Aboriginal Spirituality - WELCOME BIENVENUE

Aboriginal Spirituality - WELCOME BIENVENUE

Christianity WORLD RELIGIONS 3106 Origins PA G E S 2 6 4 - 2 6 9 Recall from Judaism Remember that according to Jewish tradition, God created the universe and everything in

it, including human beings. Also recall that through many different prophets, God promised to send a Messiah, or a saviour. According to Christians, this messiah was Jesus Christ, who they believe to be the son of God. Christianity

The worlds most successful religion Over 2 billion people call themselves Christians (1/3 of the planet) Began as a Jewish sect which spread through the Roman empire The most detailed information on the life of Jesus is the New Testament of the Bible specifically the first four books which are the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John

Jesus Born 4 BCE in Judea, a Roman province Hebrew name, Yeshua ben Miriam (Joshua, son of Mary) Jesus of Nazareth, a preacher for three years, before being crucified by the Roman authorities Jesus did not write anything down. His

followers wrote the new testament Early Life Christ born in Bethlehem (4 BCE) Raised in

Nazareth near the Sea of Galilee Family Life Parents Joseph and Mary according to Christian scriptures, Jesus was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit in virgin Marys womb

Details of Christs birth are in the gospel of Luke Many brothers and sisters Father a carpenter Likely lacked any formal education Story of Jesus begins at age 30 At the time of Jesus birth, Caesar Augustus had ordered a census of the Roman empire, requiring that people travel to the town in which they were born to

be recorded in the totals. Mary and Joseph came to Bethlehem to register. There was nowhere to stay and so they took shelter in a stable, where Mary gave birth to Jesus and placed him in a manger. And there were shepherds living out in the fields nearby, keeping watch over their flocks art night. An angel of the Lord appear to them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and trey were terrified. But the engel said tot hem, Do not be afraid. I bring you good news of great joy that will be for all the people.

Today in the worn of David a Saviour has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord. Luke 2: 8-11 John The Baptist Jesus was baptised in the river Jordan by John the Baptist Gospel of Mark: Chapter

1 (the oldest gospel) After John baptized Jesus, the Holy Spirit (considered by Christians to be the lifegiving presence of God) came to Jesus Jesus Baptism

As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Matthew 3:16-17

Jesus Ministry Jesus retreated to the desert for 40 days to fast and pray, while he was temped by the devil. He was approximately 30 when he returned to the region of Galilee and began to preach in synagogues Although Jesus preached from a Jewish perspective, his messages challenged accepted views and he was not poplar in all religious circles

He gathered a group of disciples (spiritual apprentices) They taught in smaller communities and in large outdoor gatherings Jesus Ministry Jesus was known to be comfortable amongst outsiders and common people Urged people to love their neighbors and

enemies alike and to forgive the wrongs of others For three years Jesus preached The gospels speak of Jesus performing miracles; examples include turning wine to water or multiplying fish and bread He heals the sick and his touch healed the faithful; examples include those with leprosy or blindness Jesus Preaches

Jesus Heals the Sick The Last Supper Jesus and the disciples share the Passover meal in Jerusalem Jesus Arrest As Jesus followers grew in number, so too did

his religious and political enemies; for example, he strongly criticized the Pharisees, a Jewish sect who followed strict dietary rules and purification rituals. This religion feared that Jesus was a threat to them Jesus was seen as the son of God, which was considered blasphemous by religious authorities During Passover in the 3rd year of his public life, Jesus entered Jerusalem and was welcomed by the people, but he didnt know that the religious

authorities were planning his arrest Jesus Arrest Jesus had his last meal, the Passover meal, with his twelve apostles, who were his closest disciples this is the event known as the Last Supper After the meal, while Jesus was praying outside, several officials, religious authorities

and soldiers approached and apprehended him These men were led by Judas, one of Jesus apostles who had betrayed him Kiss of Judas = Betrayal of Christ The events from the Last Supper until the death and resurrection of Jesus are referred to as The Passion

Judas Jesus Arrest Arrested and charged for blasphemy The council found Jesus guilty because he would not deny that he was the Messiah, or that he was Gods son The council turned him over to the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, for sentencing but

Pilate didnt agree that Jesus deserved to be arrested; however, he bowed to the demands of the crowd and ordered that Jesus be crucified Crucifixion was used to execute by the Romans as a way to provoke fear among conquered nations Crucifixion According to the Gospels

Soldiers led Jesus to the Place of the Skull (also called Calvary or Golgotha a site outside Jerusalems walls) where he was to be crucified They forced him to carry the heavy wooden cross Many female disciples followed and mourned The soldiers nailed Jesus to the wooden cross and hung a sign on it that read This is the King of the Jews Died on the cross in front of his mother and many female followers This event is called the Crucifixion, which Christians

believe brought about the forgiveness of sins and the promise of eternal life Resurrection Jesus body was placed in a rock tomb Three days after his death, Mary Magdalene, accompanied by other female disciples, went to the tomb to anoint Jesus body with spices When they arrived, his body was gone and an

angel appeared to tell them Jesus had risen from the dead He appeared to the women and several of his followers during the days that followed Christians call his return from the dead Resurrection Ascension The resurrected Jesus

visited with his apostles and commissioned them to baptize all nations, and spread his teachings 40 days after the Resurrection, Jesus ascended bodily to heaven This event, the Ascension, ended Christs time on earth and initiated 2000

years of Christianity Day of Pentecost Before the Crucifixtion, Jesus had promised his apostles that he would send them assistance in spreading the good news This comforter (as said by Jesus), is believed by Christians to be the Holy Spirit Ten days after the Ascension, fifty days after

Easter Sunday, Jesus followers meet in an upper room 50 days after Easter is a Christian feast called Pentecost, this is when the followers met Day of Pentecost They share a religious experience The Holy Spirit empowered the apostles with spiritual gifts and abilities, such as the ability to speak in different languages

This allowed them to proclaim their faith in Jerusalem easily and enthusiastically The Pentecost is often referred to as the birthday of the Church, as this gathering of the apostles marks the beginning of Christianity Pentecost

10 days after Ascension = The start of the Christian church. The First Christians: St. Paul Earliest converts were Greek, who called themselves Christians, from the Greek word

Christos which is Greek for the Messiah Within a generation after Jesus death, a missionary named Paul (later called St. Paul) was actively carrying Christianity across the Eastern corner of the Roman Empire Paul is so important to the development of Christianity that he is often referred to as an apostle, even though he never was

The First Christians: Persecutions Since the Roman Empire was an economic arrangement, as long as trade flowed easily on the road network, the Roman emperor usually accepted religious and cultural differences; this peaceful era allowed Christianity to multiply rapidly When emperors who opposed new religion came into power, they sometimes used Christians as a

scapegoat and persecuted them Two centuries later when Christianity flourished but the Roman Empire was on the decline, other emperors demanded the destruction of churches, holy articles and books The First Christians: Persecutions Christian martyrs, followers who died for their faith, were dragged into the Roman

Colosseum, where they were mauled by wild animals before cheering crowds Because of the persecution of openly Christian people, many Christians took their worship underground Eventually Constantine, the first Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, legalized Christianity He was first of many Christian rulers of the Roman Empire from this point on

Thrown to the Lions Documentary Watch the documentary Who Was Jesus? Part 2: The Mission (42:00) Part 3: The Last Days (42:00) Beliefs

PA G E S 2 6 9 - 2 7 4 Council of Nicea By the early 300s, 10% of Roman citizens are Christians Emperor Constantine assembles all the Bishops at Nicea 325 AD They hammer out the Nicene Creed, a statement of beliefs universally accepted by Christianity

today Although the Creed outlines the most basic beliefs shared by most Christians, many differences of opinions exist among the various Christian denominations regarding some of these beliefs They determine which books will become the bible The Nicene Creed (2:33)

The Nicene Creed 325 -381 AD The fathers of the first council of Nicea 325 A.D. Worksheet: Christian Beliefs

Worksheet based on p. 270-271 in textbook The Role of Women The Bible supports equality between the sexes Jesus interacted frequently with women in his public life and treated them with high regard The Church grew in societies that were largely dominated by men with women confined to domestic roles

Modern Christianity is more open to the equality of women The Salvation Army was the first Christian Church to recognize full status for women in its ministry Practices, Rituals, Symbols & Festivals

PA G E S 2 7 5 - 2 8 3 Christian Symbols The Lamb of God: Title for Jesus as it appears in the Gospel of John Behold the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world.

Similar to the paschal lamb used as a sacrifice during the Jewish festival of Passover Christian Symbols Chi Rho: First two letters of the Greek word XPITO, TOTO, ,

which means Christ A symbol used by the early Christians and can be seen in some Christian churches Christian Symbols The Fish: Recalls Jesus words to his first disciples: Follow me and I will

make you fishers of men. Linked to the spreading of the gospel Used as a way to identify yourself during Christian persecution Christian Symbols The Cross

Christian Symbols The Cross: Reminds Christians that the cruel death suffered by Christ was for human salvation - it reminds Christians that God loved the people so much he offered his son as a sacrifice Was not originally used due to the

horror and suffering associated with it, but eventually grew to be acceptable Made with hand gestures, worn on jewelry, as grave markers, and on spires on Christian churches Appears in the flags of many countries Christian Festivals: Easter and Surrounding Celebrations Holiest week of

Christian calendar. (Dates vary) Before Easter: Lent Begins about two months after Christmas and lasts 40 days, ending with the Holy Week and festival of Easter 40 days = length of Jesus journey of

meditation Traditionally a time of fasting, prayer and spiritual self-assessment Carnivals such as Mardi Gras and Carnivale de Rio de Janeiro are rooted in Christian tradition, as a way to celebrate before the somber period Lent - Ash Wednesday The day that begins

the season of Lent Some Christians are marked on the head with ashes to remind them that they are mortals and that they will return to dust upon their death

The Holy Week: Starts With Palm Sunday Sunday before Easter Sunday Celebrates Jesus entering Jerusalem on a donkey while his followers spread palm branches in his path

Churches bless and distribute palm branches to worshippers Holy Thursday Marks the day of the Last Supper According to the

gospels, Jesus washed the feet of his apostles In some Christian traditions, a priest washes the feet of a group of priests or parishioners to reenact this humble service Good Friday

Most solemn Christian day Commemorates the trial, crucifixion, death and burial of Jesus Minister or priest reads excerpts from Jesus final days Some congregations reenact the final events of

Jesus life and take a cross to procession through the streets The Holy Week: Ends With Easter Sunday Holiest Christian day Marks the resurrection of Jesus and the events

surrounding it, beginning with the female followers discovering the empty tomb In commemorating the resurrection of Jesus, Easter celebrates triumph over sin and death

So whats the Easter Bunny got to do with it? Milestones PA G E S 2 8 4 - 2 8 9 Baptism Christians believe the act of baptism cleanses their soul and signals the beginning of their Christian

lives Early Christianity linked baptism teaching that the sacrament removes the stain of original sin The defiance of Adam and Eve left a spot on each persons soul and baptism reclaims the soul for God by entering the person into the salvation of Christs death and resurrection

Depending on denomination, baptism can take place and infancy or later in life (adolescence or adulthood) as a sign of choice Holy Communion Practiced by most, but not all, Christians During the Passover Meal (the Last Supper) Jesus shared with his apostles bread and wine

Take and eat; this is my body ; Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins (Matthew 26: 26-28) The blessed bread and wine (or grape juice), symbolizing the body and blood of Christ is shared by the congregation

Congregation may file to the front to receive the gifts, or the clergy may bring it to the people Holy Communion Known by many names such as Communion, the Mass, the Eucharist, the Lords Supper, the Lords Table It may be offered daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually, or not at all depending on

the church In many churches it is an important rite of passage to receive Holy Communion for the first time Confession/Reconciliation Comes from Jesus instructions to the apostles:

Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained. Members of the Orthodox and Catholic churches, as well as some Protestant denominations participate

Discuss their sins and struggles with their preist or minister Could be face to face or with an anonymous screen between them Sacred Writings PA G E S 2 9 0 - 2 9 3 Sacred Writings The New Testament

1. The 4 Gospels 2. Acts of the Apostles 3. Letters to Churches (Epistles) 4. Revelations Angel, Lion, Ox, Eagle The Gospels: Matthew Written ~80 CE? Apostle, Jewish tax collector

Connects Jesus to Old testament prophecy Has the Nativity story Has the Sermon on the mount The Gospels: Mark Written ~70 CE? Associated with Paul and Peter The earliest gospel Shortest gospel No Nativity

Most of Mark is incorporated in Matthew and Luke The Gospels: Luke Written ~85 CE? A Greek Christian connected to Paul Well educated, a Physician Has the Nativity story Many stories of healing the sick The Gospels: John

Written ~100 CE? A follower of the apostle John? The Gnostic gospel Gnostic means knowledge More philosophical than the others Acts of the Apostles Also written by Luke ~70CE Chronicles the missionary work of Peter and

Paul in the early years of the church Emphasizes the Holy Spirit Epistles Earliest works of the New Testament Mostly written by Paul ~ 50s and 60s CE

Sent to Christian communities all over the Mediterranean. Pauls Journeys Book of Revelations John (not the apostle) ~95CE

Written on the Isle of Patmos to The Seven Churches of Asia. Apocalyptic text predicting the imminent end of the world

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Groups and Institutions PA G E S 2 9 6 - 3 0 4 The Eastern Schism A schism is a break A split between Rome in the west and

Byzantium (Constantinople [Istanbul]) in the east There was disagreement within the church The western Church believed that both the Father and Son sent forth the Holy Spirit The eastern Church believed that the power of the Holy Spirit came only from God the Father Handout Newspaper Article

The Eastern Orthodox Church Churches are constructed with a cross-shaped floor plan, meeting under a rounded central roof and are ornately decorated with religious icons The Orthodox service, called the Divine Liturgy, is usually long and very elaborate, focused on rituals established early in Christian history

Eastern Churches are led by an Ecumenical Patriarch in Istanbul In 1965 the patriarch Athenagoras and Pope Paul VI met and lifted the excommunications that their predecessors had put in place so long ago The Eastern Orthodox Church

Only men can be Orthodox priests, and they are allowed to have been married before their ordination; however, once ordained, they cannot marry The Orthodox Churches promote monastic (living in a monastery) life for men and women

Monastic priests and nuns are not permitted to have been married Guest Presenter Meena Saad The Roman Catholic Church Led by the Pope, who Catholics believe are successors to Saint Peter and hold the huge membership of the Church together

In 1870 the First Vatican Council strengthened the popes authority by making papal infallibility Roman Catholic doctrine The Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church today is facing a shortage of priests, particularly in industrialized nations

Catholic priests must be males and they must remain celibate (abstain from marriage) and chaste (abstain from sexual relations) They have a very strict personal code to maintain in an increasingly secular society Catholic priests cannot marry and are not

permitted to be married before becoming The Protestant Churches With the translation of the Bible from Latin to German by Martin Luther Christianity began to spread across Europe

Educated people could now read and interpret the gospels themselves, without the direction of Roman Catholic clerics Orthodox and Roman Churches had always focused on the importance of both faith and works, but Martin Luther introduced a new view that salvation by faith alone turns the expectation of belief inward

Knowing God through the study of the Bible became more important than following long-established rituals of worship The Protestant Churches This brought about the foundation of the Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican and other Christian Churches in the Protestant tradition Protestant Churches include (but is not limited to):

The Lutheran Church The Calvinist or Reformed Church The Anglican Church The Baptist Church The Methodist Church (United Church) The Salvation Army The Pentecostal Church The Evangelical Movement The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (The Mormons) The Jehovahs Witness

Cultural Impact PA G E S 3 0 5 - 3 0 9 Cultural Impact of Christianity Christianity is the largest religious group in the world, with almost 2 billion followers Due to a huge membership and a geographical distribution, Christianity has

had a huge cultural impact on the world Cultural Impact of Christianity During the time of exploration and colonization by European powers, such as Britain, France, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands, missionaries and immigrants carried Christianity to the Americas Native people in North America were Christianized by peaceful conversion or by show of force

The late 19th century saw a period of imperialism that pushed European and Christianity deeper into Asia and Africa Today, almost two thirds of Roman Catholics live in developing nations of Latin America, Asia and Africa Cultural Impact of Christianity You can see the link between

developing countries and Christianity when you look at church based international activities Many Christian churches and organizations fund and operate missions, schools, orphanages, hospitals and other community institutions in third world countries They also respond to international

crises such as famine, flood and hurricane destruction Christianity in Canada Most commonly held faith in Canada, which has affected our society in many ways Christian churches are often the most striking buildings in many Canadian towns Some Canadian churches are the centre of important

pilgrimmages, such as Ste. Anne de Beaupr in Qubec Christianity in Canada The impact of Christianity can also be seen in the educational system

Some provinces like NB and ON have publicly funded Roman Catholic school systems 1997 denominational schools removed from Newfoundland 1867 British North America Act - as part of the historical set of compromises that created the dominion of Canada was the creation of religious based schools, denominational colleges, and

Sunday school programs aim to pass on the faith from one generation to the next Christianity in Canada Many Canadian cities, towns, villages, lakes and rivers have the name of Christian saints, especially in Quebec

St. St. St. St. St. Lawrence River

Marys and St. Thomas, Ontario George Street, Toronto Pauls Intermediate Peters All Grade Canadians celebrate many holidays with origins in Christianity such as Christmas, Easter, and Thanksgiving Although Canada is very multicultural and multifaith,

the Christian heritage is still an important feature of Canadian society

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