Anthem - Mr. Bulgrien's Class

Anthem - Mr. Bulgrien's Class

Lord of the Flies BY WILLIAM GOLDING Quick Write: What are some rules you follow that you dont mind following? What are some rules you wouldnt follow if there was no punishment? What is the point of these rules? What does it mean to be civilized?

What kind of things does a civilized person do? Say? Wear? Contrast someone who is civilized with someone who is not. What makes good people do bad things? How ingrained in us are societys influences? For example: if the entire junior class were

stranded on an island there are no teachers, parents, cops or adults of any kind how long would it take for societys rules to fall away? Why call it Lord of the Flies? The phrase lord of the flies is a translation of the Greek Beelzebub, a devil mentioned in the New Testament. In the Bible, Beelzebub sometimes seems to

be Satan himself, and at other times seems to be Satans most powerful lieutenant. Ch. 1: The Sound of the Shell (Preview) Deserted Island Emulating Adults The Pig The Key Players Ralph as Leader Chapter 1 THE SOUND OF THE SHELL

What does this sound like? In Lord of the Flies: Two people Alone in a pleasant place Plenty of food Fruit hanging from trees Unashamed of their

nudity A snake? P.10: Ralph undid the snake-clasp of his belt In Another Famous Book In Huck Finn: Huck and Jim run away Theyre alone on an

island They have all the food they need (fruit, fish) Theyre unashamed of their nudity skinny dipping A snake Huck plays a prank on Jim Ideas from LotF are still popular today

Plane crash Stranded on a deserted island No authority figures survived Who will we choose to be our leader? Can we work together to survive? Will we be our own enemies?

Compare how they elect their leaders to how we do Ralph Shell? Jack Leadership experience People fear him but

at least theyll do what he says Piggy Smartest person on the island But hes fat Why doesnt Ralph (really) apologize to

Piggy Ralph hovered between the two courses of apology and further insult. Better Piggy than Fatty, he said at last. He does sort of apologize: Im sorry if you feel like that.

Not Im sorry for what I did. Theres no one there to make him apologize. Say youre sorry. This is the first

example of parents or adults not being there to enforce some rules. If you get away with something once, will you do it again? Deserted Island No grownups! (p.8) Vacation? Maybe for a little while, but What goes along with adults?

Rules Do rules hold us down, or do they protect us? Clothes are also evidence of civilization CH 01 (p. 07-31) Emulating Adults Lets have a vote (p. 22) The boys seem to want adults there or at

least something resembling adults: a leader Jack wants to be treated as an adult referred to by last name, be in charge but compare that with how he treats Piggy CH 01 (p. 07-31) The Pig I was choosing a place. Next time! (p. 31) Its a big step to kill something Jack doesnt want to be thought of as a coward

His old society run by adults still has influence over him preventing violence. For how long? The narrator says this about Jack and the pig: Next time there would be no mercy. Is mercy a characteristic of civilized people? CH 01 (p. 07-31)

The Key Players Pay attention to how these boys relate to each other Ralph one of the oldest and tallest, so he is chosen as leader. He is the one who blew on the conch and began the first meeting. Piggy Hes fat, asthmatic, and has bad eyesight; but he is definitely the smartest. Jack leader of the choir (his hunters). He wants to be chief and is upset when Ralph is elected. Hes bossy, mean, and power

hungry. Simon he sees things differently CH 01 (p. 07-31) Ralph as Leader Im chief then (p. 23) He has done some good things But how has he treated Piggy? He may be the leader, but he is still very childlike. CH 01 (p. 07-31)

Ch. 2: The Fire on the Mountain Preview Two Goals The Conch Piggys Glasses The Beast The Fire Chapter 2 FIRE ON THE MOUNTAIN Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters

Compare/contrast Ralph and Piggy. Compare/contrast Ralph and Jack. How is Piggys point of view different from that of the rest of the boys? Two Goals We want to have fun. And we want to be rescued (p. 37) Notice which goal came first. Do these sound like adult goals?

CH 02 (p. 32-47) The Conch Where the conch is, thats a meeting (p. 42) The conch is a symbol for order Other symbols: the American flag, the cross. The stars are stars. And they symbolize something else. The stripes are stripes. And they symbolize something else. The cross is made of two lines. And it symbolizes? This conch is a shell. And it symbolizes order, the rules, democratic government. Similarly, the damage left by the plane on the

island is called the scar. What do you think this symbolizes? What, exactly, wounded the island? CH 02 (p. 32-47) The Conch (cont.) The first rule: only the person with the conch can speak. How good are the boys at following this one

rule? Do they try to change this rule? Piggys Glasses His specs use them as burning glasses! (p. 40) Why are the glasses so important? Glasses fire rescue Piggy is the smartest (the most

enlightened) Wisdom and intelligence change the way things look So why isnt Piggy the leader? No charisma, no respect CH 02 (p. 32-47) The Beast But there isnt a beast! (p. 37)

Now, not everything is fun and games on the island Whether the beast is real or imaginary, the younger kids fear is real Have you ever tried to convince a young kid that theres no monster under his bed? CH 02 (p. 32-47) The Fire

You got your small fire all right (p. 44) The fire spreads quickly too quickly It seems someone died in the fire Fire is fun building shelters isnt Who caused the problem? The fire? The beast? The boys themselves? CH 02 (p. 32-47) Ch. 3: Huts on the Beach Preview

Priorities Ralph Jack Simon How is he like Jesus? Nature Chapter 3 HUTS ON THE BEACH

Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters Describe Simon and his behavior. Why does Simon go up the mountain? Priorities We want meat (p. 31) We need shelters (p. 52) Who cares about meat? About shelters? Notice how the boys can be looking at the same thing but seeing something totally different.

Whats Ralph looking for when he looks at the mountain? Whats Jack looking for? CH 03 (p. 48-57) Ralph People dont help much (p. 54) It doesnt take long to learn that human

beings arent very easy to control What would help? (What helps us?) Reward/punishment system? In other words, some enforcement of the rules. CH 03 (p. 48-57) Jack He tried to convey the compulsion to track

down and kill that was swallowing him up (p. 51) Jack seems to be trying to kill a pig to prove himself, maybe to prove his manhood. CH 03 (p. 48-57) Simon Hes queer. Hes funny (p. 55) Simon is a possible Christ figure or saint Works as a carpenter (while others are playing) Helps the younger ones get food

How many of them? endless, outstretched hands "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these." CH 03 (p. 48-57) Simon (continued)

Goes by himself into the jungle where he listens to/looks at nature Didnt Jesus go into the wilderness to fast? Didnt he encounter the Devil there? Ralphs comment above lets us know that Simon is distinct from the other boys. The others have some

offensive traits; Simon has none. Nature But you can feel as if youre not hunting, but being hunted (p. 53) The jungle is neutral, overall. It is described in terms of the boy at the moment. Jack: approaches nature as ravager, hunter. He is affected

by his own sinister attitude toward nature. Simon: contrast Jacks experience with the honey-colored sunlight; the butterflies; and the bright, fantastic birds of Simons jungle. The place is the same; but the author, by his choice of adjectives, tells us a great deal about his characters. CH 03 (p. 48-57) Ch.4: Painted Faces and Long

HairPreview Civilizations Restraints Evil Tendencies Masks Littluns Pig Dance New Bonds Chapter 4: PAINTED FACES AND LONG HAIR

Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters What things do people do because those things are expected of them? What things do people avoid doing (or avoid talking about) because those things are socially unacceptable? Civilizations Restraints Rogers arm was conditioned by a civilization that knew nothing of him and

was in ruins (p. 62) Roger is careful not to hit the littlun (Henry) because he has been so conditioned by his society. Also, Maurice felt bad for knocking sand in Percivals eyes And Jack apologized for letting the fire go out but not for breaking Piggys glasses. How long will the old taboos affect them?

CH 04 (p. 58-75) Evil Tendencies He became absorbed beyond mere happiness as he felt himself exercising control over living things (p. 61) Henry wants to exert power over other living things Jack gets a similar pleasure in killing the pig How about grownups? Golding is saying that this potential for evil

is innate (were all born with it). CH 04 (p. 58-75) Masks He looked in astonishment, no longer at himself but at an awesome stranger (p. 63) Why do people wear masks? Masks give us freedom, a kind of removal or anonymity.

It is no longer Jack doing horrific deeds, but it is a savage. CH 04 (p. 58-75) Littluns They obeyed the summons of the conch, partly because Ralph blew it... and partly because they enjoyed the entertainment of the assemblies (p. 59) Littluns = the unthinking masses who need caring for

the boys (of us?) are like this. We can learn from how characters treat them Simon Roger CH 04 (p. 58-75) Pig Dance Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in (p.75) A primitive-like ritual what significance does it have? Boys + masks + paint + killing + dancing +

chanting = savages CH 04 (p. 58-75) New Bonds That was a dirty trick (p. 72) Jacks negligence toward the fire and his treatment of Piggy result in a new alliance Ralph (common sense/leadership) and Piggy (intelligence).

CH 04 (p. 58-75) Ch. 5: Beast from Water Preview Appearance vs. Reality Intelligence Fear Receding Influences The Beast A Sign

Chapter 5 BEAST FROM WATER Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 76 and 80, the narrator goes out of his way to mention Ralphs shirt. What is Ralph doing then to make his shirt important? What do his clothes symbolize? On p. 81, Ralph says they should have smoke

or die. Is there anything you feel that way about (that youd die before you let it happen)? What does it show you about the importance of smoke for Ralph? On p. 91, Ralph says they have to follow the

rules because thats all they have. Why do you follow some rules? Why do you not follow some rules? Taken short? Whats their rule about that? What are they acting like when they dont follow that rule? On p. 94, Ralph wishes there was a grownup

there. What have grownups given you? Where would you be without them? At what age could you really be OK without them? Appearance vs. Reality If faces were different when lit from above

or below what was a face? What was anything? (p. 78) Notice how things look differently at nighttime as opposed to daytime. A little light (intelligence) can completely change ones outlook on a situation CH 05 (p. 76-94)

Intelligence Only, decided Ralph as he faced the chiefs seat, I cant think. Not like Piggy (p. 78) Ralph now fully realizes that a good leader must have intelligence. Leadership (Ralph) and intelligence (Piggy) are naturally drawn together as a defense against a purely instinctive way of life (Jack). CH 05 (p. 76-94)

Fear Things are breaking up. I dont understand why. We began well; we were happy. And then (p. 82) Different approaches taken toward coping with fear tell us a lot about the different boys. Ralph: vote the beast out of existence Piggy: life is scientific, and there cant be beasts in our advanced world Jack: command the boys to put up with the fear. One of the littluns suggests that the beast

comes from the sea (the gigantic unknown) CH 05 (p. 76-94) Receding Influences Percival Wemys Madison. The Vicarage, Harcourt St. Anthony, Hants, telephone, telephone, tele (p. 86) What is this?

Name, address, phone number In most circumstances, saying this would work because most people would try to get in contact with his parents. Notice that hes starting to forget it! Think about the boys meetings, which are also echoes

of society. This meeting was chaotic and disbanded. Societys influence is weakening now. CH 05 (p. 76-94) The Beast What I mean is... maybe its only us (p. 89) According to Golding, Simons conclusion is

the correct one: Evil exists in everyone, and society (rules and order) helps to keep it in check. But what happens when rules and order arent followed? CH 05 (p. 76-94) More about Simon as a Christ Figure?

What did he tell the boys about the Beast? The truth Jesus: I am the way, the truth, and the life. Jesus: The truth shall set you free. Could you say knowing the truth about the beast (that there isnt one out there, and that there is one in all the boys) would free the boys from an irrational fear

of it? Simon as Christ (cont.) How did Simon treat Piggy in the previous chapter? Gave him some of the roast pig to eat.

Defended Piggy. Feeding the hungry. Associating with outcasts. Gave Piggy his glasses. Restoring sight to the blind.

A Sign If only they could send us something grownup... a sign or something (p. 94) Ralph wants a message, or a sign, from the outside world, the world of adults. Remember that.

He just might get it CH 05 (p. 76-94) Ch. 6: Beast from Air Preview The Sign Appearance vs. Reality Politics Castle Rock The Beast Dissention

Chapter 6 BEAST FROM AIR Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 97, what does waxy mean? Whom are the boys talking about first? How do you know? Whom are they talking about next? How do you know? On p. 101-102, who says some boys should

shut up and do what theyre told? Why? What does that show us about him? On p. 102-103, why do the boys think the beast lives on what they come to call Castle Rock? On p. 104-105, who decides to go first to look for the beast on Castle Rock? Why does he do that, and what does that show us about him? On p. 106, who else decides to look for the beast on Castle Rock? Why does he do that,

and what does that show us about him? On p. 108, what does Ralph get upset about the other boys doing? Why does that bother him so much? On p. 108, read the last two sentences again. These are very important. Why do you think the author included these details? The Sign But a sign came down from the world of

grownups, though at the time there was no child awake to read it (p. 95) Is this a positive sign? There are people in the immediate area The world they look to for help is at war CH 06 (p. 95-108) Appearance vs. Reality We saw the beast (p. 99)

What did they really see? A large shadow What did they really hear? The parachute flapping in the wind Their imaginations fill in the rest. If they only had some light (both real light and intelligence) and the ability to distinguish appearance and reality!

CH 06 (p. 95-108) Politics Its time some people knew theyve got to keep quiet and leave deciding things to the rest of us (p. 102) Jack denies the democratic process He wants a strict division between the ruler and the ruled, between those who make decisions and those who must accept decisions.

Ralph, on the other hand, wants to to keep harmony among the group So he takes command and, leaving the littluns in Piggys care, goes with a party in search of the beast. CH 06 (p. 95-108) Castle Rock This would make a wizard fort (p. 108)

Jack is impressed with the possibilities this jutting rock has as a fort Whats the purpose of a fort? Armies use them for protection. Ralph sees it as a rotten place. This place will be important later CH 06 (p. 95-108)

The Beast However Simon thought of the beast, there rose before his inward sight the picture of a human at once heroic and sick (p. 103) Two sides to humanity are seen in these boys Heroic side Ralphs faith in mans power to survive and remain civilized Simons love for the littluns. Evil side

Jack The way most kids treat Piggy CH 06 (p. 95-108) Dissention Mutinously, the boys fell silent or muttering (p. 108) The chapters concluding words leave us with some doubt as to Ralphs or Simons effectiveness in holding sway over the less

noble characters. When ordered to leave the new fortress and to restart the signal fire, the boys grumble mutinously and obey begrudgingly. Notice who leads the mutinous boys at the very end of the chapter CH 06 (p. 95-108) Ch. 7: Shadows and Tall Trees Preview

Civilization Appearances The Thrill of the Hunt Savagery The Beast Chapter 7 SHADOWS AND TALL TREES Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters From p. 109 through the first full paragraph on 110, what are the signs that Ralph is

becoming uncivilized? How does he seem to feel about this? Reread the big paragraph on p.110 and then the one that goes onto p. 111. Describe how Ralph feels different on the different sides of the island. What makes him feel different? What do you think is the authors reason for including this? On p. 111, what is it Simon says to Ralph alone? What is it he doesnt say? On p. 112, read the details of Ralphs

daydream. What is the overall feeling of his daydream? What was he able to avoid at least according to his daydreams? Whats the point? Read the pig dance part again from the middle of 114 where Jack says Make a ring to the middle of 115. What does this remind you of? Whats with wanting a drum and fire? What do you think about Jacks comment at the end?

On p.119, the last three paragraphs and then a couple paragraphs onto the next page contain dialogue between Jack and Ralph. What are they talking about? Whats really going on, or whats the point? Civilization He would like to have a pair of scissors and cut his hair (p. 109) Many changes (physical and behavioral) in the boys; Most notably: long hair and only remnants of clothes.

These suggest a decrease in societys influence on the boys. The problem is that the boys are coming to accept this degraded state of appearance and hygiene as normal. Symbolism: As the indications of society (clothes, hygiene) disappear, the influences of society also decline. CH 07 (p. 109-123) Appearances Here, on the other side of the island, the

view was utterly different (p. 110) Its the same ocean, but the water looks different here. On this side: the infinite size of the body of water represents an insurmountable force; one feels condemned On the lagoon (civilized) side: the water is calm; one can dream of rescue CH 07 (p. 109-123) The Thrill of the Hunt

I hit him! The spear stuck in (p. 113) Perhaps hunting is good after all Ralph also joins in the ritual pig dance as all the boys shout to kill the victim Goldings point is that every individual has the seeds of violence and the urge to kill within him But there is some hope for Ralph. From his dreams we get a glimpse of what he really wants home, England, baths, his father, books

Jack wants none of these things; he wants only blood. CH 07 (p. 109-123) Savagery Use a littlun (p. 115) Robert is held down while the others get carried away and actually do hurt him. Then Jack mentions another possibility. He suggests they use a littlun as a victim, and

everyone laughs in approval. But the reader who has witnessed a steady rise in the savagery knows human sacrifice actually may occur CH 07 (p. 109-123) The Beast Im going up the mountain (p. 119) Usually when someone on a quest climbs a mountain, he or she is on a search for enlightenment.

See next slide for examples. CH 07 (p. 109-123) The Beast (continued) But the boys delayed until the light was poor, so they dont see the truth; they found only more illusion to be afraid of. Also, notice the area through which the boys have to travel to get to the top of the mountain the burned area of their first irresponsibility. They are approaching what they think is the

source of the evil on this island (the beast), and they are bothered and blinded by the results of a real source of evil (their own irresponsibility) CH 07 (p. 109-123) Ch. 8: Gift for the Darkness Preview Imagination Impeachment The Lord of the Flies Jack Evil

Chapter 8 GIFT FOR THE DARKNESS Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p.127, Jack says, Im not going to play any longer. Not with you. What does that sound like in your experience? Who says that sort of thing, and when? Why does the author include this detail? On p. 128 (very bottom), Simon asks, What else is there to do? meaning besides going

back up the mountain. So, what else is there to do? On p. 130, Piggy voluntarily lights the fire for the first time. Why is it different this time? This is going to be a bit awkward, but the essay at the end of the book talks about this as well, so Im not making this up. On p. 135, in the second full paragraph, there is a lot of sexual imagery (or rape imagery) used

as the boys kill the pig. Read through that part again and jot down some of the words and phrases that stand out when you read it looking for those. Why do you think the author would write about killing in that way? On the top half of p. 136, what is Jacks plan? What are his goals? On the bottom of p. 136, what do they do with the pigs head? Why? Who does/did that sort of thing?

On p. 140, why do you think Jack is described as being almost naked? Why do you think he tells Ralphs group that he might let them join him, but he might not? On p. 141-142, what does it show when Ralph keeps forgetting what hes talking about? On p. 144, the beast says something that sounds a lot like what Bill said about joining Jack just above the middle of p. 142. What is the similar term used, and why does the

beast speak so much like them when theyre talking about joining Jack? What does the beast add about what will happen to Simon? Imagination The beast had teeth...and big black eyes (p. 125) No one has really seen what they think is the beast. Sometimes partial knowledge of something is more dangerous than no knowledge of it at all.

Sometimes what you can imagine is way worse than reality. CH 08 (p. 124-144) Impeachment Im not going to play any longer. Not with you (p. 127) Jack tries to overthrow Ralph and replace him as the leader. When no one supports Jack, hes embarrassed and runs away

He says hes not going to play with Ralph any longer. This sounds funny to us Golding is reminding us that all these terrible things are happening and are being caused by children! Also, notice that when Jack blows the conch he does so incompetently.

This is symbolic of his lack of leadership ability. CH 08 (p. 124-144) Lord of the Flies Sharpen a stick at both ends (p. 136) Jack chops the pigs head off and puts it onto this stick, which is stuck in the ground. This is a gift (sacrifice) for the beast. Dont confuse what the kids think is the beast (the dead parachutist) with the actual symbol of the beast (the pigs head the Lord of the Flies).

The boys, with the exception of Simon, are confused about that. They do not realize that the beast on the mountain, supposedly an external force of evil, is nothing to be feared, whereas what the sows head on a stick represents, humanitys internal wickedness, is the true horror. Lord of the Flies (Beelzebub) is another name for Satan. CH 08 (p. 124-144) Jack The

Chief has spoken (p. 141) Jack raids Ralphs tribe invite them to a pig feast also to steal fire and to tempt more of the boys to join him. Notice that he is wearing his mask and is basically wearing nothing reminiscent of civilization. Also notice that it is stormy during the raid; nature is reflecting whats happening to society. Jack seems to love his newfound power. He forces two others to raise their spears and say, The chief has spoken. Now Jack has fire, once a symbol of home and rescue, comfort, and hope. It is now in the hands of the enemy and

can become a destructive, not a productive, force. CH 08 (p. 124-144) Evil Fancy thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill! (p. 143) Whether Simon actually talks with the pigs head or whether its all in Simons mind is irrelevant. The Lord of the Flies says that he is part of Simon; moreover, that Simon realizes this truth. The evil is within man, not an external thing.

Then the beast tempts him by assuring him they are going to have fun on the island, but Simon knows this will lead only to trouble. This knowledge Simon acquires about evil overpowers him and he faints. CH 08 (p. 124-144) Ch. 9: A View to a Death Preview Simon the Prophet Nature Mimics

Society Jack the Dictator Simon the Savior No Evidence Chapter 9 A VIEW TO A DEATH Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 146 (end of first full paragraph), Simon is described as walking like an old man. And again on p. 147 (just before the break), hes

described in similar terms. What do we usually associate with someone whos old? How is that different from what we associate with someone whos young? How is Simon like an old man now? On the very top of p. 149, how is Jack described? What is surrounding him? What do you think is the authors point? Many times through this chapter, and again

at the very bottom of p. 150, the author tells us that a storm is coming. What are some terms that describe a thunderstorm? Do those also describe Jack? How is nature mimicking what is happening between the boys? That is, how are they similar? On the top of p. 151, Ralph claims the conch still counts up here. How does Jack respond?

What is Jacks belief about who is the real chief? On p. 152-153, what did Simon come here to tell the rest of the boys? How do they respond? How does this play into the idea of Simon being a Christ figure?

Simon the Prophet What else is there to do? (p. 145) Simons first impulse is to let the others know what he has learned. Saint/prophet figure brings truth here, the facts about the beast (or good and evil). Golding said he included this saint-like figure in the novel because this type of people exist in society, and they commonly are not trusted (or are attacked). Golding describes him walking like an old man (146).

Old men are usually wise; children are usually carefree. Hes like an old man because he now understands. He knows about sin, the nature of evil. CH 09 (p. 145-154) Nature Mimics Society The conch doesnt count at this end of the island (p. 150) When Jack denies the value of the conch (a symbol

for order), the detail that follows tells us of his error: the thunder strikes. As the boys dance, flashes of lightning stripe the black sky. A violent storm rages as Simon enters the circle. What could the storm represent? Not recognizing Simon could be interpreted as the boys ignoring the truth he has come to tell them that there is no beast to fear but themselves.

CH 09 (p. 145-154) Jack the Dictator Jack, painted and garlanded, sat there like an idol (p. 149) Jack is a dictator and is described as an idol. Idols are worshipped, not elected.

Ralph was elected democratically and made decisions based on the good of all Jack is self-appointed and makes his decisions based on what he alone wants. There is never any doubt that he is the leader. Even when Ralph and Piggy show up, Jack declared that the conch counts for nothing here. CH 09 (p. 145-154) Simon the Savior

[Simons] blood was staining the sand (p. 153) Simon alone knows the truth about the nature of evil. He desperately wants to enlighten the others and rescue them from their fear. The analogy between Simon and Christ is clear Simon, as Christ, came to save man and was rejected and killed. Also, Simon released the parachutist from his confinement as he tried to release the boys from theirs. "The Spirit of the LORD is upon me, for he has anointed me to bring Good News to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim that

captives will be released, that the blind will see, that the oppressed will be set free (Luke 4:18) Plus, think about the storm that is raging during Simons slaughter. This storm is very reminiscent of the thundering skies and quaking earth that attended Christs death. CH 09 (p. 145-154) No Evidence Simons dead body moved out toward the open sea

(p. 154) Both Simons body and the dead parachutists are swept away into the ocean. How and why is this significant? Parachutist none of the boys knows what it really was. Theyre still frightened about the presence of a beast. Theyll think its still hiding somewhere on the island. Simon the evidence of the atrocity and their violence is gone. Out of sight, out of mind! Was the beast at the fire/dance/feast?

In a way: The beast is inside all of the boys all humans! CH 09 (p. 145-154) Ch. 10: The Shell and the GlassesPreview Reds Absolute Power Piggy Ralph Jack Things Falling Apart

Chapter 10 THE SHELL AND THE GLASSES Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 156-158 (very top of 158), what do Ralph and Piggy say concerning their role in Simons death? [Jot down an abbreviated form of their conversation.] On p. 160, why does Jack refuse to allow the other boys to believe they killed the beast already?

On p. 161, what does Jack plan to do in order to enable his followers to have another feast? On p. 159, what has been happening to Wilfred? What is going to happen to Wilfred? What did Wilfred do to deserve this? On p. 162, whats that about the Reds, and who are they better than? On the top of p. 165, what is the sign that things are falling apart on the island? Whats so different about this from before?

Reds We might get taken prisoner by the Reds Theyd be better than (p. 162) Reds = Communists. Communists were hated and feared more than anyone else (by Americans and English) during

this time. The boys fear Jack even more than they fear Communists! CH 10 (p. 155-168) Absolute Power Hes going to beat Wilfred (p. 159) The signs of Jacks new power come quickly. He decides that they ought to keep on the good side of the beast by giving it part of their kill after each hunt.

He has basically set up a primitive religion based on fear and controlled by force. His first official act is to have a boy named Wilfred tied up and beaten for a reason no one can fathom. CH 10 (p. 155-168) Piggy

We got to forget this. We cant do no good thinking about it (p. 157) Piggy is in denial and refuses to accept any responsibility for Simons death. In fact, he insists that the incident was an accident and suggests that the boys forget all about it. What happens if people forget history? It repeats itself.

Many people say that it repeats itself anyway, but its worse if we dont learn from it. CH 10 (p. 155-168) Ralph Dont you understand, Piggy? The things we did (p. 157) Ralph wont accept Piggys denial of what happened. Hes prepared to accept the guilt. We know that at least Ralph is realizing the

knowledge that Simon died to bring them. Ralph recognizes the source of sin or evil and it frightens him. To highlight Ralphs discovery, Golding has him shudder at any physical contact with his humans. Piggy lays a hand on Ralph to comfort him, but Ralph shrinks away from the touch of human flesh on his bare shoulder. CH 10 (p. 155-168) Jack No! How could wekillit? (p. 160)

Unlike Ralph, Jack refuses to admit anything about the previous nights activities except that they had a run-in with the beast. Of course, the beast (evil) was present during their ritual dance and kill. The beast within them led to the murder of the one who had come to free them from the false beast. Jack is right when he claims that the beast came in disguise, but mistaken in his belief that the disguise was the form of Simon. Jack refuses to allow the other hunters to believe that they killed the beast. His denial that the beast is dead

may show that he realizes Simon, not some beast, was killed or it may arise from his need of the tribes fear of the beast to look to him for protection. CH 10 (p. 155-168) Things Falling Apart Well what is the good? (p. 163) [Whats the point, anyways?] Symbolically, we know things are breaking up when during the night the inseparable twins are seen fighting one another.

The confusion at the chapters end when Jack and his marauders attack Ralphs shelters culminates in the loss of Piggys glasses. Jack has stolen the remaining lens to make fires to cook his pigs, but, to Ralph and the others, he has practically stolen their only hope. For Ralph, the signal fire has been the one symbol of hope, a remote connection with a better world. But now the task of maintaining the fire is nearly impossible. CH 10 (p. 155-168) Chapter 11: Castle Rock

Preview Appearances Hope Reasoning with the Enemy The End of Civilization Terror and Helplessness Chapter 11 CASTLE ROCK

Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 171, what reason does Piggy say he will not give Jack for the return of his glasses? What reason does he say he will give? On p. 172-173, what does Ralph say their appearance will be when they approach Jack? Specifically, what will they do? What will they not do? Whats the point? On the bottom of p. 175, what does Roger do

to the twins something weve seen him do before? What sign is there that this wont stop here? On the top of p. 177, in the 2nd bigger paragraph, how are Ralph and Jack fighting what are they careful to avoid? On the top of p. 180, what is Roger doing during Piggys plea for a return to decency? On the middle of p. 181, what does Jack say right after Piggys death? Do you believe him?

On p. 182, reread the last paragraph. What do you think that last sentence means? So who is the most evil boy on the island now? What would life be like without any rules? Appearances We could smarten up a bit and then go (p. 170) Ralph and Piggy want to clean up and then go talk

to Jack and his hunters. They hope that Jack and the hunters will remember what theyre supposed to be humans. Sam and Eric want to paint their faces so that they can try to counter-intimidate the hunters.

Sam says, Hell be painted You know how hell be (171). They realize that the savages are frightening. Ralph and Piggy realize that this would be stooping to the level of the savage hunters and decide against it, but they do take spears just in case. CH 11 (p. 169-182) Hope Dimly [Ralph] remembered something Simon had said to him once, by the rocks

(p. 172) What was it that Simon told Ralph? That he was pretty sure that Ralph would make it off the island. We now know that neither Piggy nor Simon is making it off alive Judging by the way things are going, Simon mightve been wrong about Ralph CH 11 (p. 169-182)

Reasoning with the Enemy First youve got to give back Piggys specs. You arent playing the game (p. 177) Ralph and Piggy think that Jack and the hunters can be reasoned with; besides, whats happening on the island doesnt sound much like a game to me. Most rational people expect others to think rationally like they do. Unfortunately, reason is quite often something one cannot count on. CH 11 (p. 169-182)

Piggys quotes (171, 180) That sounds very reasonable to most people. The problem is that Jack doesnt care at all for reason or logic. Nor does he care for Piggy and fairness, and he obviously doesnt care at all about whats right and what isnt. The End of Civilization [T]he conch exploded into a thousand white fragments and ceased to exist (p. 181)

Piggys civilized request to return his glasses, up against savage force, leads only to violence and death. Roger, who once threw rocks aiming to miss, now shoves a boulder on target. All restraint has left this most savage of savages. (2nd degree murder.) The tribe was capable of killing Simon only when worked up to a great frenzy and so frightened that they lost their grip on reality.

Roger is now able to kill Piggy coolly in broad daylight, to attempt to kill Ralph, and to torture the twins into submission. CH 11 (p. 169-182) Terror and Helplessness Ralph stumbled, feeling not pain but panic (p. 181) Debate has failed; reasonable requests have been silenced; the conch, symbol of society, has been crushed with Piggy along with everything both of

them represented. Notice that Piggys head burst open and his brain burst out; his wisdom is lost, right after the loss of the conch intelligence cant survive without civilization. All symbols and supporters of civilization except Ralph are gone, and he is helpless without fire, glasses, followers, Piggys reason, and Simons insight. CH 11 (p. 169-182)

Ch. 12: Cry of the Hunters Preview Savages True Enemies The Lord of the Flies The Duality of Fire The Naval Officer Deus Ex Machina Chapter 12 CRY OF THE HUNTERS

Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters Why did Samneric join Jacks tribe? What has Roger prepared for Ralph? Where have we seen that before? So what did Roger have planned for Ralph? How does Jack appear on the beach? What boy cannot remember his name? Who takes responsibility for the events on the island? Why is the naval officer disappointed in the

boys? Why should he be disappointed in them? Savages But really, thought Ralph, this was not Bill (p. 183) These boys are no longer the same people they were before. Most of them still resemble their former selves physically, but thats about as far as the resemblance goes.

CH 12 (p. 183-202) They no longer care for most things that civilized people care about hygiene, fairness, respect and theres evidence that many of them have changed so much that they dont really remember what things were like before they were savages. Percival Wemys Madison can no longer even

remember his name (201). Roger is a remorseless torturer and killer. At this point, he may even be worse than Jack. Roger is the one who single-handedly kills Piggy, instructs Jack in torturing the twins, and sharpens a stick at both ends for Ralph.

Will they also eat Ralph? We dont know, but would that surprise you at this point? True Enemies Then there was that indefinable connection between himself and Jack; who therefore would never let him alone; never (p. 184) Jack and Ralph arent complete opposites. Ralph has felt the same blood lust

as Jack, and Jack has experienced the same twinge of conscience as Ralph for the blood on his hands. CH 12 (p. 183-202) At the core they are the same, or at least they used to be. In this case each individual is trying to exterminate, by destroying his antagonist, the living example of a life-view he has rejected. The only way for Jack to feel secure is to

systematically destroy Simon, the conch, Piggy, and Ralph. Likewise, whether Ralph realizes it or not, the only way he would ever be safe on the island would be for him to kill Jack. The Lord of the Flies The skull regarded Ralph as one who knows all the answers and wont tell (p. 185)

Ralph comes face to face with the sows head, the symbol for the beast and evil. CH 12 (p. 183-202) Notice how Golding describes the skull it gleams as white as the conch. Golding wants us to associate the two important symbols in our minds

as Ralph focuses on the skull. Here we have reason and order the conch vs. Ralph vs. vs. irrational evil

the sows head Jack. The Duality of Fire The fools! The fools! The fire must be almost at the fruit trees what would they eat tomorrow? (p. 198) It should be noted that the single repeated wish Ralph had expressed when he was in power was to keep a signal fire going to attract ships. Ironically, it is eventually the uncontrollable

fire started by the hunters to kill Ralph that attracts help. CH 12 (p. 183-202) Deus Ex Machina A deus ex machina (Latin for "god out of the machine) is a plot device whereby a seemingly impossible problem is suddenly and abruptly solved with the contrived and unexpected intervention of some new event, character, ability, or object.

It refers to the conventions of Greek tragedy, where a crane (meckane) was used to lower actors playing gods onto the stage. Modern examples: The Pit and the Pendulum Toy Story 3 The Naval Officer Deus Ex Machina

Fun and games (p. 200) The officer is a military man and part of the savage business of war. He doesnt believe that two boys have been killed, and he refers to the Victorian adventure story Coral Island and commends the boys for a jolly good show This is the adult Ralph and Piggy were waiting for, and this grownup officer is absurdly blind to reality. More CH 12 (p. 183-202)

The Naval Officer (cont.) Right now Goldings message should come in loud and clear. The officer saved the boys, especially Ralph, from a horrific manhunt. He saved them from the evil in themselves. But the officer is a military officer on a warship. Who will save the adults? The beast represents the capacity for evil that is present in all human beings.

CH 12 (p. 183-202)

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