A2 Sport Psychology - Weebly

A2 Sport Psychology - Weebly

Aggression in sport Definition Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means. Bull Any

form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment. Baron Defining Aggression The difficulty with defining aggression is shown below Increasing control

Aggression ? Assertion Increasing frustration Socially acceptable? The definitions imply that it isnt, but then why should we justify actions such as tackling in

rugby and punches in boxing? Barons 3 categories Hostile (reactive) aggression Instrumental (channelled) aggression Assertive behaviour Hostile (reactive) aggression Prime motive is to harm an opponent outside of the rules of the sport.

Dysfunctional Hostile aggression involves anger. Hostile destructiveness. Instrumental (channelled) aggression An aggressive action that is within the rules. Prime motive is to execute skill successfully, but to also inflict pain on opponent. E.g. hard tackle in rugby and punch in boxing.

Assertive behaviour No attempt to harm and strictly within rules of the game. Robust but functional play. E.g. tough tackle in football without going over the top; driving through a crowd of players in basketball. Types of Aggression Assertive behaviour 1. No intent to harm 2. Legitimate force

3. Unusual effort and energy expenditure Hostile aggression 1. Intent to harm 2. Goal to harm 3. Unusual effort and energy expenditure Instrumental aggression 1. Intent to harm 2. Goal to win 3. No anger

Which of these are aggressive behaviours? 1. Question: A basketball coach breaks a chair in protesting to a disputed call? Answer: Not aggressive behaviour as violence is directed at an object and not a person. 2. Question: Alan, a hockey player, uses his stick to purposely hit his opponent in the shin in retaliation for his opponents doing the same thing to him. Answer: Aggressive behaviour. The behaviour was aimed at injuring another player. 3. Question: A race car driver kills a fellow competitor by running into the competitors stalled car coming out of a turn.

Answer: Not an aggressive action as there was no intent. .......continued 4. Question: Barry knows that John is very sensitive and self-conscious about his ability to putt under pressure, so he tells John that the coach said that if does not putt better he will be replaced in the line-up. The coach never said this. Answer: Aggressive behaviour. There was deliberate intent to cause psychological damage. 5. Question: Jane bowls a fast ball that hit Tom on the leg. Answer: Not aggressive behaviour as there was no intent. A fast ball is part of the game.

Task Place the following examples into the 3 categories. Antecedents of aggression Task Think of as many different causes of aggression as you can. Nature of game (contact/non-contact) Losing badly Grudge from previous match/encounter Frustration (poor form/opposition/referee) Hostile crowds (intimidation) Venue (home/away) Over-arousal

Extrinsic rewards Theories of aggression Instinct theory Social learning theory Frustration aggression hypothesis Aggression cue hypothesis Instinct theory Trait perspective

Aggression genetically inherited. Freud a trait of violence lies within everyone due to a basic instinct to dominate. Lorenz proposed that aggressive energy is constantly building up and needs to be released. Social Learning Theory Social learning (environmental) perspective Bandura Aggression is nurtured through environmental forces.

Learned by watching and copying from role models and becomes accepted if it is reinforced. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Interactionist perspective Dollard Frustration develops when a goal or need to

achieve is blocked. Aggression occurs as a result Successful aggression (getting away with it) releases the frustration. Unsuccessful aggression (getting punished) leads to further frustration. Frustration aggression hypothesis Drive to goal Obstacle to goal

Catharsis Success Frustration Aggression Punishment Task Use examples from sport to explain each part of the model. Aggression cue hypothesis

Interactionist perspective Berkowitz building on Dollards work. Frustration leads to arousal which in some situations results in aggression. Whether or not this occurs will depend on the presence of aggressive cues. Possible cues = bats; sticks; nature of game; violent act being witnessed. Task List possible aggression cues from your sport Aggression cue hypothesis

Frustration Presence of aggression cues Increased chance of aggression Absence of aggression cues Decreased chance of aggression

Increased arousal Task Use examples from sport to explain each part of the model. Theories of Aggression INSTINCT THEORY (TRAIT PERSPECTIVE) - Proposed by FRUED but developed but LORENZ in 1966. - Aggression is genetically inherited and that trait of violence lies within everyone due to a basic instinct to dominate.

- Death instinct (FREUD) - Aggressive energy is constantly building up and needs to be released (LORENZ) SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Proposed by BANDURA, 1966 but developed by LEAKEY. - Aggression is not biologically based but is nurtured through environmental forces. - Learned by watching and copying role models and it becomes an excepted mode of behaviour if reinforced. -

AGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS (BERKOWITZ, 1969) INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE - Proposed by DOLLARD. - Builds upon DOLLARDS work. - Frustration develops when goal-directed - Frustration leads to an increase in arousal whic behaviour or NACH is blocked. in some situations will result in aggression. - It is instinctive to fulfil the need - Cues = baseball bats, violent acts being witness to release frustration.

nature of the game will trigger aggression if - Instinct theory aggression is the goal. arousal is high. - Aggression = successful = catharsis - Best players have the ability/temperament - Aggression = unsuccessful = more frustration to control frustration and arousal. Practical application of aggression theories Watch the video clips and use each of the theories to explain Water Boys aggressive behaviour.

Analysis of Happy Instinct theory? Frustration aggression theory? Social Learning theory? Aggressive cue theory? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qaAKxJp0EM&list=PLAFCC5ED68095D84F Can we identify aggressive people?

People high in trait anger are more likely to become highly aroused and angry when they are losing than those low in trait anger People who have a previously watched or had aggressive behaviour positively reinforced are more likely to be aggressive than people where aggression was negatively reinforced How can we eliminate aggression? Negative reinforcement from the media. Positive reinforcement of skilful, non-aggressive players

(e.g. fair play awards). Psychological support and guidance. Professional officiating (as in the NFL). Clear differentiation of aggression and assertiveness. Severe punishments for aggressive behaviour. Governing bodies and law courts should punish offenders. Society (esp. schools) should highlight non-aggressive morals Teach athletes to control aggressive tendencies (relaxation, thought stopping etc.) Managing aggressive performers Strategy

Punish aggressive behaviour Avoid aggressive situations Individuals actions Coach / managers actions

Governing body actions Eliminating aggressive tendencies Coach positively reinforces non-aggressive behaviour Coach negatively reinforces aggressive behaviour. Punish aggressive play. Withdraw potentially violent player from

situation. Change athletes perception of situation. Eliminating aggressive tendencies Stress performance rather than outcome goals. Emphasise non-aggressive role models. Attribute success to skilfulness rather than intimidation Lower arousal / anxiety / stress

Use cognitive strategies such as rational thinking and imagery to prevent aggressive behaviour. Preventing Aggression A coach might use the following tactics to prevent aggression:

Do not reinforce aggressive acts in training Punish aggression with fines Substitute an aggressive player or remove him from the situation Reinforce non-aggression, eg. Give a fair play award Promote peer-group pressure within the team Preventing Aggression cont.. Use mental rehearsal or relaxation to lower arousal Point out responsibilities to the team

Point out non-aggressive role-models Set non-aggressive goals Channel aggression into assertion

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