An Introduction to Rhetoric: Using the "Available Means"

An Introduction to Rhetoric: Using the "Available Means"

An Introduction to Rhetoric: Using the Available Means Chapter 1 Review Assignment Follow along with your Cornell Notes

from the chapter. Add to it to reinforce the concepts presented. Key Elements of Rhetoric Rhetoric is always situational: it always has a

context and a purpose. Context: the occasion, time, place it was written or spoken Purpose: goal that the speaker or writer wants to achieve. Key Elements of Rhetoric Nowadays, the word

rhetoric is often used to signal deception. Rhetoric means the effective use of language to communicate an idea. Rhetoric can serve sincerity (as in Lou Gehrigs speech) as well

as trickery. Key Elements of Rhetoric Context of Lou Gehrigs speech is the poignant contrast between the celebration of his athletic career and his lifethreatening diagnosis.

Key Elements of Rhetoric Purpose of Lou Gehrigs speech is to remain positive and downplay his

bad break. Key Elements of Rhetoric Context and Purpose are essential to analyzing effective rhetoric. First, consider the context:

occasion, time, place; Then, consider the purpose: What is the speakers goal in this communication? Key Elements of Rhetoric Remember that sometimes

context arises from current events or cultural bias. The Rhetorical Triangle Speaker Purpose

Audience Subject SOAPStone SPEAKER: The voice that tells the story. The author and the speaker are NOT necessarily the same. When analyzing non-fiction, consider

important facts about speaker, from the text, that will help assess his/her point of view or position. SOAPStone When discussing the speaker of an essay, the authors name is never enough. Question: what do we know about the

speaker by reading the text? SOAPStone OCCASION: (part of the context): The time and place of the piece; the context that encouraged the writing to happen. Writing does not occur in a vacuum. Larger Occasion: an environment of ideas and emotions that swirl around a broad issue. Immediate Occasion: an event or situation that

catches the writers attention and triggers a response. SOAPStone AUDIENCE: The group of readers or listeners to whom this piece is directed. The audience may be one person, a small group, or a large group; it may be a certain person or a certain

people. SOAPStone PURPOSE: The reason behind the text. The author/speakers GOAL in the communication. Consider the purpose of the text in order to examine the argument and its logic. What does the speaker want the

audience to think or do as a result of reading this text? Purpose Is the speaker Trying to win agreement? Persuade us to take action? Evoke sympathy? Make us laugh? Inform?

Purpose Does the speaker want to Provoke? Celebrate? Repudiate? Put forth a proposal? Secure support? Bring about a favorable decision?

SOAPStone SUBJECT: The general topic, content, and ideas contained in the text. The main idea. You should be able to state the subject in a few words or a phrase. SOAPStone TONE:

The attitude of the author toward the subject matter. With the written work, it is tone that extends meaning beyond the literal. SOAPStone TONE is determined by examining: diction (word choice) syntax (word order) imagery (vivid descriptions that appeal

to the senses). Tone Tone: Is the author amiable? detached? passionate? zealous? sardonic? sincere?

Tone Tone: Is the author matter-of-fact? authoritative? nostalgic? condescending? insolent? angry?

Appeals: How to Persuade Ethos: appeals to a sense of character, credibility, authority. The writer makes a good impression. The reader believes the writer knows what he or she is talking

about. The speakers ethos is his expertise, knowledge, experience, training, sincerity, or a combination. Appeals: How to Persuade Logos: appeals to reason,

sense of logic. Solid facts Sound argument Acknowledge the counterargument Concession and refutation Appeals: How to Persuade Pathos: appeals to

emotion Figurative language Personal anecdote First person Strong connotations. The Aristotle Appeals Ethos Context

Pathos Logos Logical Fallacies Attractiv e but

unreliabl e pieces of reasoning . Logical Fallacies Relying too heavily on ethos (such as celebrity

endorsement) without corroborating logos, can be a fallacy. Relying too much on emotion without corroborating logos, can be a fallacy. Important Note When analyzing, we refer to

appealing to ethos, logos or pathos We NEVER say the author uses ethos logos or pathos. Logos Is generally

considered the strongest form of persuasion. Visual Rhetoric Editorial Cartoons Arrangement Another element of

rhetoric: organization of an essay or speech. Arrangement Classic arrangement: Introduction: draws the reader in Narration: facts and background Confirmation: main part developing

the proof Refutation: addresses the counterargument Conclusion: appeal to pathos, reminds reader of ethos established earlier. Answers the question, so what? Modern Patterns Modern Patterns of Development: Narration

Description Process Analysis Exemplification Comparison and Contrast Classification and Division Definition Cause and Effect In Class Assignment example

Pattern of Development Definition Rhetorical Purpose Narration

Tell a story Recounting a series of events A way to enter the topic, draw readers in Appeal to pathos Description

Process Analysis Etc. Summary At the end of your Cornell Notes, summarize the information you have learned so far about Rhetoric.

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