Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece

ANCIENT GREECE GARDINER CHAPTER 5-1 PP. 99-105 ANCIENT GREECE - BACKGROUND The cultural values of the Greeks form the foundations of Western Civilization Man is measure of all things Humanistic worldview Democracy = rule by the demos, the people The Greek contribution politics art literature science ANCIENT GREECE - BACKGROUND

Greeks = Hellenes Mixture of Aegean and Indo-European invaders Never formed a single nation -> established city-state = the polis Dorians from the North settled the Peloponnesos Ionians settled Asia Minor/Turkey and the Aegean islands 776 BCE the Greeks states held their first games at Olympia -> the first Olympiad From this date forward the Greeks regarded themselves as citizens of HELLAS(the ancient Greek name for Greece) Those who didnt speak Greek = barbarians

ANCIENT GREECE - BACKGROUND The Greek gods differed from those of Egyptian and Mesopotamian deities -> immortal but otherwise human -> the Greeks made their gods into humans and their humans into gods The Greek ideal = the perfect individual; Focus of many Greek artists = beautiful humans ATHENS -> the symbol of ancient Greek culture Playwrights -> AESCHYLUS, SOPHOCOLES, EURIPEDES The city -> the AGORA = city square, STOAS = covered colonnades, PALAESTRAS = gymnasiums The ideal of a balance between intellectual and physical discipline -> a sound mind in a sound body = ASICS

ANCIENT GREECE - BACKGROUND Greeks borrowed from the cultures of Near East and Egypt Existence of slavery Exclusion of women from public life Dominated by wellborn white males most admired virtues were statecraft and military valor Educated in the values of Homers heroes and athletic exercise in the palaestra -> war among the city-states was chronic THE GOD AND GODDESSES OF MOUNT OLYMPUS ZUES king of the gods

HERA wife and sister of Zeus POSEIDON lord of the sea HESTIA goddess of the hearth DEMETER goddess of grain and ag. ARES god of war ATHENA goddess of wisdom and warfare HEPHAISTOS god of fire and metalworking APOLLO god of light and wisdom

ARTEMIS goddess of the hunt and wild animals APHRODITE goddess of love and beauty HERMES messenger of the gods GEOMETRIC AND ORIENTALIZING PERIODS Disintegration of the Bronze Age social order -> destruction of the Mycenaean palaces The Dark Age of Greece -> loss of knowledge of 1. how to cut masonry 2. Construct citadels and tombs 3. Paint frescoes

4. Sculpt stone 5. Arts of reading and writing 6. Depopulation 7. Poverty 8. Loss of contact w/outside world Revival of Greek culture begins in the 8th century GEOMETRIC ART DIPYLON KRATER Human figure returns to Greek art in the Geometric period in the 8th century -> small bronze figurines and paintings on ceramic pots

Geometric krater Dipylon cemetery in Athens 740 BCE -> marked a grave Over 3 feet tall Bottom of krater is open -> pour libations? Drain for rainwater? Abstract angular motifs = GEOMETRIC period = formative period of Greek art Meander = key pattern around rim Two bands of human figures and horse drawn

chariots Mourning scene and procession in honor of the deceased GEOMETRIC ART HERACKLES AND NESSOS (750-730 BCE) Geometric sculpture -> small solid cast bronze group -> two figures locked in hand to hand struggle Herackles vs. the centaur Nessos CENTAUR = half man half horse Centaur is composite monster -> man in front and horse in back Man and centaur are bearded and wear helmets -> man is bigger than horse = the victor

Painted and sculpted figures in Geometric art are nude -> natural beauty of the human figure ORIENTALIZING ART MANTIKLOS APOLLO (700-680BCE) 600s BCE Greek trade and colonization accelerated -> Greek artists exposed to Eastern artworks So many motifs borrowed from Egyptian and Near Eastern art -> the 7th century is called the ORIENTALIZING period Small bronze statuette dedicated to Apollo by Mantiklos -> is it Apollo? Mantiklos? Neither? Votive offering

Increased interest in reproducing human anatomy -> pecs/abs GREEK VASE PAINTING 1. Signed/brand name? 2. Remove impurities in clay 3. Knead it 4. Body of vase thrown on a wheel 5. Handles shaped and sepately 6. Piment/glaze/slip applied to surface 7. Three phase firing process-> red, black, red and black Geometric Amphora. 8th century BCE. Pitcher (Olpe) from Corinth. c. 600 BCE. Ceramic with black-figure decoration, height 11 1/2". ORIENTALIZING AMPHORA Corinthian black-figure amphora

Animal friezes Rhodes, Greece 625-600 BCE 12 high AMPHORA = two handled storage jar Animals and composite creatures, SIREN on the neck = part bird, part woman BLACK FIGURE PAINTING Black silhouettes, delicate incised detailing, bright polychrome overlay

TEMPLE PLAN A, PRINIAS First Greek stone temple Prinias on Crete -> 625 BCE -> called Temple A -> honor and unknown deity Resemlbes Mycenaean magaron -> porch, main room w/ two interior columns flanking a hearth or sacrificial pit Exterior had 3 piers on porch Doorway with huge lintel with sculpted frieze LADY OF AUXERRE 650-625 BCE

Limestone 2 1 From Crete Goddess or maiden (kore) Clothed, right hand across chest in prayer? More naturalistic -> but abstract shapes still seen -> triangular flat topped head, triangle hair, long skirt w/incised concentric square Originally brightly painted

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