization and Expansion of land Han Wudi relied on legalist ideas to strengthen the government Levied taxes on trade, agriculture to fund building programs and pay for large government Confucian Educational System The government needed to hire thousands of workers to handle all the centralization Han Wudi establishes an imperial university in 124 B.C.E. Not a lover of scholarship, but demanded
educated class for bureaucracy Adopted Confucianism as official course of study for government officials but followed Legalist ideas for laws 3000 students by end of Former Han, 30,000 by end of Later Han Han Imperial Expansion Invasions of Vietnam, Korea Constant attacks from Xiongnu Confucianism Nomads
would leave their mark from central Asia Horsemen, highly disciplined Brutal: Maodun (210-174 B.C.E.), had soldiers murder his wife, father Han Wudi briefly dominates Xiongnu, caused Xiongnu to fall East Asia and Central Asia at the Time of Han Wudi, ca. 87 B.C.E. Patriarchal Social Order Classic of Filial Piety Subordination to elder males
Lessons for Women Ban Zhao (45-120 C.E.) Education should be available to all children Iron Metallurgy Expansion Iron of iron manufacture tips on tools abandoned as tools entirely made from iron Increased Superior food production weaponry
Other technological Developments Cultivation Breeding Diet of silkworms control Other silk-producing lands relied on wild worms Development Bamboo, of paper
fabric abandoned in favor of wood and textile-based paper Crossbow rudder trigger, horse collar, ship Economic and Social Difficulties Expenses of military expeditions, especially against Xiongnu Taxes increasing Arbitrary property confiscations rise Increasing gap between rich and poor Slavery,
tenant farming increase Banditry, rebellion Reign of Wang Mang (9-23 C.E.) Wang Mang regent for two-year old Han emperor, 6 C.E. Takes power himself 9 C.E. saying the Mandate of Heaven has passed from the Han to him Introduces The
massive reforms socialist emperor Land redistribution, but poorly handled Social chaos ends in his assassination, 23 C.E. Later Han Dynasty Han dynasty emperors manage, with difficulty, to reassert control Moved capital from Changan to Luoyang
Yellow Turban uprising because land distribution problems Internal corruption and forming factions divided the government
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