Age & Gender Diversity - WKU

Age & Gender Diversity - WKU

AGE & GENDER DIVERSITY Carrie Guggenmos Spring 2012 OVERVIEW Age Diversity Statistics Barriers Myths Advantages Gender Diversity Biological

differences Behavioral differences Mate guarding Leadership DIVERSITY Refers to variation in important human characteristics that distinguish people from one another Primary dimensions: age, gender, ethnicity, race, mental/physical abilities

Workplace diversity Diversity of those employed by a business/organization Trends Workforce is continuing to get older More women employed than ever before AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS

AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS AGING WORKFORCE: WHY DO WE CARE Large untapped source of potential labor Approximately 10-30 years of life expectancy in retirement

Barriers for older adults Attitudes and practices in an organization might hinder employment opportunity Healthcare Phased costs Retirement AGING WORKFORCE: MYTH VS.

REALITY Older workers cant or wont learn new skills Older workers dont stay on the job long Older workers take more sick days than younger workers

Older workers arent flexible or adaptable Older workers are more expensive AGING WORKFORCE AND THE LAW Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) 1967 Protects individuals age 40 and over Applies to the private and federal level

Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) 1974 Minimum industries standards for pension plans in private ADVANTAGES OF OLDER WORKERS Are careful, calm, and effective Less training costs due to their experience Higher organizational commitment Equal or better attendance rates

Lower on-the-job accident rates Higher performance and productivity than younger workers More reliable Stronger work ethic Can serve as mentors Lower levels of turnover PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES

Sensory systems Vision Visual acuity Contrast Sensitivity Dark adaptation Hearing Hindered performance on auditory tasks Poor auditory discrimination

Musculoskeletal systems Balance Reaction Joint Other time mobility RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ORGS

Reform workplace practices Pensions & benefit plans Allow access to pension during phased retirement Combat negative stereotypes

Create opportunities for skill building Job flexibility INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

Increase national pension eligibility to 65 (UK & Japan) Government promoted programs that match older workers with employers or offer training opportunities (UK & Japan) Instituted a defined-contribution system (i.e., pay as you go) and benefit system calculated to reward those who work longer (Sweden) Increased the reward for those who defer drawing benefits from the national pension system (UK) Creation of a government commission to explore new policies to promote skill development for older workers (Sweden)


>M Language areas Levels of grey matter M >W Amygdala & Hypothalamus Levels of white matter

Brain Function W M >M Hemispheric communication/integration >W Hemispheric/lateralization (probably due to testosterone) GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMMUNICATION GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MATE GUARDING Strategies designed to preserve access to a mate while simultaneously preventing the encroachment of intrasexual rivals, and preventing a mate from defecting from the mateship (Buss, 2002) Men

More to become distressed by sexual infidelity Less likely to forgive Women More distressed by emotional infidelity Less likely to forgive Differences documented cross-culturally

China, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Japan, Korea MATE GUARDING TACTICS Males Possessive markings Confront competitors (e.g., threats, violence) Conceal partner Show off resources

Females Enhance physical appearance Engage in verbal threats Vigilance PERCEPTION OF RIVALS Which rivals are most threatening? Men most threatened by individuals who surpass them in Financial prospects

Job prospects Physical strength Women most threatened by individuals with More attractive face More desirable body GENDER AND MANAGEMENT Just as a note:

Women make up: 38% of first or mid-level managers 29% of executive or senior-level managers Of Fortune 500 Firms: 1.8% of CEOs 9.4% of highest clout positions (executive VP and above) 6.4% of highest paid positions

GENDER AND LEADERSHIP Women Transformational Communal Person-oriented Men Transactional Agentic Task-oriented

However, research has been inconclusive LEADERSHIP AND STEREOTYPES Role Congruity theory Large degree of congruency between male traits and manager traits (Eagly & Karua, 2002)

Effects on evaluation and attribution Think manager-think male Feminine women more likely to receive negative evaluations Even if all else is equal, males still seen as more effective leaders than women Evolutionary theory Depends on the type of conflict (Van Vugt and Spisak

2008) Females perceived as better leaders than male leaders when competition came from within the group, Male leaders were rated better than female leaders when competition was between groups. GENDER, STATUS AND ANGER EXPRESSION Domagalski and Steelman (2007) Employees

of both sexes and at both high and low levels of the hierarchy reported controlling their anger and holding their anger in when in the presence of those at a different status level Low status males reported a higher likelihood to express anger outwardly compared to low status females Comments? Questions?

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