AGE & GENDER DIVERSITY Carrie Guggenmos Spring 2012 OVERVIEW Age Diversity Statistics Barriers Myths Advantages Gender Diversity Biological
differences Behavioral differences Mate guarding Leadership DIVERSITY Refers to variation in important human characteristics that distinguish people from one another Primary dimensions: age, gender, ethnicity, race, mental/physical abilities
Workplace diversity Diversity of those employed by a business/organization Trends Workforce is continuing to get older More women employed than ever before AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS
AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS AGING WORKFORCE: STATISTICS AGING WORKFORCE: WHY DO WE CARE Large untapped source of potential labor Approximately 10-30 years of life expectancy in retirement
Barriers for older adults Attitudes and practices in an organization might hinder employment opportunity Healthcare Phased costs Retirement AGING WORKFORCE: MYTH VS.
REALITY Older workers cant or wont learn new skills Older workers dont stay on the job long Older workers take more sick days than younger workers
Older workers arent flexible or adaptable Older workers are more expensive AGING WORKFORCE AND THE LAW Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) 1967 Protects individuals age 40 and over Applies to the private and federal level
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) 1974 Minimum industries standards for pension plans in private ADVANTAGES OF OLDER WORKERS Are careful, calm, and effective Less training costs due to their experience Higher organizational commitment Equal or better attendance rates
Lower on-the-job accident rates Higher performance and productivity than younger workers More reliable Stronger work ethic Can serve as mentors Lower levels of turnover PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES
Sensory systems Vision Visual acuity Contrast Sensitivity Dark adaptation Hearing Hindered performance on auditory tasks Poor auditory discrimination
Musculoskeletal systems Balance Reaction Joint Other time mobility RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ORGS
Reform workplace practices Pensions & benefit plans Allow access to pension during phased retirement Combat negative stereotypes
Create opportunities for skill building Job flexibility INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
Increase national pension eligibility to 65 (UK & Japan) Government promoted programs that match older workers with employers or offer training opportunities (UK & Japan) Instituted a defined-contribution system (i.e., pay as you go) and benefit system calculated to reward those who work longer (Sweden) Increased the reward for those who defer drawing benefits from the national pension system (UK) Creation of a government commission to explore new policies to promote skill development for older workers (Sweden)
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIuzaXvvBV0&fe ature=related GENDER DIVERSITY WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE: STATS GENDER: BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES Brain Structure W
>M Language areas Levels of grey matter M >W Amygdala & Hypothalamus Levels of white matter
Brain Function W M >M Hemispheric communication/integration >W Hemispheric/lateralization (probably due to testosterone) GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMMUNICATION GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MATE GUARDING Strategies designed to preserve access to a mate while simultaneously preventing the encroachment of intrasexual rivals, and preventing a mate from defecting from the mateship (Buss, 2002) Men
More to become distressed by sexual infidelity Less likely to forgive Women More distressed by emotional infidelity Less likely to forgive Differences documented cross-culturally
China, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Japan, Korea MATE GUARDING TACTICS Males Possessive markings Confront competitors (e.g., threats, violence) Conceal partner Show off resources
Females Enhance physical appearance Engage in verbal threats Vigilance PERCEPTION OF RIVALS Which rivals are most threatening? Men most threatened by individuals who surpass them in Financial prospects
Job prospects Physical strength Women most threatened by individuals with More attractive face More desirable body GENDER AND MANAGEMENT Just as a note:
Women make up: 38% of first or mid-level managers 29% of executive or senior-level managers Of Fortune 500 Firms: 1.8% of CEOs 9.4% of highest clout positions (executive VP and above) 6.4% of highest paid positions
GENDER AND LEADERSHIP Women Transformational Communal Person-oriented Men Transactional Agentic Task-oriented
However, research has been inconclusive LEADERSHIP AND STEREOTYPES Role Congruity theory Large degree of congruency between male traits and manager traits (Eagly & Karua, 2002)
Effects on evaluation and attribution Think manager-think male Feminine women more likely to receive negative evaluations Even if all else is equal, males still seen as more effective leaders than women Evolutionary theory Depends on the type of conflict (Van Vugt and Spisak
2008) Females perceived as better leaders than male leaders when competition came from within the group, Male leaders were rated better than female leaders when competition was between groups. GENDER, STATUS AND ANGER EXPRESSION Domagalski and Steelman (2007) Employees
of both sexes and at both high and low levels of the hierarchy reported controlling their anger and holding their anger in when in the presence of those at a different status level Low status males reported a higher likelihood to express anger outwardly compared to low status females Comments? Questions?
You can interact online with conferencing tools such as a) BeingThere b) CU-SeeMe from White Pine c) LiveMedia from Netscape d) Netmeeting from Microsoft 3. 3-D worlds (1) Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) (2) Macromedia Director/Shockwave Player (3) Apple QuickTime...
The workshop will provide support to Appalachian communities in Alabama so that they may plan for effective use of ARC funding, understand Alabama's and ARC's investment priorities, discuss expectations for the applications, and help develop impactful projects.
Sure Start CC. 016 219 2932. WellComm Language Screen. Manchester Early Years . Speech and Language Therapy Team. Levsnhulme. Sure Start CC. 0161 219 2958. Didsbury Park . Sure Start CC. 0161 434 1601. Old Moat. Sure Start CC. 0161...
Introduce how one ACT Team has implemented Contingency Management to reinforce desired pro-recovery behaviors, including A&D group attendance, meeting with medical providers, and presenting for long-acting injectable medication administration. ... e.g., Getting to the ACT meeting early because ...
The future - organisations. We shouldn't be looking for ways to 'recruit volunteers', but for ways to support collective action - how to enable communities to do things for themselves?. Asset-based Community Development
Diputado Talmir Rodrigues (PV-SP), Coordinador Nacional del Frente Parlamentario contra la Legalización del Aborto y por el Derecho a la à Vida, 28/03/2009 Fui invitado a participar del seminario para debatir el tema al que dedico los mejores momentos de...
Option #1: My Blueprint. www.myblueprint.ca. ... Use your ESS network login here! After you have logged on, you will see this screen. CLICK on Activities to see what percentage your IPP is at as you work toward 100% ... Humber,...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!