Animal farm

Animal farm

M R A F L A ANIM L L E W R O E

G R O E G BY WHO IS GEORGE ORWELL? This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA GEORGE ORWELL Born in Bengal, India Real name: Eric A. Blair

Mother moved back to England in 1904 Went to school in Eton (didnt graduate) Moved to Burma, India to serve in the Indian imperial police Shooting an Elephant Quit the civil service and lived in both London and Paris GEORGE ORWELL Became a socialist in 1936 Socialism: a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.

Got the idea for Animal Farm from seeing a small boy driving a horse and whipping it whenever it tried to turn. Disapproved of Britains privileged class and believed instead in the traditions and virtues of the working class. GEORGE ORWELL Went to fight in the Spanish Civil War but was wounded Glimpse of political reality Revolutionary causes can become corrupt and evolve in totalitarianism

Totalitarianism: dictatorship where one political party has total control and all opposition is ruthlessly suppressed Saw Joseph Stalin oppress people in Russia HISTORICAL CONTEXT The novel is based upon the events of the Russian Revolution of 1917 Ruling family: Romanovs

Czar Nicholas II Czarina Alexandra CZAR NICHOLAS II Nicholas had no desire to be Czar, but was thrown into power at the age of 28 when his father died. Became absolute sovereign ruler Weak-willed leader Lack of understanding and respect for the lower classes KARL MARX The Communist Manifesto - 1848

Marx is the Father of Modern Communism; German philosopher Communism = economic system where the basic idea is that everybody does jobs in which they excel, and everybody gets everything that they need. Marxism = theory of class struggle This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA MARXISM Two classifications:

Bourgeoisie: class of modern capitalists (wealthy person who uses money to invest in trade and industry for profit ). They are the minority of people who own the means of production. Proletariat: the modern working class who always lived at the lowest possible level to sustain health while providing wealth for the upper class. Marxism calls for the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. BLOODY SUNDAY In 1904, wages decreased by 20%. Priest George Gapon started a strike and petition. Calling for a reduction in the working day to eight hours, increasing wages, and improving working

conditions based on Marxs ideas On January 22, 1905, Gapon led a large procession of workers to the winter palace in order to present the petition to Nicholas. When the procession of workers reached the palace, they discovered that Nicholas had received word about their visit and decided to leave. The guards that were surrounding the palace did not know how to handle the angry mob; instead of trying to reason with them, the guards decided to open fire.

Inciting incident for the Russian Revolution VLADIMIR LENIN Russian Revolution ary Founded a socialist party called Bolsheviks Volcanic

emotions and overbeari ng personality This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1917 Nicholas gets word of a planned revolt so he leaves WWI front to

help quell revolt On his way to the city, the Bolshevik party set up a barricade so that the train could not get through. Train led directly into Bolshevik territory Nicholas is taken prisoner and is forced to abdicate his throne. Seven months later, Lenin and the Bolshevik party overthrew provisional government. October Revolution LENIN Lenin became the leader of the worlds first communist state. USSR

Soviet Union Was a one-party federation, governed by the communist party in Moscow, that existed from 1922 to 1991 Developed Leninism. Died in 1924 JOSEPH STALIN & LEON TROTSKY After Lenins death, there was a struggle for control of the Communist Party. Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin emerged as leaders with different ideologies.

Trotsky: Strict Marxist The only way a society could survive was through permanent revolution. He reinforced the need for a worldwide socialist class. Stalin: modified form of Marxism. A socialist state could and must first be created within Russia and that Russia would be the leader for the international proletariat. JOSEPH STALIN QUICKLY TURNED TOTALITARIAN. EVENTUALLY WON THE POWER STRUGGLE AND HAD TROTSKY EXILED TO MEXICO WHERE HE IS LATER KILLED BY USSR AGENTS.

BECAME AN ABSOLUTE DICTATOR. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC THE GREAT PURGE Brutal political campaign led by Stalin to eliminate dissenting members of the communist party and anyone else he considered a threat. At least 750,000 people were executed during the Great Purge, which took place between about 1936 and 1938 More than a million other people were sent to forced labor camps

Rise of Nazi power in Germany and militarists in Japan posed a great danger to the U.S.S.R. Many experts believe these threats further encouraged Stalin to carry out the purge in an effort to unite and strengthen his country ANIMAL FARM Published the year after WWII ended. Anti-Utopian/Dystopia Novel Man at the mercy of a force he cannot control Satire: uses ridicule to make certain people, events, or institutions appear foolish.

Orwell uses irony Propaganda: any widespread promotion of particular ideas, doctrines Manipulation

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