Anxiety & Mood Disorders - University of Western Ontario

Anxiety & Mood Disorders - University of Western Ontario

Anxiety Disorders Kimberley Clow [email protected] http://instruct.uwo.ca/psychology/155b Outline Finish Theory & Methods Lecture Humanistic to End Anxiety Disorders Phobias

Specific Social Agoraphobia Panic Disorder Agoraphobia connection Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Phobias 30 20 15 10 5 Crowds Closed Spaces

Phobia Social Dentist Blood 0 Related to experience? 3 Main Types Animal Age of Onset

25 Different phobias seem to emerge at different ages Specific Phobias Social Phobias Agoraphobia Specific Phobias 4 Major Subtypes

Animal Natural Environment Blood, Illness, Injections Situations Social Phobia Excessive fear of social situations in which a person might be evaluated and possibly embarrassed

Public speaking Meeting strangers Using public washrooms Eating in public Eating while people are watching you Agoraphobia An intense fear of being in public places where escape or help may not be readily

available Crowded places Driving on a bridge or tunnel Using the subway Enclosed spaces Causes? Psychoanalysis Phobias occur when unconscious sexual impulses threaten to emerge into

consciousness Cognitive Phobias are acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning Biological Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Approach People are biologically prepared to develop certain fears

Diatheses Stress Model Panic Disorder Causes? Biological Factors Genetics Suffocation False Alarm Theory

Cognitive Factors Misperceive regular body sensations as potentially dangerous events Again, it is our interpretations that cause our emotions and behaviour Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Have you ever tried NOT to think of something?

Food when dieting? An ex after a break-up? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Involves recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are serious enough to adversely affect a person's life Most Common Obsessions Fear of contacting dirt, germs, or of touching infected people or objects Disgust over body waste or secretions Undue concern that a job has not been done adequately, even when the person

knows that it was done well Fear of committing a crime or hurting someone Fear of shouting obscenities or insults Fear of thinking antireligious or sexual thoughts Causes? Biological Factors Genetics CBT

Learned an inappropriate and now vicious reinforcement cycle that is difficult to break Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Excessive worry and anxiety What causes someone to be a Worry Wart?

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Causes? Biological Factors Family Systems Family instability Cognitive Factors

Pysiological Hyperreactivity Shattering Assumptions Other Factors Preexisting Distress Coping Style Social Support Frequency of Anxiety Disorders

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Exposure is key Baby steps Work through trauma for PTSD Pair with relaxation training Debate irrational thoughts That symptoms are catastrophic (Panic Disorder) That stimulus is harmful (Phobia)

Drugs Medication without CBT has proven to be only temporarily helpful Many negative side-effects and some are addictive Relapse is common Treatment of OCD in Particular In addition to the therapy in the movie

Medication SSRIs Helps up to 60% of patients; High relapse CBT Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) Psychosurgery Lesion

to the cingulate bundle Succeeds in approximately 30% of cases

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