Intro to Chemistry The world around you is made up of trillions of particles that are too small to see. These bits of matter follow rules and laws that allow us to identify them and to predict how they will interact with one another. It has often been said that chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, and its behavior. Because we are surrounded by matter, chemistry is one of the most important sciences in that it allows us to observe and then change our environment. The question remains, however: How much should we change our environment, and can we predict the results before we do so? Name either 10 items that you could find in a typical household that are a direct result of people studying chemistry, or 10 ways that chemistry has changed the life of the average person, for better or for worse. 1 All That Matters There are many ways to classify the materials we see around us every day. Is it a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma? Is it an element or a compound? Is it a
pure substance or a mixture? The answers to these questions allow us to identify the things we see. For example, we learn to tell the difference between an apple and a banana, or either of those from a ham sandwich. All of these items are food, they all have nutrients, like vitamins and minerals, but they are not identical. Without the ability to observe the environment and identify what we are seeing, we would be unable to respond to and use the materials around us. Name some properties that you would use to tell the difference between a banana and a ham sandwich. Try to think of properties that could be used to tell any banana from any ham sandwich. 2 Unique Properties We need to be able to identify the materials we see every day so that we can use them correctly. We do this by observing physical and chemical properties and comparing them to what we know from personal experience. Physical properties include such things as boiling point, color, density, hardness,
melting point, odor, taste, and even electrical conductivity. Chemical properties are usually a measure of how a material reacts or fails to react with other substances. Will it burn? Does it dissolve in water? Does it produce bubbles of gas dropped into acid? All of these things allow us to tell the difference between water and alcohol, for example, and many other substances with the use of only one or two of our senses. List at least five of the physical and chemical properties of water and alcohol. What simple test could you do to determine which liquid was which? 3 Measuring Up In the 1790s, a group of scientists came to the first general agreement that using a single, worldwide system of measure would benefit all people. This system was named the metric system, and it gave us units of measure like meters and liters. The system was formally, and more universally, adopted in the 1960s when it became the International System of Units, or SI system. The SI comes from the French name Le Systm International dUnits. For example, the SI scale of temperature is called Celsius, and it places the freezing point of water at 0 oC and the boiling point of water at 100oC.
What are some of the reasons why defining a temperature scale by the freezing and boiling points of water might be useful to scientist on any part of the earth? 4 Significant Uncertainty If you were to weigh a small rock on a scale that could measure the mass of the rock to the nearest 0.001 grams, then the mass of the rock would be, for example, 10.871 + 0.001 grams. The last digit is really just the best estimate of what the last digit should be. Perhaps it was rounded or perhaps not there is no way to be certain 0 so the last digit is called uncertain. The first four digits were numbers about which no estimate Was made, so they are called significant figures. All nonzero numbers are significant; zeros between nonzeros are significant; place-holding zeros at the beginning and end of a number are not significant; and zeros at the end of a number after the decimal are significant. How many significant figures are in each of the following? a. 8.01 b. 80.1
c. 80 d. 8009 e. 0.0083 f. 0.1040900300 5 From Another Dimension Just as there are 12 inches in one foot, there are 100 centimeters in one meter. The labels on the ends of these numbers are called units or dimensions. Dimensional analysis is the process of changing the units on a number, usually to make a number more manageable. We might say a certain event took place 20 years ago, but we would seldom say that it took place 7,300 days ago. The amount of time is the same, but by changing the years into days, we change not just the unit, but the number in front of the unit. Convert the following. a. 600 days to years
b. 14 centuries to years c. $3.50 to quarters d. 900 centimeters to meters 6 The Theory that Matters John Dalton, and English schoolteacher, proposed the atomic theory of matter At the beginning of the 1800s. It states 1. Each element is made of small particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of one kind of element are identical. 3. Atoms cant e created or destroyed by chemical reaction or changed into other kinds of atoms. 4. Compounds are formed by combining atoms of more than one kind of element, in the same ratio each time. What, if any, problems arise from the basic ideas of Daltons theory? 7
Building Blocks of the Building Blocks Not every discovery in science is the direct result of a scientist looking for a specific item and then finding it. There are plenty of examples in which scientists involved in research in one are surprised to find that they have made a major advance in another. For example, take the three major subatomic particles: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. The proton and neutron are roughly the same size, and the electron is over 1,800 times smaller than either the proton or neutron. These particles were all discovered in the course of research into the nature of the atom, but none of the scientists who found them were actually looking for subatomic particles as such. However, in all three instances the new information led to an explosion of new thinking and ideas about the nature of matter. How can proper experimental methods prepare a researcher for the event of making an unexpected discovery? 8 6
C 12.0111 Isotopes The atomic mass of each element is given on the periodic table and is actually a weighted average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element. An isotope is a type of atom that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. For example, all carbon atoms have six protons, but may have six, seven, or eight neutrons, so there are isotopes of carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14. Because C-13 and C-14 occur in much smaller amounts than C-12, they dont change the atomic mass of carbon very much, but it is still 12.0111 amu and not exactly 12 amu. If fluorine has an atomic mass of 18.998 and there are isotopes of both fluorine-18 and fluorine-19, which of the two isotopes occurs in larger numbers naturally? 9
F 18.998 9 Mass and Weight In chemistry it is important to distinguish between mass and weight. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object, while weight is the gravitational force that pulls on the amount of matter. It is necessary to make measurements in science in terms of mass, because mass has an unchanging standard of measurement for a sample of matter, while weight may fluctuate from location to location. This would apply during a chemical reaction or to a measurement made on the equator, the moon, or in orbit around the earth, where the effects of gravity are nullified by free fall. Name three items people buy that are measured in mass and not weight. Why is this an advantage to the consumer?
10 Periodicity One of the many ways scientist classify substances is by the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart showing the elements in order by increasing atomic number and grouped by their similar qualities. Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev is believed to be the first to place the elements in order by their increasing atomic masses. Mendeleev realized that the repeating patterns he saw were grouping the elements by their properties, and he even went so far as to leave spaces for elements that had not yet been discovered. Which two of the following elements should show the most similarities: C, Se, Xe, Si, Ag, and Mg? 11 Molecular and Empirical
A molecular formula is a representation of all the elements contained in a molecule and the number of atoms of each element in that molecule. For example, the substance sulfuric acid has the molecular formula H 2SO4. An empirical formula is the simplest ratio of the elements in a formula. So for benzene, C6H6 is the molecular formula, but the ratio of carbon to hydrogen is 6:6, or 1:1, so the empirical formula is CH. Write empirical formulas for the following. a. hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 b. glucose, C6H12O6 c. water, H2O d. ethane, C2H6 12 Ions An ion is an atom or a group of atoms that have acquired an electrical charge due to a loss or gain of electrons. The atoms of some elements in the periodic table tend to gain or lose one or more electrons in an effort to have an outer electron shell like that of the closest noble gas.
They do this to become more stable, which, in a way, is a foal of all elements that are free to react. Column 1 of the periodic table usually produces ions with a +1 charge; Column 2 usually produces +2 charges; and the transition metals in Groups 3-12 usually have a +1 or +2 charge. Column 13 often has +3 ions, and Columns 15, 16, and 17 usually produce ions with charges of -3, -2, and -1, respectively. The noble gases dont really form ions and almost always have a charge of zero. What is the most likely ionic charge that each of the following elements would form? a. Li b. Ne c. Br d. Ca e. P f. Ga 13 Whats in a Name? A binary compound is a simple sort of compound usually made up of ions. The compound made when a positive and negative ion combine has a collective charge
of zero and is not an ion as a whole. Table salt made up of sodium and chlorine is an example of this. The sodium ion has a +1 charge, and the chloride ion has a charge of -1. The salt itself has the formula NaCl and has no collective charge. In naming such compounds, the name of the positive ion comes first and is the same as the name of the element. The name of the negative ion comes seconds and is changes to have an ide ending. For example, oxygen becomes oxide, fluorine becomes fluoride, and bromine becomes bromide. The number of each element does not affect the name of the compound. Name the following binary compounds. a. BaCl2 b. KBr c. Li2O d. MgO e. Na2S f. Be3N2
14 Covalent Names Binary molecular compounds have a simple naming system. These are typically the result of a bond forming between two nonmetals, such as sulfur and oxygen. The number of each element present determines the name of the compound, a system based on common prefixes. Each element gets a prefix that shows how many of each element is available, except when there is only one atom of the first element. The prefix mono- is never used for the first element. For example, NO 2 is nitrogen dioxide, S2O3 is disulfur trioxide, and P2O5 is pentaphosphorus decoxide. Number of atoms Prefix 1 2
3 mono di tri Name the following. a. N2O2 b. CCl4 4 5 tetra penta c. PBr6
6 7 8 9 10 hexa hepta octa nona
deca d. NO e. S4O9 f. C5I7 15 Formula Mass Formula mass is the sum of all the atomic masses in a compound. For example, NaCl, or sodium chloride, is made of sodium and chlorine. The atomic mass of sodium is 22.990 amu, and the atomic mass of chlorine is 35.453 amu. So the combined masses of 22.990 amu + 35.453 amu = 58.443 amu, which is the formula mass of sodium chloride. If there were subscripts in the formula of the substance, the element with the subscript would have to be counted the same number of times as the number of the subscript. For example, in K2O, the potassium is counted twice and the
oxygen once, so: 39.098 amu + 39.098 amu + 16.000 amu = 94.196 amu. Find the formula mass of each of the following. a. KCl b. BaCO3 c. P4O10 d. C6H5OH e. CaO f. KClO4 18 The Mighty Mole In chemistry the mole is a way of keeping track of a large group of particles and also a way of determining the amount of matter in a substance. The mole can be thought of in much the same way as the dozen. A dozen eggs is 12 eggs, a dozen car is 12 cars, and a dozen of any kind of object is 12 of that object.
A mole is a number equal to 6.02 x 1023 particles. So a mole of pickles would have 6.02 x 1023 pickles in it. To give you some idea of how big a mole is, one scientist estimated that a mole of peas would cover the entire surface of the earth, oceans and all, to a depth of 6 inches. As you can see, the mole is not a unit we would use in counting everyday objects; however, it is well suited for counting atoms and molecules because there ma be trillions and trillions of them in a very small sample. Answer the following. a. How many moles of atoms are in 4.04 x 1024 atoms? b. How many atoms are in 3.20 moles of atoms? c. How many moles of carbon atoms are in 1.75 x 1025 carbon atoms? 19 Time to Expand Energy is the ability to do work, usually measured in joules. Energy is found in many forms and classifications, such as kinetic, potential, nuclear, electrical, chemical, thermal, mechanical, and sound. Scientists have long thought that matter is also a form of energy, and the law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in the universe is
constant, but it can change from one form to another. During a chemical reaction, the amount of matter that is present at the beginning of the reaction should be that same as the amount found at the end of the reaction, and the amount of energy should remain constant throughout the reaction. How can sound be considered a form of energy? 29 The First Law The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved. In other words, the amount of energy in a system can change, but any energy lost during a chemical reaction must be gained by its surroundings. Although a fire may give off heat, the energy does not just disappear it is spread throughout its surrounding until it is so spread out that it can no longer be measured by the human senses. What is the change in internal energy of a system in a reaction in which 300 joules are absorbed by the system from its surrounding and 120 joules of that energy are
used to do work on the surrounding? 30 Enthalpy Enthalpy (H) is a measure of the internal energy of a system. It can be thought of as the sum total of all the energy in the chemical bonds of a material, the energy of its state, the kinetic energy of its internal particles and any other way that a substance can contain energy. It is impossible to measure the enthalpy of a substance, but it does not change unless energy enters or leaves the substance. The value of enthalpy if positive when heat is absorbed by a substance and negative when given off from a substance. Determine whether the enthalpy of each of the following is negative or positive? a. water boiling b. ice melting c. gasoline burning 31
Enthalpy and Reactions During chemical reactions, energy is usually gained or lost by some of the components in a reaction. Exothermic reactions give off heat while endothermic reactions absorb heat. The sum of those changes is the enthalpy of reaction, Given by the formula DH = Hproducts - Hreactants For example, in the reaction below, DH is negative, and therefore the reaction is exothermic. 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g) DH = - 483.6 kJ
Tell if each of the following reactions is endothermic or exothermic. a. C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) DH = - 394 kJ b. N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) DH = 180.8 kJ c. S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) DH = - 297 kJ 32 Exploding Food Calorimetry is a method for measuring heat flow into or out of an object. For example, we can measure the heat flow out of a potato chip by burning it rapidly (sometimes exploding it in the process) in a bomb calorimeter and then funneling the heat from the flame to a container of water. Then we can observe the temperature change of the water. Using specific heat, which is the measure of the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of substance 1oC (1 K), we can determine the amount of heat that enters or leave the material.
The specific heat of water is 4.19 J/goC. How much heat is needed to raise the temperature of 18.0 grams of liquid water 15oC? 33 Energy to Burn We take many materials found on Earth and use them for fuel. This fuels does many jobs, from heating out houses to running our cars to generating electricity. Burning wood, for example, releases about 18 kJ of energy for every gram burned. Gasoline generates about 47 J/g when burned, and pure hydrogen can generate more than 140 kJ/g when burned. Each of these fuels has its advantages and disadvantages that make it useful in certain situations. If hydrogen has the most energy to be releases per gram, why dont we use it any time we need to burn a fuel to make energy? 36
A Constant Light Light is a form of radiation that surrounds us almost all the time. Electromagnetic radiation takes on the form of radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X rays, and gamma rays. All of these forms of energy have one thing in common: When traveling through a vacuum, they al move at the same speed, which is the speed of light. That speed is 300,000,000 meters per second, or 3.0 x 108 m/s. [~186,000 miles per hour] White Light g rays X-rays Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave Radar
Radio waves TV FM Short Wave Long Wave Velocity of light is constant and equals the frequency of the wave times the wavelength. If blue light has a shorter wavelength then red light, how do the frequencies of the two compare? 37 Walking the Planck German scientist Max Planck theorized that energy could only be released or absorbed from an atom in pieces of fixed size. He called these packets
of energy quanta and said theory were the smallest amount of energy that an atom could emit or absorb. He said that the energy, E, released or absorbed, has to equal the product of the frequency and a constant that is now called Plancks constant. The value of the constant is 6.63 x 10-34 Joules/seconds. How much energy is released by a photon of blue light with a frequency of 6.00 x 1014 Hz? Max Planck 38 A Spectrum of Models Different substances absorb or emit light based on their atomic or molecular structure. Each element has a unique structure that is revealed through spectroscopy, which allows scientists to take a complex sample, expose it to heat, and look at the spectrum of emissions.
The spectrum in its entirety looks like a rainbow, but the spectral lines of an individual element may consist of only four or five single lines at different points in the spectrum. The emissions can then be compared to emissions of known elements, and the elements that are present can be identified. What kind of problem might arise if a person were trying to identify a large group of substances by looking at their spectra with just the naked eye? 39 Mendeleev and Masses One of the many ways scientists classify substances is the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart showing the elements in order by increasing atomic number and grouped by similar qualities. In the late 1800s, Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev placed the elements in order by their increasing atomic masses and helped determine much about the order of the elements on the table.
He left gaps for elements that had not been discovered at the time. Why did it turn out to be better to place elements in order on the peridic table by atomic number instead of atomic mass? 46 Shielding There is a shielding effect felt by the outermost electrons of an atom. This effect is the result of the interactions between the core electrons of an atom and the protons in the nucleus. You can think of the core electrons as soaking up some of the attractive force of the protons and not allowing their full attractive power to reach the valence electrons. One way to quantify this effect is to calculate the effective nuclear charge by subtracting the number of core electrons from the number of protons in the atom. What are the effective nuclear charges of argon and calcium? 47
Atomic Size There are two basic trends in atomic size on the periodic table. 1. In each column, the atomic size (radius) tends to increase as you move from the top to the bottom of the column. 2. In each row (period), the atomic size tends to decrease as you move from left to right. Following the guidelines above, determine which of each pair would likely be larger. a. Mg or Ca b. Y or Ru c. C or Ge d. Ne or Xe e. W or Au
f. Zn or Hg 48 Energy to Escape He 2 The ionization energy of an atom is the minimum amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom. The atom must be in its ground state, and must be in gaseous form. As each electron is removed, the ability of the protons in the nucleus to hold the remaining electrons increases. Consequently, as each subsequent electron is removed, it requires more and more energy to do so. Ne 10 Ar
Ionization energy generally increases from left to right in the rows and from bottom to top in the columns of the periodic table. 18 Kr 36 Xe 54 Rn Place the following atoms in order by their increasing first ionization energy (the energy needed to remove just the first electron): Ar, He. Kr, Ne, Xe 86 49
Metals A metal is an element that loses electrons easily in a chemical change and has the properties of high luster, electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, and ductility. Some examples of metals are sodium, chromium, and copper, and such metals are found toward the left and middle of the periodic table. Since metals are elements that tend to lose electrons easily, what sort of ions are metals most likely to form? 51 Nonmetals A nonmetal is an element that easily gains electrons during a chemical reaction and whose properties contrast with those of the metals. Some of the nonmetals are oxygen, nitrogen, and chlorine. Such nonmetals are found toward the top right of the periodic table.
Since nonmetals are elements that tend to gain electrons easily, what sort of ions are nonmetals most likely to form? 52 Electronegativity Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself while it is chemically combined with another atom. Electronegativity generally increases in strength as you move from left to right on the periodic table ad from bottom to top. The noble gases generally do not form compounds in nature, so electronegativity values are not usually calculated or listed. Based on the general trends listed above, and discounting the lanthanides and actinides, which element should have the highest electronegativity? Which would have the lowest? 57
North and South? Just as the earth and other magnetic bodies have a north and a south pole, some molecules, because of their bonds and shapes, have poles of a different kind. Because the molecules have positive and negative charges, the possibility that one end of a molecule will have more than its fair share of charge allows the molecule to have a positive and a negative end. Because each atom in a bond has a varying ability to attract charges to itself, some charges can get pulled to one side or the other within a molecule. Why is HCl a polar molecule, but Cl2 is not? 64 Hydrogen Bonding In many molecules, hydrogen atoms that are connected on the periphery have the ability to exert their polar nature. In a polar bond, the hydrogen atom has a weak negative charge that can become attracted to a molecule with a weak
positive charge, allowing the two to become connected by what is called a hydrogen bond. The most common example of this is water. It accounts for the high surface tension of water, which few other liquids of similar molecular mass and density have. Which of the following molecules is likely to form hydrogen bonds? a. H2 b. H2O c. HF d. CH4 78 Surface Tension Surface tension is a net inward pull of a liquid as the result of intermolecular
forces. The beading of water on a smooth surface and the formation of nearly spherical drops of water on grass and other plants are examples of surface tension. The surface tension of water is about three times greater than that of most other liquids, a result of strong hydrogen bonds. The surface tension of mercury is almost six times greater than that of water. How do you suppose surface tension is affected by temperature? Why? 79 Half-Life Each kind of radioactive nucleus has a fixed rate at which it decays. This rate is unaffected by most normal external conditions, such as temperature, pressure, or whether or not they are chemically combined with another substance. The amount of time it takes for half of a sample of any such radioactive material to decay is called the half-life. For example, if you had a 100-gram sample of carbon-14, it would take 5,715 years for 50 grams of it to decay. After 11,430 years only 25 grams would remain, and after 17,145 years only 12.5 grams of
it would remain. Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years. What percent of a 100-gram Sample would be left after 210 years? 143 Geiger Counter A Geiger counter is a device designed to measure radiation. The Geiger counter detects the ionization that occurs within a low-pressure gas inside the Geiger counter. Just as a fluorescent light bulb can be used to measure radiation leaking from a microwave oven, the Geiger counters gas is ionized briefly by the passage of a radioactive particle, which allows a brief flow of electricity. The amount of electricity can be observed on a readout, or it can be converted into the familiar clicking sound that is often associated with a Geiger counter. What does the radiation from a leaky microwave do to the gas in fluorescent light bulb that allows it to detect the microwave radiation?
144 Carbon Carbon is a very unusual element because it can exist in so many forms. Forms that have the same atoms, but are arranged in different molecular patterns, are called allotropes. Some allotropes of carbon are graphite, diamond, and fullerenes, also known as buckyballs. Carbon forms the backbone of almost every living substance, both living organisms and nonliving sources such as petroleum. What unusual bonding situation accounts for all the compounds that carbon can form? 151
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