Anemia Iron Deficiency Megaloblastic

Anemia Iron Deficiency Sideroblastic By Dr. Zahoor 1 Anemia What is Anemia? Anemia is present when there is decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) in the blood below the reference level for the age and sex

2 Normal Values for Peripheral Blood 3 Classification of Anemia Classification of Anemia based on MCV (Mean Cell Volume). There are 3 major types: Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia with low MCV

Normocytic Normochromic anemia with normal MCV Macrocytic anemia with high MCV 4 CLINICAL FEATURES Symptoms (these are non specific) Fatigue, headache, faintness Breathlessness Palpitation Angina Intermittent claudication Signs

Pallor Tachycardia Systolic flow murmer Cardiac Failure 5 Anemia Specific signs are seen in different type of Anemia Koilonychia spoon shaped nails seen in long standing iron deficiency anemia Jaundice found in hemolytic anemia Leg ulcers seen in sickle cell disease

Bone deformities seen in thalassaemia major 6 INVESTIGATION When hemoglobin is low, then always evaluate with red cell indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC) WBC count Platelet count Reticulocyte count (it indicates bone

marrow activity) Blood film to see red cell morphology e.g. microcytic, macrocytic 7 INVESTIGATION (cont) Bone marrow To see the cellularity of marrow Type of erythropoiesis e.g. normoblastic or megloblastic Any infiltration e.g. presence of cancer

cells Iron stores Special test for further diagnosis e.g. immunological, cytogenetic, microbiological culture 8 Classification of Anemia Based On MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume) Microcytic Anemia Red cell appearance small cell (microcyte) Indices low MCV < 80fL

Diagnosis Iron deficiency Thalassaemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Sideroblastic anemia 9 Classification of Anemia Based On MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume) Macrocytic Anemia Red cell appearance large cells (macrocyte) Indices high MCV > 96 fL 1. Appearance of bone marrow megloblastic

Diagnosis vitamin B12 or Folate deficiency 2. If appearance of bone marrow normoblastic but macrocytosis in the peripheral blood Diagnosis Alcohol Increased reticulocyte e.g. haemolysis Liver disease Hypothyroidism Drug therapy e.g. Azathioprine 10 Classification of Anemia Based On MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)

Normal size RBC Red cell appearance normal cells Indices normal MCV Diagnosis Acute blood loss Haemolytic anemia Anemia of chronic disease Chronic kidney disease Auto immune rheumatic disease Endocrine disease 11 We will discuss Microcytic

Hypochromic (Iron Deficiency) Anemia 12 MICROCYTIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA IRON DEFICIENCY Iron Deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in the World, affecting 30% of Worlds population Iron is absorbed in upper small intestine

in Fe2+ form Why microcytic (iron deficiency anemia) is common? Because of limited ability to absorb iron, and loss of iron due to hemorrhage 13 IRON We will discuss important points regarding Iron: Dietary intake The average daily diet contains 1520mg of iron, normally only 10% of this is absorbed

Iron is absorbed in proximal intestine, specially duodenum Iron is present in ferric form in the diet, it is reduced to ferrous form by 14 IRON Iron Transport Iron is transported in the plasma bound to transferrin (beta globulin that is synthesized in the liver) Most of the iron bound to transferrin

comes from macrophages in the Recticulo Endothelial system and not from Iron absorbed by the intestine 15 IRON Iron Stores About two third of total body iron is in the circulation as hemoglobin Iron is stored in recticuloendothelial cells, Hepatocyte and skeletal muscle cells

16 IRON About two third of iron is stored as ferritin and one third as haemosiderin Ferritin is water soluble and easily mobilized Haemosiderin is insoluble, found in macrophages in the bone marrow,

liver and spleen 17 IRON Requirements Daily requirement is 1mg Each day 0.5-1mg of iron is lost in the faeces, urine and sweat Menstruating women lose 30-40ml of blood per month, an average of 0.5-0.7mg of iron per day Blood loss through menstruation in excess of 100ml will usually result in iron deficiency

Demand of iron also increases during growth and pregnancy 18 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Iron deficiency anemia occurs, when there is less iron available for Hb synthesis The causes are - Blood loss - Increased demand such as growth and

pregnancy - Decreased absorption e.g. post gastrectomy - Poor intake Diet which contains vegetable predominantly 19 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Clinical Features Symptoms - Fatigue, headache, faintness

- Palpitation - Breathlessness - Angina - Intermittent claudication 20 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Clinical Features In long standing iron deficiency anemia, well known clinical features are - Brittle nails

- Spoon shaped nails (Koilonychia) - Atrophy of papillae of the tongue - Angular stomatitis - Brittle hair IMPORTANT Plummer-Vinson or Paterson-Brown-Kelly Syndrome It is presence of Iron deficiency anemia, Dysphagia and glossitis 21 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA Investigations

Blood film shows RBC microcytic MCV < 80fL and hypochromic MCH < 27 pg There are poikilocytosis (variation in shape) and anisocytosis (variation in size). Target cells are seen Microcytic hypochromic cells, Poikilocytosis and 22 IRON DEFICIENCY

ANEMIA Investigations (cont) Serum iron and iron binding capacity Serum iron is low and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is increased Serum ferritin Serum ferritin is low (serum ferritin level tells us about the amount of stored iron) Serum soluble transferrin receptors Number of transferrin receptors increases in iron deficiency anemia It is done by immunoassay 23

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia Iron Deficiency Anemia iron stores (ferritin) is low Thalassaemia iron stores are normal Sideroblastic Anemia iron stores are raised Anemia of Chronic Disease iron stores are normal or raised 24

Microcytic Anemia: the differential diagnosis 25 TREATMENT Find and treat the underlying cause e.g. diet, blood loss due to peptic ulcer, hemorrhoids Oral iron ferrous sulphate 200mg three times daily (it provides 180mg ferrous iron), it is best absorbed

when patient is fasting Oral iron is given for 6 months to correct hemoglobin level and replenish the iron stores Parenteral iron Given by slow IV infusion of low molecular weight iron dextrin (test dose is required) It is given when patient is intolerant to oral preparation e.g. severe malabsorption 26 ANEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE In

hospital patients, common type of Anemia is the anemia of chronic disease, occurs in patient with TB, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, Malignant disease Cause - Decrease release of iron from bone marrow to developing erthythroblast - Decreased response to erythropoietin - Decrease RBC survival 27

ANEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE Investigation - Decreased serum iron, decreased TIBC - Serum ferritin is normal or raised - Patient do not respond to iron therapy and treatment is for underlying cause 28

SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA 29 SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA What is Sideroblastic Anemia? It is characterized by refractory anemia, Microcytic hypochromic cells in peripheral blood, Ring sideroblast in bone marrow and excess iron. In Sideroblastic anemia, the body has iron available but can not incorporate it into hemoglobin .

30 SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA Sideroblastic Anemia may be Inherited or Acquired. 1- Inherited as x- linked recessive 2-Acquired as Myelodysplastic syndrome e.g. Myeloid leukaemia or Acquired as Reversible Sideroblastic Anemia e.g. lead toxicity, Alcohol abuse, INH drug ( patient responds when Alcohol or Drug is withdrawn) It can also occur in other disorders such as

rheumatoid arthritis, carcinomas 31 SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA (cont) Congenital form present with microcytic(low MCV ) or normocytic anemia Acquired form present with macrocytic ( high MCV) or normocytic anemia Presence of ring sideroblast in bone marrow is diagnostic feature of Sideroblastic

anemia, ring is due to accumulation of iron in the mitochondria of erythroblast (due to disordered haem synthesis). Ring sideroblast can be seen with Perl's reaction, Prussian blue staining 32 Sideroblastic Anemia Bone marrow showing sideroblast stained with Perls Prussian blue 33 SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA

Ring Sideroblast are named because iron laden mitochondria form a ring around the nucleus. Ring sideroblast are seen in bone marrow. 40% of the developing erythrocyte are rings sideroblast. 34 SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA Symptoms

Skin is pale, fatigue, dizziness Enlarge spleen and liver Heart disease, liver damage and kidney failure can result from iron built up in these organs 35 SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA Diagnosis Ringed sideroblasts are seen in the bone marrow MCV is commonly decreased i.e.

microcytic anemia but MCV may be normal or even high Serum iron and ferritin are increased Total iron binding capacity is normal 36 CASE 1 A patient with shortness of breath A 51 year old shop assistant presents to his GP with increasing shortness of breath on exertion. Normally his exercise tolerance when walking is unlimited but more recently he can walk approximately 50m before having to

stop to catch his breath. On direct questioning, he denies cough, Orthopnoea or haemoptysis. He has not noticed blood in the stool or haematuria. He has never smoked and only drinks occasional alcohol. On examination, he had a pulse of 110 beats/min (regular, normal character), BP 115/80mmHg, pale conjunctive but no jaundice, and a soft ejection systolic murmur loudest at the aortic area, with no radiation. Abdominal examination was normal. 37 CASE 1 A patient with shortness of breath

A full blood count taken 3 years ago showed a hemoglobin of 12.3 g/L with a mean cell volume of 89 fL. At present Blood tests showed: Hb 7.3g/dL MCV 72.5 fL WCC 11.2 109/L Platelets 420 109/L Electrolytes, liver function and inflammatory markers: normal.

38 CASE 1 Questions: 1. What is the most likely cause for his systolic murmur? (a). Aortic sclerosis (b). Flow murmur due to a hyperdynamic circulation (c). Aortic stenosis (d). Mitral regurgitation 2.

Which of the following is the likely cause of his anemia? (a). Iron deficiency (b). Thalassaemia trait (c). Vitamin B12 deficiency (d). Anaemia of chronic disease 39 CASE 1 Answers: Answer to Question 1: (b). Flow murmur due to a hyperdynamic circulation

Answer to Question 2: (a). Iron deficiency 40 THANK YOU 41

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