ADD STRUCTURE TO YOUR TEACHING CHRISTY BORDERS, STACEY JONES BOCK, & KRISTI PROBST ILLINOIS STATE UNIVERSITY Rate your classroom how structured is your classroom? 1 (not at all) 5 (VERY structured) WHAT IS STRUCTURED TEACHING? Rate your instruction how structured is your instruction? 1 (not at all) 5 (VERY structured) Like groups
Definition of structured teaching -NO PHONES! WHY STRUCTURED TEACHING? Developed by Division TEACCH (Training and Education of Autistic and related Communicationhandicapped CHildren) Based on extensive understanding of autism and partnering with families How ASD impacts thinking, learning, and behavior ASD = differences in auditory processing, imitation, motivation, and organization Indiana Resource Center for Autism. http://www.iidc.Indiana.edu/irca STRUCTURED VS. TRADITIONAL STRATEGIES Structured Teaching
Predictable, meaningful routines Added visual & structural support Increase engagement Reduced anxiety Increase appropriate behavior Traditional Strategies Verbal instructions
Demonstrations Social reinforcement Sequencing chunks of information Indiana Resource Center for Autism. http://www.iidc.Indiana.edu/irca STRUCTURED TEACHING PYRAMID Visu al Stru ctur e of Mat and Routines Visual eria
Strategies ls Work Systems Schedules Physical Structure Indiana Resource Center for Autism. http://www.iidc.Indiana.edu/irca PHYSICAL STRUCTURE Most important serves as the foundation! How classroom is set up and where materials and furniture are placed Think Feng Shui Which room would you feel more relaxed in? WHY PHYSICAL STRUCTURE? Provides organization
Helps staff, students, and classroom visitors understand what activities are occurring in each area at any given time Helps students anticipate the requirements of a specific setting and to predict what will be happening Minimizes competing distractions What would you look at? Results == more on-task behavior and higher academic achievement (Heflin & Alberto, 2001) ACTIVITY Gather with others (1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, & 5s mixed groups) Using the furniture, construct current classroom space for one room on your team Use the classroom of your 1 or 2 (or lowest number represented) 10 minutes Hang up your classroom on the wall or place on table
KEY CONCEPTS & STEPS TO IMPLEMENTATION 1 Create clear physical and/or visual boundaries to help students know where each area begins and ends Identify areas you would like to create (think through curriculum) Segment areas using boundaries or visual cues Teach students how to move through the space and expectations for each area 2 Minimize auditory and visual distractions Consider how much information is posted and whether it is relevant Putting away extraneous materials
Remove or cover visual distractions ACTIVITY FEEDBACK Walk around to posters Give feedback and suggestions 20 minutes Review the feedback on your poster 5 minutes Share out lessons learned 15 minutes SCHEDULES Communicates the sequence of upcoming events non-linguistically Tells WHERE and WHEN
Designed to match individual needs Assessment of required skills WHY VISUAL SCHEDULES? Enhance Enhance receptive language Capitalizes on strength in visuospatial skills (Quill, 1997) and attention to visual information (Garretson, Fein, & Waterhouse, 1990) Assist
Assist with increases in independence; decreased reliance on prompts (Green, 2001) Reduce Reduce anxiety and increase flexibility IMPLEMENTATION CONSIDERATIONS 1. Form of representation 2. Length of schedule and presentation format 3. Ways of manipulation 4. Location 5. Initiation of use STUDENT SKILLS
Initiation Identifies own schedule Identifies which cue is next in sequence Understands meaning of visual cue Staying on track
ACTIVITY Consider a student on your team for whom you would like to initiate schedules Individualizing the Schedule Plan for assessment (alter schedule one week prior to assessment) Assessment of Student Skills If prompt is required, mark No This includes pointing, nudging, or reminding INITIATION DOES SHE STOP WHAT SHE IS DOING TO CHECK HER SCHEDULE AT THE PROPER TIME? 1. 1. Does Does not not go
go to to transition transition area area to to check check schedule. schedule. Given visual cue each time. Given visual cue each time. 1. 1. Student Student is is given given a
a card card or or especially especially meaningful meaningful object object or other cue which leads her to her schedule. or other cue which leads her to her schedule. 1. 1. Student
Student is is given given a a visual visual cue cue which which prompts prompts her her to to go go to to her her schedule schedule 1. 1. Student Student is
is given given a a verbal verbal direction, direction, Check Check your your schedule schedule 1. 1. Student Student determines determines when when to to check check her her schedule schedule
throughout the day throughout the day IDENTIFIES OWN SCHEDULE DOES SHE FIND HER OWN SCHEDULE DISCRIMINATING IT FROM OTHER STUDENTS SCHEDULES? 1. Student does not go to a transition area to check schedule. Teacher gives visual cue each time. 1.Student finds her schedule which is located in a separate location, away from other schedules. 1. Students schedule is located in the same area as other schedules, however it is highlighted (meaningful character, favorite picture, theme to attract attention). 1. Student finds her schedule which is located in the same area as other schedules.
1.The schedule is mobile. Student carries it with her throughout the day or keeps it in a personal storage area. IDENTIFIES WHICH CUE IS NEXT IN SEQUENCE DOES SHE KNOW WHICH CUE SIGNIFIES THE NEXT ACTIVITY IN THE SEQUENCE? DOES SHE TAKE THE NEXT CUE FROM THE LEFT, OR FROM THE TOP? 1. Student is presented with one cue at a time. Teacher gives the visual cue directly to the student at the time of each transition. 1. One one cue at a time is presented on the schedule. Student sees only the cue for the upcoming activity when she checks her schedule. 1. Student sees only 2 cues. First ____, then ______ 1. Sequence of 3 1. Sequence of 4
1. Sequence of more than 4, but less than half the day 1. Half day 1. Full day UNDERSTANDS MEANING OF VISUAL CUE DOES SHE GO TO THE CORRECT LOCATION AFTER REFERRING TO CUE? 1. Actual object in its entirety. 1. Part of the actual object or activity. 1. Objects which represent activities. 1. Pictures a. Actual labels or logos, b. Photographs, c. Realistic drawings, d. Symbolic drawings 1. Written single words in combination with small pictures or symbols
1. Written single words 1. Written short phrases or sentences (highlighted significant words) 1. Written schedule is in combination with written work system or assignments. STAYING ON TRACK DOES SHE STAY ON TRACK AS SHE PROGRESSES THROUGH HER SCHEDULE? 1. Student carries the object while making transition and actually uses the same object in the activity which starts immediately 1. Student carries the visual cue while making transition. She then places the cue in a pocket or box indicated with a matching cue. 1. Student carries the visual cue while making the transition. She then places the cue in a pocket or box (no matching cue)
1.Student takes cue off schedule, looks at it, and places it in a pocket or box located at her schedule. 1. Student takes cue off schedule, looks at it, and turns it over, placing the blank side on her schedule. Use pockets or paper clips 1. Student marks off the activity by drawing a line through the words 1.Student marks the check box or marks on the line WORK SYSTEMS Systematic and organized presentation of tasks and materials that communicates at least 4 pieces of information: WHAT tasks need to be completed
HOW MANY tasks to do WHEN the work is finished WHAT to do after the tasks are complete Organization Distractibility WHY WORK SYSTEMS? Addresses Challenges: Sequencing Decrease adult
supervision and prompt dependency Generalization Dunlap & Johnson, 1985; Dunlap, Koegel, & Johnson, 1987; Stahmer & Shreibman, 1992) Independent Initiation Provide only needed materials TIPS FOR IMPLEMENTATION Use work systems in a
variety of settings Decrease confusion Increase generalization Teach with minimally invasive prompts Adult prompts do not become part of the work routine Create smaller, more portable systems Increase generalization across settings
Incorporate student interests Increased reinforcement and motivation STUDENT SKILLS Identification of WHAT WORK? Staying on track/Conce pt of FINISHED Understandi
ng HOW MUCH WORK? Movement while working Movement after each task Understandi ng WHAT COMES NEXT ACTIVITY
Consider a student on your team for whom you would like to initiate work systems Individualizing the Work System Plan for assessment (alter schedule one week prior to assessment) Assessment of Student Skills If prompt is required, mark No This includes pointing, nudging, or reminding IDENTIFICATION OF WHAT WORK DOES SHE KNOW WHAT WORK TO DO? 1.Tasks are in separate baskets, boxes, or made into a single unit (task boxes). No label or card identifies the tasks or basket. "Matching" work system. a. Shapes, b. Colors, c. Numerals, d. Letters, e. Other meaningful symbols
Written words on cards Written list (if need to restructure, add literal or more specific information. Highlight the relevant words). Written list in combination with the schedule UNDERSTANDING HOW MUCH WORK DOES SHE KNOW HOW MUCH WORK TO DO AND WHICH TASK TO BEGIN WITH, FOLLOWING THE ASSIGNED SEQUENCE? 1.Assigned tasks are waiting on a shelf or table to the left. Must complete all tasks, choosing any order. Assigned tasks are set out. Student takes each task one at a time in the correct sequence (Left-toright OR top-to-bottom) Assigned number of tasks are shown by their
matching cues (cards) on the work system. Student takes each card one at a time in the correct sequence (Left-to-right OR top-to-bottom) Assignments are written in the form of a list. (If needing to restructure, add literal or more specific information) MOVEMENT WHILE WORKING DOES SHE BRING HER TASKS TO HER DESK? 1.Student does not have to leave her seat to get tasks. They are within reach immediately to the left. "Stretching" to the left. Student has to stretch to reach tasks, but not leave seat. Close to the left. Student must leave seat, but only 1-2 steps are needed to reach tasks. Student walks a short distance (3-4 steps) to get tasks.
Across the room. Student walks farther than 4 steps to get each task. Student gathers materials required for tasks from various locations in the room. STAYING ON TRACK/CONCEPT OF FINISHED DOES SHE STAY ON TRACK AS SHE PROGRESSES THROUGH THE WORK SESSION? DOES SHE KNOW WHEN SHE IS FINISHED WITH ALL HER WORK? 1.Student places completed tasks into a "finished basket" or a specified table or shelf. When done, she sees the empty table of shelf to the left, and all completed tasks are in the finished location. Student pulls each card off the work system, fastening it to its match on the appropriate box, basket, or folder.
Student pulls each card off the work system, turns it over, and puts it back on the work system before finding the task it indicates. On a written list, student marks progress. Either marks it at the beginning or end of assignment a. crosses out, b. check boxes, c. check on the line MOVEMENT AFTER EACH TASK DOES SHE PLACE HER COMPLETED WORK IN THE PROPER LOCATION? 1."Finished" location is located immediately to the right. It is within easy reach and the student does not need to stretch or leave her seat. 1.Student has to stretch to reach the "finished" location, but not leave her seat. 1.Close to the right. Student must leave her seat, but only 1-2 steps are needed to reach the "finished" location.
Short distance. Student walks 3-4 steps to place his finished word where it goes. Assignments are due at a specified time or on a specified day. If she completes her work but doesn't turn it in, included specific instructions about turning the work in (when, where, to whom) UNDERSTANDING WHAT COMES NEXT DOES SHE MAKE THE TRANSITION TO HER NEXT ACTIVITY? Actual object in its entirety. Part of the actual object or activity. Product label or picture cut directly from the box which originally held the object. Picture
a. photograph, b. realistic drawing, c. symbolic drawing Single word Phrase (if needed to restructure, try highlighting the most significant word) Sentences. (if needed to restructure, try highlighting the most significant words or being more specific and literal) VISUAL STRUCTURES Adds a physical or visual component to tasks HOW an activity should be completed Visual instructions tells where to begin and the sequence of steps Visual organization how the space and materials are limited or arranged Visual clarity emphasizes or draws attention to important or relevant information WHY VISUAL STRUCTURE?
Increases meaning and understanding Allows students to continually refer to instructions Clearer understanding of what is expected Provides more opportunities to practice a skill independently (without relying on adult directives) Reduced stimulation and distractions Emphasizes the most important aspects of a task or activity and makes the meaning more salient Incorporating unique student interests increases both engagement and meaning, and provides motivation and reinforcement HOW TO IMPLEMENT VISUAL STRUCTURE 1. Consider how instructions will be provided. Supplementing verbal directives increases independence 2. Decide what types of organization may be needed to allow student to be more successful and independent. 3. Provide additional clarity to students to help identify what is most important.
4. Include student interests. TIPS FOR IMPLEMENTATION Think about how materials can be used across curricular areas or for more than one purpose to ensure the most use. Think creatively about how activities can be made. Use parent volunteers, student helpers, scout troops, and/or community members. Consider how you might share resources with other teachers or create an activity lending library in your building/district. Instructional activities should relate to your individual assessment of student needs and curricular requirements. Q&A
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