A: Atoms and the Elements

A: Atoms and the Elements

TOPIC 0D: NOMENCLATURE Nomenclature Nomenclature is the language of chemistry, and a grasp of it is essential to studying the subject. Symbols Each element has a symbol displayed on the periodic table. Some elements have a symbol that is a single letter while others have a symbol made up of two letters. It is important when writing the two letter symbols to ensure that you use a lower case letter for the second letter. This may sound trivial but is very important, for example, Co (cobalt), a metal element, is not the same as CO (carbon monoxide), a gaseous compound made from carbon (C) and oxygen (O).

Binary compounds of metals and non-metals (ionic compounds) 1. Binary compounds are those formed between only two elements. In compounds where one is a metal and one a non-metal an ionic compound is formed. 2. An ion is a charged particle and ionic formulae and names can be determined by considering the charge on the ions. 3. To find the formula of an ionic compound the positive and negative charges must be balanced, i.e., there must be no net charge. Binary compounds of metals and non-metals (ionic compounds) To name a binary compound of a metal and a non-metal, the unmodified name of the positive ion is written first followed by the root of the negative ion with the ending modified to -ide.

For example, NaCl is sodium chloride. Binary compounds of metals and non-metals (ionic compounds) Negative ions (ANIONS) Symbol Positive ions (CATIONS) Name Charge Aluminum 3+ Barium 2+ Calcium 2+

Copper (I) 1+ I- Copper (II) 2+ Cu2+ Nitride 3- N3- Hydrogen 1+ H+

Oxide 2- O Iron (II) 2+ Fe2+ 3- P3- Iron (III) 3+ Fe3+ Sulfide 2-

S2- Lead (II) 2+ Pb2+ Lead (IV) 4+ Pb4+ Lithium 1+ Li+ Magnesium

2+ Mg2+ 2+ Mn2+ Nickel (II) 2+ Ni2+ Potassium 1+ K+ Silver 1+

Ag+ Sodium 1+ Na+ Strontium 2+ Sr2+ Tin (II) 2+ Sn2+ Name

Symbol Charge Bromide 1- Br- Chloride 1- Cl- Fluoride 1- F- Hydride 1- H-

Iodide Phosphide 1- 2- Manganese (II) Al3+ Ba2+ Ca2+ Cu+ Binary compounds of metals and nonmetals (ionic compounds) 1. Most transition metal ions (and a few other metal ions) include a Roman numeral after the name, for example, copper (II). 2. These metals form ions with varying charges, and the Roman numeral identifies the charge in each case.

3. Elements that commonly form an ion with only a single charge for example, sodium, do not have Roman numerals associated with them Task 0Di 1. Name these binary compounds. a) NaCl b) SrO c) AlN d) BaCl2 e) K2O f) CuO g) Cu2O Task 0Di 2. Convert these names to formulae. . a) b) c) d)

e) f) g) Magnesium nitride Barium bromide Aluminum phosphide Potassium iodide Lithium chloride Sodium fluoride Tin (IV) bromide Binary acids 1. Acids will be discussed at great length later in the course, but for the purposes of nomenclature, an acid can be defined as a compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water, and the formulae of acids start with H. 2. Binary acids are formed when hydrogen ions combine with monatomic anions 3. To name a binary acid use the prefix hydro followed by the other non-metal name modified to

an ic ending. Then add the word acid. For example, HCl is hydrochloric acid. Polyatomic ions 1. Polyatomic ions are those where more than one element are combined together to create a species with a charge. 2. Some of these ions can be named systematically, others names must be learned. Some common polyatomic ions, their charges and formulae are listed below. You will need a more complete list, found here. Common Polyatomic ions Name Ammonium Carbonate Charge 1+

Formula NH4 2- CO3 Chromate (VI) 2- CrO4 Dichromate (VI) 2- Cr2O7 Ethanedioate 2-

C2O4 1- HCO3 1- HSO4 1- OH- 1- MnO4 Nitrate 1- NO3

Nitrite 1- NO2 Hydrogen carbonate Hydrogen sulfate Hydroxide Manganate (VII) (permanganate) Phosphate 3- PO4 Sulfate 2- SO4

Sulfite 2- SO3 Polyatomic ions 1. Polyatomic anions where oxygen is combined with another non-metal are called oxoanions and can be named systematically. 2. In these oxoanions certain non-metals (Cl, N, P and S) form a series of oxoanions containing different numbers of oxygen atoms. Their names are related to the number of oxygen atoms present, and are based upon the system below. Polyatomic ions Name

Number of oxygen atoms Hypo(element)ite (element)ite (element)ate Per(element)at e Increase in number of oxygen atoms Polyatomic ions 1. Where there are only two members in such a series the endings are ite and ate. For example, sulfite (SO32-) and sulfate (SO4 2-). When there are four members in the series the hypo- and per- prefixes are used additionally. 2. Some oxoanions contain hydrogen and are named accordingly, for example, HPO42-, hydrogen phosphate. The prefix thio- means that a sulfur atom has replaced an atom of oxygen in an anion. 3. To name an ionic compound that contains a polyatomic ion, the unmodified name of the positive ion is written first

followed by unmodified name of the negative ion. For example, K2CO3 is potassium carbonate. Oxoacids 1. Oxoacids are formed when hydrogen ions combine with polyatomic oxoanions. This gives a combination of hydrogen, oxygen and another non-metal. 2. To name an oxoacid use the name of the oxoanion and replace the -ite ending with ous or the ate ending with -ic. Then add the word acid. For example, H2SO4 is sulfuric acid. 3. To illustrate the names of these oxoanions and oxoacids consider the following example using chlorine as the non-metal. 4. . Oxoacids Formula and name of

. oxoacid Formula and name of corresponding oxoanion HClO Hypochlorous acid ClO- Hypochlorite HClO2 Chlorous acid ClO2- Chlorite HClO3

Chloric acid ClO3- Chlorate HClO4 Perchloric acid ClO4- Perchlorate Task 0Dii 2. What are the formulae for the following ionic compounds? a) Ammonium nitrate b) Copper (II) bromide c) Copper (I) bromide

d) Zinc hydrogen sulfate e) Aluminum sulfate f) Sodium perchlorate g) Copper (II) iodite Task 0Dii 2. Convert the following formulae to names. a) NaNO3 b) KMnO4 c) CaC2O4 d) CuSO4 e) Cu2SO4 f) KNO2 g) LiClO4 Binary compounds of two non-metals (molecular compounds) If the two elements in a binary compound are non-metals, then the compound is molecular.

Binary compounds of two non-metals (molecular compounds) 1. To name a molecular compound of two non- metals, the unmodified name of the first element is followed by the root of the second element with ending modified to -ide. 2. In order to distinguish between several different compounds with the same elements present use the prefixes mono, di, tri, tetra, penta and hexa to represent one, two, three, four, five and six atoms of the element respectively. For example, SO2 is sulfur dioxide. Binary compounds of two non-metals (molecular compounds) Some other examples are given below. Formula Name BCl3

Boron trichloride CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide NO Nitrogen monoxide NO2 Nitrogen dioxide

Binary compounds of two non-metals (molecular compounds) 1. Note that the prefix mono is only applied to the second element present in such compounds, if the prefix ends with a or o, and the element name begins with a or o, then the final vowel of the prefix is often omitted. 2. Some compounds have trivial names that have come to supersede their systematic names, for example, H2O is usually water, not dihydrogen monoxide! Task 0Diii 1. Write formula or names for the following molecular compounds. a) Dinitrogen tetroxide b) Phosphorous pentachloride c) Iodine trifluoride d) Nitrogen dioxide

e) Dihydrogen monoxide Task 0Diii 2. Convert the following formulae to names. a) N2O5 b) PCl3 c) SF6 d) H2O e) Cl2O Hydrates 1. Hydrates are ionic formula units with water molecules associated with them. 2. The water molecules are incorporated into the solid structure of the ions. 3. Strong heating can generally drive off the water in these salts. Once the water has been removed the salts are said to be anhydrous (without water). Hydrates

To name a hydrate use the normal name of the ionic compound followed by the term hydrate with an appropriate prefix to show the number of water molecules per ionic formula unit. For example, CuSO4.5H2O is copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate.

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