A Short History of SDN

A Short History of SDN

Software Defined Networking (SDN) [email protected] DITEN Universit di Genova Talk @ IEIIT Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) Genova 28 Marzo 2014 Presented in CSE 291 @ UCSD by Gregory Kesden Material from: Scott Shenker (UC Berkeley), Software-Defined Networking at the Crossroads, Standford, Colloquium on Computer Systems Seminar Series (EE380), 2013. Scott Shenker (UC Berkeley), A Gentle Introduction to Software Defined Networks, Technion Computer

Engineering Center, 2012. http://tce.technion.ac.il/files/2012/06/Scott-shenker.pdf Scott Shenker (UC Berkeley), The Future of Networking, and the Past of Protocols, Open Network Summit, 2011. http://www.opennetsummit.org/archives/oct11/shenker-tue.pdf Nick McKeown (Stanford), ITC Keynote, San Francisco, 2011. http://yuba.stanford.edu/~nickm/talks/ITC%20Keynote%20Sept%202011.ppt 1 A Short History of SDN ~2004: Research on new management paradigms RCP, 4D [Princeton, CMU,.] SANE, Ethane [Stanford/Berkeley] 2008: Software-Defined Networking (SDN) NOX Network Operating System [Nicira] OpenFlow switch interface [Stanford/Nicira]

2011: Open Networking Foundation (~69 members) Board: Google, Yahoo, Verizon, DT, Microsoft, Facebook, NTT Members: Cisco, Juniper, HP, Dell, Broadcom, IBM,.. 2013: Latest Open Networking Summit 1600 attendees, Google: SDN used for their WAN Commercialized, in production use (few places) 2 Why Was SDN Needed? Networks are hard to manage - Computation and storage have been virtualized - Creating a more flexible and manageable infrastructure - Networks are still notoriously hard to manage - Network administrators large share of sysadmin staff

Networks are hard to evolve - Ongoing innovation in systems software - New languages, operating systems, etc. - Networks are stuck in the past - Routing algorithms change very slowly - Network management extremely primitive Networks design not based on formal principles - OS courses teach fundamental principles - Mutual exclusion and other synchronization primitives - Files, file systems, threads, and other building blocks - Networking courses teach a big bag of protocols 3

Networks design not based on formal principles Networks used to be simple - Basic Ethernet/IP straightforward, easy to manage New control requirements have led to complexity - ACLs, VLANs, TE, Middleboxes, DPI, The infrastructure still works... - Only because of our great ability to master complexity Ability to master complexity both blessing and curse 4

How Programming Made the Transition Machine languages: no abstractions - Had to deal with low-level details Higher-level languages: OS and other abstractions - File system, virtual memory, abstract data types, ... Modern languages: even more abstractions - Object orientation, garbage collection,... Abstractions simplify programming Easier to write, maintain, reason about programs Abstractions are the way we extracted simplicity So, what role do abstractions play in networking?

5 The Two Networking Planes Data plane: processing and delivery of packets with local forwarding state Forwarding state + packet header forwarding decision Control plane: compute the state in routers (forwarding state) Determines how and where packets are forwarded Routing, traffic engineering, firewall state, Implemented with distributed protocols, manual configuration (and scripting) or centralized computation These different planes require different abstractions 6

Data Plane Abstractions: Layers Applications built on Reliable (or unreliable) transport built on Best-effort global packet delivery built on Best-effort local packet delivery built on Local physical transfer of bits

7 Control Plane Abstractions 8 (Too) Many Control Plane Mechanisms Variety of goals: - Routing: distributed routing algorithms - Isolation: ACLs, VLANs, Firewalls, - Traffic engineering: adjusting weights, MPLS, No modularity, limited functionality Control Plane: mechanism without abstraction - Too many mechanisms, not enough functionality

9 What abstractions should we apply to the control plane? 10 The Control Plane Problem Control plane must compute forwarding state. To accomplish its task, the control plane must: 1. Figure out what network looks like (topology) 2. Figure out how to accomplish goal on given topology 3. Tell the swtiches what to do (configure forwarding state)

We view this as a natural set of requirements.... - And we require each new protocol to solve all three This is crazy! 11 Programming Analogy What if you were told to write a program that must - Be aware of the hardware you were running on - Specify where each bit was stored Programmer would immediately define abstractions: - Machine-independent interface - Virtual memory interface

Programmers use abstractions to separate concerns - Network designers should too! 12 The Control Plane Problem Control plane must compute forwarding state. To accomplish its task, the control plane must: 1. Figure out what network looks like (topology) 2. Figure out how to accomplish goal on given topology 3. Tell the swtiches what to do (configure forwarding state) What components do we want to reuse?

1. Determining the topology information 3. Configuring forwarding state on routers/switches You now know everthing you need about SDN: - It is the use of those two control planes abstractions 13 SDN: Two Control Plane Abstractions Abstraction: global network view - Provides information about current network - Implementation: Network Operating System - Runs on servers in network (replicated for reliability) Abstraction: forwarding model - Provides standard way of defining forwarding state

- This is OpenFlow - Specification of flow entries 14 Network of Switches Routers SDN Traditional is Layers Control for and/or Control Mechanisms

Plane routing, access control, etc. Control Program Global Network View Distributed algorithm running between neighbors Network OS (e.g. NOX) Complicated task-specific distributed algorithm Forwarding Model 15 Example1: OSPF and Dijkstra

OSPF - RFC 2328: 245 pages Distributed System - Builds consistent, up-to-date map of the network: 101 pages Dijkstras Algorithm - Operates on map: 4 pages 16 Example1: OSPF and Dijkstra

17 Example2: Load Balancing Optimal Load Balancer: Ideally each HTTP request would be sent over a path which is lightly loaded to a server which is lightly loaded in order to minimize the request 18 Example2: Load Balancing

Current Load Balancer: it can choose only the lightly loaded server KEMP Technologies LoadMasterTM 2400 19 Example2: Load Balancing 20 Example2: Load Balancing

N. Handigol, S. Seetharaman, M. Flajslik, R. Johari, and N. McKeown. Aster*x: Load-balancing as a network primitive. 9th GENI Engineering Conference (Plenary), November 2010 21 Specification Abstraction Control program must express desired behavior - Whether it be isolation, access control, or QoS It should not be responsible for implementing that behavior on physical network infrastructure - Requires configuring the forwarding tables in each switch Proposed abstraction: Virtual Topology of network

- Virtual Topology models only enough detail to specify goals - Will depend on task semantics 22 Simple Example: Access Control Operators goal: prevent As packets from reaching B Control program does so with access control entries: - Control program must respond to topology/routing changes -

Makes it hard to write correct control program A AB drop Global Network View AB drop B 23 Network Virtualization Introduce new abstraction and new SDN layer Abstraction: Virtual Topology

- Allows operator to express requirements and policies - Via a set of logical switches and their configurations Layer: Network Hypervisor - Translates those requirements into switch configurations - Compiler for virtual topologies 24 Virtualization Simplifies Control Program Abstract Network View A AB drop

B Hypervisor then inserts flow entries as needed A AB drop Global Network View AB drop B 25 Software Defined Network Virtual Topology

Network Hypervisor Control Program Global Network View Network OS 26 Clean Separation of Concerns Control program: express goals on Virtual Topology - Operator Requirements - Configuration = Function(view) - Not a distributed protocol, now just a graph algorithm

Network Hypervisor: Virtual Topology Global Network View Network OS: Global Network View physical switches - Gathers information for global network view - Conveys configurations from control program to switches Router/switches: merely follow orders from NOS Clean separation of control and data planes - Not packaged togheter in proprietary boxes - Enables use of commodity hardware, 3rd party software - Easier to write, maintain, verify, reason about, 27 SDN: Layers for the Control Plane

Control Program Abstract Network View Network Virtualization Global Network View Network OS 28 Abstractions Dont Eliminate Complexity Every component of system is tractable - NOS, Virtualization are still complicated pieces of code SDN main achievements:

- Simplifies interface for control program (user-specific) - Pushes complexity into reusable code (SDN platform) Just like compilers. 29 Virtualization is Killer App for SDN Consider a multi-tenant datacenter - Want to allow each tenant to specify virtual topology - This defines their individual policies and requirements Datacenters network hypervisor compiles these virtual topologies into set of switch configurations - Takes 1000s of individual tenant virtual topologies

- Computes configurations to implement all simultaneously This is what people are paying money for. - Enabled by SDNs ability to virtualize the network 30 What Should I Remember About SDN? 31 Four Crucial Points SDN is merely set of abstractions for control plane - Not a specific set of mechanisms - OpenFlow is least interesting aspect of SDN, technically

SDN involves computing a function. - NOS handles distribution of state on an abstract network - Can ignore actual physical infrastructure Network virtualization is the killer app - Already virtualized compute, storage; network is next 32 Does SDN have larger implications? Aside from providing easier network management, how will SDN change the world of networking?

33 Control/Data Planes Become Separate Currently control plane tied to data plane NOS runs on servers: observes/controls data plane Changes the deployment and business models - Can buy the control plane separately from the switches - Enabling commodity hardware and 3rd party software Changes the testing model - Simulator to analyze large-scale control planes 34 Networking Becomes Edge-Oriented

Can implement most control functionality at edge - Access control, QoS, mobility, migration, monitoring Network core merely delivers packets edge-to-edge - Current protocols do a good job (mostly) Let edge handle all complexity - Complicated matching, actions - Overlay networking via tunnels This has two important implications 35 1. Makes SDN Incrementally Deployable Host software often has OpenFlow switch

- Open vSwitch (OVS) in Linux, Xen, The edge becomes a software switch - Core of network can be legacy hardware Enables incremental deployment of SDN - Might never need OpenFlow in hardware switches. 36 2. Networking Becomes Software-Oriented All complicated forwarding done in software (edge) And control plane is a program (on a server) - not a protocol (on a closed proprietary switch/router)

We are programming the network, not designing it - Focus on modularity and abstractions, not packet headers Innovation at software, not hardware, speeds Software lends itself to clean abstractions 37 SDN Vision: Networks Become Normal Hardware: Cheap, interchangeable, Moores Law Software: Frequent releases, decoupled from HW Functionality: Mostly driven by SW - Edge (software switch) - Control program Solid intellectual foundations

38 Recap - The network is changing Feature Feature Network OS Feature Feature OS

Feature Feature Custom Hardware OS Feature Feature Custom Hardware OS

Feature Custom Hardware Feature OS Feature Feature Custom Hardware OS Custom Hardware

39 Recap - Software Defined Network (SDN) 3. Consistent, up-to-date global network view Control Program 1 2. At least one Network OS probably many. Control Program 2 Open- and closed-source Network OS 1. Open interface to packet forwarding Packet Packet

Forwarding Forwarding Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding Packet Packet Forwarding

Forwarding Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding 40 OpenFlow Basics Control Program A Control Program B Network OS OpenFlow Protocol

Ethernet Switch Control Path OpenFlow Data Path (Hardware) 41 Primitives

Match arbitrary bits in headers: Header Data Match: 1000x01xx0101001x Match on any header, or new header Allows any flow granularity Action Forward to port(s), drop, send to controller Overwrite header with mask, push or pop Forward at specific bit-rate 42

OpenFlow Basics Control Program A Control Program B Network OS If header = p, send to port 4 Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding Packet Packet

Forwarding Forwarding If header = q, overwrite header with r, add header s, and send to ports 5,6 If header = ?, send to me Flow Table(s) Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding 43

More sophisticated flow identification Application level flow 44 More sophisticated flow identification IP flow 45 More sophisticated flow identification Custom flow 46

More sophisticated flow identification My flow 47 SDN Implementations Software/Hardware Forwarding Model - OpenFlow - ForCES Software Switches compliant with OpenFlow std. - Open vSwitch

Pantou/OpenWRT Ofsoftswitch13 Indigo Controller compliant with OpenFlow std. - POX - NOX - MUL - Maestro Available Commodity Switches compliant with OpenFlow std. - Hewlett-Packard 8200zl, 6600, 6200zl, - Brocade 5400zl, and 3500/3500yl

- IBM NetIron CES 2000 Series Bruno Astuto A. Nunes, Marc Mendonca, Xuan-Nam Nguyen, Katia Obraczka, and Thierry Turletti, A Survey of Software-Defined Networking: Past, Present, and Future of Programmable Networks, Technical Report, http://hal.inria.fr/hal-00825087/PDF/bare_jrnl.pdf 48 SDN Literature - Sources Browsing on proceedings of: ACM Sigcomm; ACM Sigcomm Workshop HotSDN; ACM Sigcomm Workshop HotNets; ACM CoNEXT; USENIX NSDI;

USENIX HotCloud; USENIX Hot-ICE; ONS; SDN reading list: http://www.nec-labs.com/~lume/sdn-reading-list.ht ml 49 Controller scalability multi-controller reduce messages sent to controller switch/CPU design approaches

Network Updates Programming SDN applications SDN architecture SDN research areas Traffic Management/QoS flow scheduling Load balancing Transport protocol

Monitoring Security Testing/Debugging 50

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