AP EURO Unit #1 - Renaissance and Reformation Lesson #2 - The ...

AP EURO Unit #5 Nationalism of 19th Century PPT #505 Crumbling Empires of Russia, Ottomans, Austria, Sweden The Russian Empire 1801-1917 The five Russian Czars of 19th Cent. Alexander I (r. 1801-1825) Famous for defeating Napoleon Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855) Most repressive; led to mass emigration of Jews

Alexander II (r. 1855-1881) Known as the Czar Emancipator (Freed the serfs) Alexander III (r. 1881-1894) Return to repression and Russification Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917) Created a Duma (elected legislature) Abdicated in midst of The Great War (WWI) The pendulum of politics Political leadership tends to shift back and forth, like a pendulum of ideology. Example: (Nixon/Ford) to Carter

Carter to (Reagan/Bush) (Reagan/Bush) to Clinton Clinton to Bush II Bush II to Obama Obama to Trump EXLAIN THIS PHENOMENON APPLY TO RUSSIAN CZARS DETAILS OF THE CZARS Alexander I

1801-1825 Eased censorship Promoted education Suggested freeing the serfs Napoleonic invasion Embraced mysticism and Holy Alliance Upon death: Decembrist uprising Decembrist Revolution Alexander died in December

Power to pass to a middle brother, Constantine Hed suggested a constitution and a Duma Constantine Was Grand Governor of Poland But, he was disinterested in ruling Russia- had secretly denounced throne in 1823 Younger brother, conservative Nicholas next in line Public demonstrations in favor of Constantine Constantine and Constitution Army officers demanded Constantine Suggested a coup to block Nicholas Sparked a rebellion Joanna Grudzinska (Constitution)

Nicholas I Ascended to throne 1825 Immediately suppressed rebellion Big purge by police spies Banned all Western style liberal books Reaffirmed divine right to rule as absolutist Final act: push to take Ottoman lands, thus

upsetting balance of power and starting Crimean War Then he went and died 1855 Crimean War 1854-1856 (time period of US Civil War same mentality) Russians pushed into Moldavia to probe Ottoman resistance and British resolve Br. and Fr. feared Russian expansion into Med. French and British teamed with Ottomans Attacked Russian Black Fleet 2/3 of the 20,000 British troops would die on battlefield First general war since 1815 (Napoleon)

Logistical nightmare for British and French Considered first modern war Use of telegraph Extensive use of RR Breach loading rifles and guns Photography & daily news of war Field nursing: Florence Nightingale Russians force to surrender Black Sea fleet Characterizations: Purpose: Maintain a Balance of Power Use of modern weaponry, but with old style fighting techniques

Senseless death Ridiculous bravery Want to see a reaction of Romanticism to this war? Charge of the Light Brigade (Lord Tennyson) Half a league, half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Forward, the Light Brigade! Was there a man dismayed? Not though the soldier knew

Someone had blundered. Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volleyed and thundered; Stormed at with shot and shell, Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns! he said. Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Theirs not to make reply, Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do and die. Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred. Cannon to right of them, Boldly they rode and well, Into the jaws of Death, Into the mouth of hell Rode the six hundred. Last part of the Romantic poem Flashed all their sabres bare, Flashed as they turned in air Sabring the gunners there, Charging an army, while All the world wondered. Plunged in the battery-smoke Right through the line they broke;

Cossack and Russian Reeled from the sabre stroke Shattered and sundered. Then they rode back, but not Not the six hundred. While horse and hero fell. They that had fought so well Came through the jaws of Death, Back from the mouth of hell, All that was left of them, Left of six hundred. When can their glory fade? O the wild charge they made! All the world wondered.

Honour the charge they made! Honour the Light Brigade, Noble six hundred! Alexander II 1855-1881 Ended Crimean War Crimean War embarrassing had proved Russia was antiquated Alexander listened 1. Freed the serfs 1861 2. Created zemstovs (local government)

Problems: serfs had to pay Nobles for land Zemstvovs dominated by wealthy in region 3. Eased censorship, trial by jury, reformed He Proposed a Duma A legislature HE PROPOSED REAL POLITICAL REFORM HOW DID ALEXANDER EMBRACE ENLIGHTENMENT? Liberals and students demanded more and they killed him for it! Play first 2m Legacy of Alexander II

Sold us Alaska, 1867 Serfs set free (CZAR EMANCIPATOR) Russian remained disgruntled continued to be controlled by nobles Nobles irritated they had lost control over serfs Middle class displeased there was still a Czar Government cracked down Radicals lashed back formed Peoples Will Assassinated government officials Assassinated Alexander Alexander III

Response to his dads assassination: repression Secret police revived Restored censorship First 1m Purged critics There are no cats Increased discrimination of Jews

Restricted living (must be on a shtetl) Limited attendance to universities POGROMS violent attacks Mass emigration Wrote back: 1880: 250,000 Jews in America 3% of wld Jewish population 1920: 3.6 million from E. Eur. 25% of world Jewish pop. (E. Eur. Had had 75% of pop) There a no Czars in America, and the streets a paved in gold We eat meat everyday like millionaires

He did support industry and modernization Nobles opposed foreign investment and modernization Sergei Witte finance minister (1890-1900) build RR fast What impression do you have of Russia at this time? Give examples

Nicholas II 1894-1917 Not prepared to be Czar Father died prematurely at age 45 Was a playboy, but fell in love with German princess Alix married just prior to coronation at age 26 (she was shy hated public) Play 9m-13m Liberals expected him to be more democratic Chief goal: modernize the economy Trans-Siberian RR 30,000 miles of RR in just 30 years

Far more than any other nation Modernizing at a feverish pace Pushed into Eastern China and Korea as Japan was, too Led to Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) Humiliating defeat (Japan sank 2/3 of 300 ship armada in a day War defeats created chaos Defeats against Japan led to riots and strikes Instead of listening, Nicholas ordered repression Black Sea fleet mutinied war was lost Middle class liberals demanded reforms Factory workers demanded better conditions Peasants suffering from poverty and overpopulation Minorities demanded self rule and end to repression

Nicholas a family man Most concerned for son Alexei hemophiliac October Manifesto Bloody Sunday (1905) peaceful protest Chanted hymns appealed to Czar as a gentle father Army tried to disperse led to massacre 100s dead Nation-wide protest support for Czar dwindled British PM Ramsay McDonald: a blood stained creature: a common murder October Manifesto Full civil rights Granted a duma

click Other crumbling empires Ottoman Empire Balkan region of Europe Serbians and Greeks already broke away, 1830 Government seen as corrupt and antiquated Would later back Germany to avoid Russian

takeover Turkish nationalists and Arab nationalists Agitating for autonomy Demanded modernization Sultans refused Young Turks usurped power from sultans Norway Demanded autonomy from Sweden Won independence in 1905 (for next slide) Austrian Empire Fewer than 25% of population was Austrian

Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croats, Romanians, Italians Austrian students demanded a Republic Non-Germans minorities demanded autonomy Nationalists stressed national community Weakened by war losses 1858 War in Italy (lost to France) 1866 Seven Weeks War (lost to Germany) Hungarians demanded, and got dual monarchy AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE King Franz Joseph for both Czechs and others followed suit Hungarians refused Jewish population in Germany

Granted full citizenship in new Germany Abolished all restrictions on occupation, marriage, residence, land ownership Became VERY loyal citizens Market crash of 1873 blamed on Jews Intense prejudice flared up, esp. in Russia 4 million of the 7 million European Jews lived in Russia 1890s Mayor Leuger of Vienna (1897-1910) Anti-semetic Appealed to middle class including young Adolf Inspired Theodor Herzl to champion Zionist movement

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