A Very Brief History of Western Art - Ms. Liew's Class
A Very Brief History of Western Art Prehistory to the Modern Day Prehistory Where and When: Europe (mostly modern day France, _________ and Germany) from about 30 000 BCE-2500 BCE Important Characteristics: Cave paintings and ________________ Twisted perspective Limited range of ________________ (mostly earth tones obtained from mineral pigments) ______________ subjects were animals like bison, aurochs & deer Some sculptures, mostly of ________________ female figures
Most famous examples: Caves of Lascaux, Altamira and Chauvet Venus of Willendorf Mesopotamian Where and When: Ancient Near East (modern day _________) from about 3500 BCE-539 BCE Important Characteristics: Sculpture, often of worshippers, royal figures and _____________ figures Huge reliefs, especially of ________________ scenes Mosaics Conservative, ______________________ style
Most famous examples: Standard of _________ Victory Stele of Naram-Sin Ishtar Gate from Babylon Lamassu statues from the palace of Sargon II Limestone ____________ from King Ashurnasirpal IIs palace at Nimrud Egyptian Where and When: Egypt from about 3100 BCE-30 BCE Important Characteristics: Focused on _____________ and the afterlife
Conservative, ________________ and distinctive style Figures in _________________ with size indicating status No ____________________; events depicted in sequence with necessary explanations in hieroglyphic captions Optimistic Most famous examples: The Great Sphinx The Pyramids Bust of Nefertiti The Book of the _______________ Greek and Hellenistic Where and When: Greece and its surrounding territories from about 850 BCE-31BCE Important Characteristics: First realistic portrayal of human figures, often ________________ __________________ emphasized, focus on musculature
Naturalism and ___________________, balance and proportion Emotional _________________ achieved through dynamic expressions, gestures & body positions Most famous examples: The Parthenon The Death of Laocon and his Sons The Discus Thrower Venus de Milo ________________ of Samothrace Roman Where and When: Europe (modern day Italy, but also other areas ______________________ by Rome) from about 500 BCE-476 CE Important Characteristics: Heavily influenced by ______________ and Etruscan art
Emphasis on ________________, more practical and down-to-earth than Greeks More focused on government than gods, including portraits & _________________________ of leaders & narrative relief carvings celebrating achievements of emperors Mosaics and landscape & portrait painting decorated ____________ of wealthy Most famous examples: Trajans Column Garden ____________ from the Villa di Livia Pantheon Medieval Where and When: Europe from about 500-1400 Important Characteristics:
Straightforward ________________________ intended to teach Christian history & beliefs ____________________ and full of mostly Christian symbols A variety of art forms: reliefs, _____________________, illuminated manuscripts, tapestries, carved devotional objects, etc. Most famous examples and artists: The Book of ______________ Stained glass windows of cathedrals, like Chartres and Notre Dame Bayeux ___________________ Giotto, Italy, 1270-1337 Renaissance Where and When: Europe (especially __________ and Northern Europe) from about 1400-1550
Important Characteristics: Rebirth of interest in ______________________ themes Influenced by humanism, which emphasized reason and individual _______________________ over religious teachings Use of realistic perspective and ______________ Realistic portrayal of __________, texture, the natural world, human figures & emotions Most famous artists: Jan van Eyck, Belgium, 1390-1441 Sandro Botticelli, Italy, 1445-1510 _______________________, Italy, 1452-1519 Michelangelo Buonarotti, 1475-1564 Mannerism Where and When: Italy (mostly Florence, ____________ and Venice) from about 1525-1600 Important Characteristics:
Long, ______________________ out figures Unusual or contorted poses/____________ expressions ________________ colours and lighting and imaginary settings ___________________ composition Most famous artists: Parmigianino, Italy, 1503-1540 Agnolo Bronzino, Italy, 1503-1572 Jacopo Tintoretto, Italy, 1518-1594 El Greco, __________________, 1541-1614 Baroque Where and When: Europe and parts of ______________ from 1600-1750 Important Characteristics:
Provided Catholic _______________ during Counter-Reformation ________________, contrasting colours Dramatic subjects with plenty of activity and motion; authentic portrayal of ___________________ & psychological states __________________-scale pieces Protestant artists favoured ____________ people in real situations Most famous artists: Caravaggio, Italy, 157-1610 Peter Paul Rubens, Belgium, 1577-1640 Rembrandt van Rijn Neoclassicism Where and When: Europe from about 1750-1850 Important Characteristics:
Scenes from history & ___________, especially of Greece & Rome Balanced & ________________ compositions A central _____________________ figure A _________________ message: artists believed the power of reason would improve the world Most famous artists: Jacques-Louis David, France, 1748-1825 Antonio Canova, Italy, 1757-1822 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, France, 1780-1867 John Flaxman, England, 1755-1826 Romanticism Where and When: Europe & ______________ from
about 1780-1850 Important Characteristics: Emphasis on intuition, instinct and ____________________ Emotional, ___________________, spiritual Landscapes, scenes depicting the power/grandeur of ____________ Scenes of _______________/supernatural Most famous artists: __________________, Great Britain, 1757-1827 Thodore Gricault, France, 1791-1824 Francisco de Goya, Spain, 1746-1828 Caspar David Friedrich, Germany, 1774-1840 Realism
Where and When: Europe (mostly France) from 1848-1900 Important Characteristics: Ordinary people doing everyday _________________ Not idealized; often shows _________ or distasteful subject matter Influenced by _________________________ ________________ of existing social and working conditions Most famous artists: Gustave Courbet, France, 1819-1877 Jean-Franois Millet, France, 1814-1875 Honor Daumier, France, 1808-1879
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, France, 1796-1875 Impressionism Where and When: Europe (especially France) and America from 1865-1900 Important Characteristics: Scenes from nature and ________________, spontaneous poses Unusual points of view Wanted to capture a quick impression of a scene: Used __________________ brush strokes Painted _________________ to capture changing effects of light Mixed colours on the _________________ Most famous artists: Mary Cassatt, United States, 1844-1926 Claude Monet, France, 1841-1895 Pierre-Auguste Renoir, France, 1841-1919 Edgar Degas, France, 1834-1917 Neo- & Post-Impressionism
Where and When: Europe and North America1880-1910 Important Characteristics: Personal, emotional and ____________________ in nature Bright, ____________________ colours and light Geometric shapes, _________________ forms Pointillism (use of small ___________ of pure colour) Most famous artists: Georges Seurat, France, 1859-1891 Vincent van Gogh, _____________ and France, 1853-1890 Paul Gaugin, France and Polynesia, 1848-1903 Paul Czanne, France, 1839-1906 Cubism
Where and When: Europe (mostly France and _______________) from 1907-1917 Important Characteristics: Subjects broken up into simple ____________________ shapes _______________, few realistic details Shallow ___________________ All ________________ seen at once (multiple viewpoints) Muted colours (__________________, greys, blacks) Most famous artists: Pablo Picasso, Spain, 1881-1973 George Braque, France, 1882-1963 Juan Gris, Spain, 1887-1927 Fernand Lger, France, 1881-1955 Early Abstract Art Where and When: Europe and America from 19091932 Important Characteristics:
No recognizable forms from the ____________________ Based on geometric figures or free ______________ and lyrical Patterns, colours and shapes & how they _________ to each other Open to interpretation, like ______________ Most famous artists: Wassily Kandinsky, Eastern Europe, 1866-1944 Constantin Brancusi, Romania & France, 1876-1957 Piet Mondrian, Europe and New York, 1872-1944 Surrealism Where and When: Europe and United States from about 19151945
Important Characteristics: Expression of unconscious, __________________ inspirations Elements of ___________, free association, uncensored thought Dreamlike Impossible scenes with _____________ that dont fit together Semi-automatic techniques Most famous artists: Salvador Dali, Spain, 1904-1989 Max Ernst, _______________, 1891-1976 Ren Magritte, Belgium, 1898-1967 Abstract Expressionism Where and When: America (mostly _______________) and Europe, late 1940s-late 1950s Important Characteristics:
________________ canvases Abstract Full of _____________________ Spontaneous Emphasis on the __________________________ of painting Most famous artists: Willem de Kooning, Netherlands, 1904-1997 Jackson Pollock, United States, 1912-1956 Mark Rothko, United States, 1903-1970 Pop Art Where and When: Britain and United States from mid1950s to late __________________ Important Characteristics:
___________________ distinction between high and low art Disliked the __________________________ of abstract art Bold, stylized imagery with ______________ lines and flat colours Everyday & pop culture images (e.g. ________________, product labels) used as art Irony and ___________________ Most famous artists: Jasper Johns, United States, 1930Roy Lichtenstein, United States, 1923-1997 Andy Warhol, United States, 1928-1987 Minimalism Where and When: America and Europe in the 1960s & 1970s Important Characteristics:
Neither painting nor ________________________ Great ________________________ Materials not ______________________ for art Basic shapes Black and white, colour _________ Little evidence of the artists hand Most famous artists: Eva Hesse, America, 1936-1970 Dan Flavin, America, 1933-1996 Agnes Martin, American, 1911-2004
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