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Political Science: An Introduction Fourteenth Edition Roskin | Cord | Medeiros | Jones Chapter 13 Executives and Bureaucracies Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Presidents and Prime Ministers (1 of 4) 13.1 Compare and contrast presidents and prime ministers. When thinking about executives, it is important to

note the difference between a head of state and a chief of government. The head of state is theoretically the top leader, but the duties are largely symbolic and they serve more to represent the nation as a symbol of unity. The chief of government is the real working executive and has meaningful political power within the system. In practice they guide government, run election campaigns, and head political parties. The United States combines the two offices in the institution of the presidency. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Presidents and Prime Ministers (3 of 4)

13.1 Compare and contrast presidents and prime ministers. In parliamentary systems the chief executive is indirectly elected by the national legislature from its own ranks. Prime ministers are responsible to parliament and are secure in their seats if they represent a majority party. This means that there are no institutional limits beyond the support of the majority required for them to stay in office. They can be ousted by a vote of no-confidence or by a loss of the majority in the general election. This means the prime minister's strength is dependent on the stability of his or her majority in parliament.

Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. "Forming a Government" in Britain (1 of 2) The British system is the "classic" of parliamentary systems. Monarch invites leader of majority party to form a government and become the prime minister. The prime minister appoints cabinet (the government) and subcabinet officials, all of whom are members of parliament and all represent important groups within the majority. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

"Cohabitation" in France (1 of 4) France's system is "semipresidential" and combines a working prime minister with a chancellor. 1986 and 1993 saw a socialist president with a conservative majority in parliament, which meant there was a chance that the majority would not approve the president's selection. This led to cohabitation. This happened again in 1997 with a conservative president and a socialist premier. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Executive Terms (1 of 3)

Presidential system Presidential terms are fixed and in some cases limited in total numbers of terms that can be served. This makes presidents generally hard to remove from office until their term is expired. Parliamentary systems Prime ministers have no limit on their tenure in office as long as their party continues to win a majority in parliament. For example, Thatcher was in office 11 years; Kohl was in office 16 years. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Executive Leadership (1 of 2) 13.2 Evaluate the charge that the U.S. presidency has become too powerful. In general, there are two different styles of executive leadership. Hands-on Jimmy Carter tried to supervise and manage nearly all aspects of his administration. Wrong approach; executives scatter and exhaust themselves. Hands-off Ronald Reagan supervised little and delegated authority. Paid little attention to critical matters, letting important issues slide

Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cabinets (1 of 2) 13.3 Contrast cabinet ministers in parliamentary systems with departmental secretaries in the U.S. system. Cabinets are the heads of the various executive agencies of the bureaucracy. In the United States, cabinet heads are called secretaries; in Europe they are generally referred to as ministers. The cabinet helps develop government policy on a range of issues.

Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Who Serves in a Cabinet? (1 of 2) There is a great deal of difference between ministers in parliamentary systems and secretaries in the American system. Parliamentary system Cabinet ministers come from parliament and continue to serve in parliament while they are in cabinets. They are the equivalent to a U.S. Dept. Secretary Presidential system Department secretaries are usually not working

politicians but lawyers, leaders in business, and academics. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Bureaucracies (2 of 3) 13.4 Consider the thesis that bureaucratization is inevitable. Bureaucracies have specific characteristics that Weber identified. These are ideal types. A bureaucracy is any large organization of appointed officials who implement laws and policies. Operates under rules and procedures. Organized into a hierarchy. Provides rationality, uniformity, predictability, and

supervision to government. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The United States Bureaucratic power in the US: A good example of this is cigarette package warning labels, which was a policy initiative that came from the bureaucracy. Departments carry out unclear laws and interpret the meaning and intent of those laws during the implementation process. U.S. bureaucracy is small compared to other states, especially those in Latin America and Europe that have strong statist traditions.

15 percent of the total bureaucracy is at the federal level. At the federal level there are 15 cabinet departments that comprise 85-90 percent of the federal bureaucracy. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Communist Countries (2 of 3) Soviet Union was one of the world's most bureaucratic states and it was the cause of its undoing. The top Soviet bureaucrats were called the nomenklatura, who were a privileged elite, all of whom were members of the Communist Party. This privileging mechanism made the Soviet

bureaucracy very conservative by nature, as the best and brightest were recruited into the bureaucracy and then resisted changes that would affect their positions. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Communist Countries (3 of 3) In China all officials are also party members. In theory this is supposed to fight corruption, but administration in China is dangerously decentralized, which makes corruption not only easier but more likely. Bureaucratic corruption is China's Achilles heel and could easily destabilize the state.

Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. France (1 of 2) During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, France set the pattern for the rest of Europe with its heavily bureaucratized state. Napoleon made the bureaucracy even more rational and effective, drawing on the model set forward by Richelieu. French bureaucrats are trained at the "Great Schools" that emphasize specialized training. France is heavily bureaucratized and extremely centralized.

Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Germany (2 of 2) Following the war, as Germany rebuilt democracy, there has been a strong commitment by German civil servants to democracy and democratic values. This is illustrated in part by the Interior Ministry and its programs to fight political extremism. A final distinctive feature of German bureaucrats is that they tend to have the mentality of Roman law, neatly organized and fixed into codes.

Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Britain (2 of 2) British ministers are accountable to parliament but real power is in the hands of the career "permanent secretary" and other career bureaucrats. The British bureaucracy more tightly controlled than U.S. bureaucracy. British bureaucrats pride themselves on being apolitical and on acting solely in the nation's best interest. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Japan (1 of 3) Japan provides an extreme example of "rule by bureaucrats," a situation in which the bureaucrats are more powerful than, and often have a great deal of contempt for, elected officials. The key ministries are finance, industry, agriculture, construction, and trade and they set much of the policy for the Japanese state. In Japan the ministries are self-contained, which means they do not cooperate with each other and generally do not work for the good of the whole. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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