Animals - AP Bio1010

Animals - AP Bio1010

ANIMALS Characteristics of animals: Multicellular Heterotrophic Eukaryotic

Lack cell walls Reproduce sexually Have developmental stages Body Plan Symmetry-body arrangement

radial-body is arranged around a central axis, like a wheel It is a good adaptation for getting food from all directions example-jellyfish Bilateral-right and left sides, are mirror images anterior end-head

posterior-tail (opposite head) dorsal-back side ventral-underside, belly allows for cephalization-the concentration of nerves in the anterior end

Digestive cavities There are 2 main types: saclike-one body opening Food and waste use same opening Found in lower animals

tubelike-two body openings Mouth and anus form Found in higher animals More efficient system

Animals with a tubelike body develop three different germ layers: ectoderm-outer layer -becomes nervous tissue and skin

endoderm-inner-becomes digestive and respiratory systems mesoderm-middle-becomes muscles, skeleton, circulatory, reproductive and excretory systems

Animals with a tubelike body are also divided into protostomes and deuterostomes: Protostomes Spiral cleavage

First opening becomes the mouth Coelom forms from splitting of the mesoderm Deuterostomes Radial cleavage First opening becomes the anus, second becomes the mouth

Coelom forms from mesodermal pouches Body cavities: coelomates-have tissue lining called peritoneum that encloses organs and holds them in place inside a cavity pseudocoelomates-false coelom-have a body cavity but no

lining acoelomates-no cavity-no space between gut and body wall Segmentation-repeating series of body units examples-earthworms with ringed body

insects with head, thorax, abdomen Sponges and Cnidarians Sponges no symmetry no tissues, organs, systems

most are marine, a few are freshwater Structures: pores-small openings in the side of sponge body osculum-opening at the top collar cells-face inside, have flagella to

trap food as it moves through water Amoeboid cells-transfer food, move like amebas spicules-pointed, glasslike, give structure and support

spongin-tough protein fiber for support Reproduction in sponges

Sexual: sperm released into water to fertilize eggs of neighboring sponge. Larva swim and will find a place to attach and grow into adult Asexual: regeneration-small

fragments break off and grow into new sponges Cnidarians include hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones, coral

Have tentacles with stinging cells called nematocysts Body plan-radial, two forms are seen: 1. medusa bell shaped, floats, mouth on underside

2. polyp tubelike body, usually attached to a surface Structures epithelium-inner and outer lining of cells nerve cells-receive and send messages

contractile cells-carry out responses (no true muscles) mesoglea-middle layer, gelatinous, gives buoyancy, acts as a hydrostatic skeleton Colonial forms: Coral-thrive in warm water, secrete skeletons

which interconnect to form reefs Flatworms and Roundworms Flatworms size-microscopic to many meters acoelomates-no body cavity

may be parasitic or free living Body Organization Digestive system-saclike if present excretion-flame cells regulate water and excrete waste no circulatory system-materials move by diffusion

nervous-nerve nets, sensory pits, nerve cords reproductive-most are hermaphroditic, some regenerate Class Tubellaria Example-Planaria-free living

Regeneration of planaria Class Trematoda-the flukes Flukes are all parasitic. They attach to the host using suckers, anchors or hooks. Some use two

hosts in their life cycle. First animal is home for the larval form, second animal is home for the adult form Class Cestoda-the tapeworms

Tapeworms are all parasitic, they attach to the host with hooks and suckers. The head is called the scolex and contains the hooks and suckers Proglottids are segments that produce eggs and absorb food. New proglottids form behind the scolex (oldest part of worm is the end)

Roundworms Found everywhere (most common worm) may be microscopic bilateral symmetry, tapered at ends

Trichinella Most common worm in U.S. Worm lives in small intestine of pigs, fertilized female burrows into intestinal wall and produces young. These travel to muscle tissue and form cysts. Humans eat

undercooked pork and get infected. Infected with abundant worms can be fatal (no cure) Filarial worm-cause of elephantiasis

Annelids and Mollusks Mollusks abundant, successful animals mostly marine but some have invaded land Importance of mollusks

source of food -oysters, clams, scallops, mussels, squid, octopus economically for pearls, shells, decorations slugs and snails destroy gardens host to parasites Body plan of mollusks

Visceral mass-organs of digestion, excretion and reproduction Mantle-folds form between visceral mass and shell. Contains lungs or gills. It also secretes the shell.

Foot-muscular and adapted for locomotion, attachment or food capture Radula-(in snails) a rasping tongue. It has rows of teeth that scrape material.

Circulation-open (except for cephalopods), with a heart Excretion-waste removed by nephridia (pre-kidney) Reproduction-mostly separate sexes, some may be hermaphroditic

Class Gastropoda Snails and slugs head has a pair of tentacles with eyes may be predators, scavengers, or herbivores Class Bivalva

Clams, scallops, mussels, oysters have two shells that are hinged together muscle holds shells together siphon tubes pull in and release water many are sessile (attached)

most are filter feeders Class Cephalopoda Octopus, squid, nautilus very intelligent foot evolved into tentacles with suction cups to seize prey

highly developed nervous system, elaborate eyes closed circulatory system some have internal shells dark ink released in water to escape Annelids (means rings)

Segmented bodies allow modifications for reproduction,

digestion, and excretion Setae-bristles made of chitin that help in locomotion Digestion-tubelike Circulation-closed Respiration-gases exchanged through skin

Excretory system-nephridia (one pair per segment) Class Oligochaeta Earthworms eat soil and scrape off organic material. Improve soil by aeration and adding nutrients. Earthworms are hermaphroditic; they mate by exchanging

sperm simultaneously. clitellum secretes a cocoon to hold eggs until they hatch Class Hirudinea Leeches

mostly freshwater usually 2-6 cm long hermaphroditic suckers attach to host, have jaws to tear skin of host, secrete an anticoagulant into the wound.

Echinoderms Larva is bilateral, adult is radial water vascular system uses hydrostatic power to operate tube feet central ring with five canals extending into arms

Name means spiny skin skeleton is formed from hard plates locomotion-hundreds of tube feet

digestion-mouth on ventral surface, some push stomach out of mouth and digest food outside body, others swallow prey whole Respiration-skin gills

small finger-like projections near spines reproduction-sexual and asexual some regenerate lost parts Types Class Crinoidea-sea lilies, feather stars

may have 200 arms Class Asteroidea-sea stars Mostly intertidal Class Ophiuroidea-brittle stars most abundant, have long slender arms

Class Echinoidea-sea urchins and sand dollars lack arms but still have 5 part body plan Class Holothuroidea-sea cucumber soft body

when irritated they may eject their intestines Arthropods Name means jointed appendages Rigid exoskeleton made of chitin, cannot support great weight

molting-shedding of outer layer of skeleton controlled by hormones most successful animals on the earth found in every habitat, reproduce quickly and in large numbers

Importance of arthropods Carry diseases economics-compete for crops virtually every plant is eaten by some insect pollination of plants eaten as food (lobster, crayfish, shrimp)

Body Plan 3 segments head thorax abdomen

head and thorax may be fused together and called cephalothorax Head Compound eye-made of multiple lenses.

Mouth parts-specialized for type of food eaten Antennae- detect odors, vibrations circulatory system-open respiratory system

Insects have spiracles on abdomen Spiders have book lungs excretory-use Malpighian tubules to collect fluid from blood

nervous system-ventral surface has ganglia Types Class Arachnida-spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions most are carnivores, ingest liquified food

Class Merostomata-horseshoe crabs Class Pycnogonida-sea spiders Subphylum Crustacea-lobster, shrimp, crabs, barnacles, pillbugs

Class Chilopoda-centipedes Class Diplopoda-millipedes Class Insecta-largest group of animals on the earth usually have wings

tympanum on abdomen picks up sound pheromones-chemicals to attract mates Metamorphosis Controlled by hormones Simple: egg --> nymph --> adult

nymph is similar to adult Complete: egg --> larva --> pupa --> adult larva are wormlike and differ greatly from adult form pupa does not feed and is protected by the cocoon Chordates

Vertebrates-chordates with a backbone, either of cartilage or bone Invertebrate chordates-have all other features but no backbone

Features of Chordates notochord-long rod of stiff tissue that becomes vertebrae dorsal nerve cord runs parallel to notochord

tail-forms in all embryos Invertebrate Types Tunicates-baglike animals gelatinous tunic called sea squirts

filter feeders Lancelets-fish shaped translucent small (size of little finger) Vertebrate types

Jawless fish-hagfishes and lampreys cartilaginous with no paired fins hagfish live on dead or weakened animals lampreys suck out the juices from fish Jawed fish-most abundant group

cartilaginous fish-sharks, skates, rays bony fish-strong tail fin, flexible bodies include ray and lobe finned Amphibians-appeared after fish Eggs do not have shells so must be laid in water

Types: 1. Salamanders- carnivorous, keep tails 2. Frogs and toads-strong hind limbs for jumping, tongue attached at front 3. Caecilians-no limbs, adults are blind, burrow in soil for worms.

Reptiles-not dependent on water, have a tough, dry scaly skin, internal fertilization, produce amniotic eggs a. Crocodiles and alligators-powerful jaws and sharp teeth, live in or near water b. Turtles and tortoises-live in an attached shell, no teeth, jaws

tear and chew food, predators generally attack eggs c. Lizards and snakeslizards are generally insect eaters, may give up tail when attacked. Snakes lost their legs, jaws stretch to accommodate large prey, pits detect heat

of prey d. Tuatara-found only in New Zealand, resemble lizards but most closely related to dinosaurs, third eye on top of head can detect light), can live 60 years

Komodo dragon: Largest lizard Birds feathers are derived from scales and are used for flight and insulation have high metabolic rates (energy for flight)

efficient 4 chambered hearts strong pectoral muscles air sacs lightweight bones endothermic

Mammals Hair/fur mammary glands feed young High parental care endothermic have a capacity to learn,

dentition shows diet Three types of mammals: 1. Monotremes-egg laying spiny anteater duckbilled platypus

2. Marsupials-pouched kangaroo koalas opossum

3. Eutherian-placental mammals insectivora-shrew, hedgehog chiroptera-bats edentia-(toothless)-sloth, anteaters

rodentia-mice, rats, beavers, gophers lagomorpha-rabbits and hares carnivora-cats, dogs, bears weasels, seals Cetacea-whales, dolphins

artiodactyla-even toed grazers-cattle, sheep, pigs perissodactyla-odd toed-horses, zebras, tapirs proboscidea-elephants Sirenia-sea cows or manatee

primates-apes and humans Animal Behavior Behavior depends on the animals ability to detect a stimulus.

How it reacts and to what depends on its nervous system so there is some genetic factor to behavior. 1. Instinct is an innate or inborn response to a stimulus examples: - cuckoo young pushes warbler young out of nest

- reflexes - baby crying when hungry 2. Learned - behavior altered by experience examples: -violence

-cat buries waste in litter box 3. Imprinting - learning that occurs during a determined time period example: -geese associate mother with

whatever bends over them after their first peep 4. Conditioned responses a. classical-animal associates one stimulus with another, it is a reflexive response

example-Pavlovs dog learns he gets food when the bell rings. Then he salivates whenever the bell rings b. operant - animal changes voluntary behavior in a response to a consequence example-rat learns to push a lever for food

5. Habituation - animal learns not to respond to a stimulus that doesnt have any effect example- city birds learn not to fly from humans 6. Observational learning - one animal imitates the

behavior of another example- chimps learn from others to use sticks to get food 7. Adaptive - a behavior that increases an individuals success

example-starlings use wild carrot sprigs in nests. The aroma keeps mites from maturing and sucking blood of young 8. Social behavior - animals living in groups using communications signals: a. chemical-pheromones

b. acoustical-sound bird song to defend territory, prairie dog bark to warn c. visualbaboon threat display, courtship dances d. tactilebees touching other bees while dancing to show where food is

1. The signal has to work for both the sender and the receiver. 2. The signal may be selected against. Examples: -a male frog calls a female frog but the sound alerts bats

to the location of the frog -a female firefly mimics the flash of a different species to eat the male Group living - advantages and disadvantages: a. defense against predators

b. better feeding opportunities c. transmission of cultural behaviors is easier d. hierarchies exist-dominant male, dominant female, subordinates get fewer resources e. large groups attract more predators, diseases and parasites

f. division of labor 9. Mating behavior - competition for mates creates sexual selection -males success based on how many eggs he can fertilize -females success based on how many eggs she can

produce and/or raise Females shop for appealing traits example - fiddler crabs. Male claw enlarges in season to dig a burrow. He stands by his burrow and if the female is impressed with it she chooses him to mate with.

In some species females cluster in groups or harems. Males compete for access to them. example-lions, sheep, elk, bison 10. Parental behavior- uses time and energy but increases

the chance of survival a. some males help with parenting such as nesting, feeding, holding eggs b. some species (mostly birds) are monogamous 11. Altruistic behavior-one animals behavior increases

anothers success at its own expense. example - worker bees care for the queen and her young but do not get to reproduce

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