AP Human Geography - Alvin Independent School District
Geography (rev 8/17) Unit 1 Chapter 1 The Mother of all Sciences Thinking Globally Geo-earth
graphy-to write Geographers ask where things are and why they are there Geography-The study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth. Spatial Approach to Geography The why of where The arrangement of the
phenomena being studied across the surface of the earth. Notable early Geographers Aristotle(384-322BCE)-first to demonstrate the earth was round.
Eratosthenes(276-194 BCE)-first person to use the word Geography. Ptolemy (ACE 100-170) first book of maps Al-Idrisi-prepared a world map and geography text in 1154.
Christopher Columbus in 1492new era of exploration and mapping Carl Sauer (1889-1975)-Expanded Geography to include human geography. Geography
Physical Geographyfocus on natural environment. The earths natural phenomena, like soil, plants, climate and topography.
This is what most think of when they think Geography. Human Geographyfocus on people. Processes, and
locations of the earths human creations and their interactions. Human Geography Seeks to make sense of the spatial organization of humanity and human institutions on earth. Pattisons 4 Traditions Spatial tradition-also called locational tradition Area Studies Tradition-also called regional
tradition Man-land Tradition-also called humanenvironment, human-land or cultureenvironment tradition Earth Science tradition Presented in 1963 Five Themes of Geography Geographers employ a spatial perspective
Location Human/ Environment Interactions Regions Place Movement Location
How do Geographers know where things are? Absolute Location: refers to a position on the global grid. Relative Location: a location as described in relation to places around it. Absolute or Mathematical Location Mathematical location-location described by
meridians and parallels, otherwise known as latitude and longitude. Absolute location is unique for each place on earth. The absolute location of the ACC radio tower. Latitude: 29-24'02'' N Longitude: 095-12'14'' W
Latitude and Longitude Meridians or longitude Parallels or Latitude
Prime Meridian GMT-Greenwich Mean Time International Date line Equator
Hemispheres Latitude and Longitude Place-Unique location of a feature Why is each point on Earth Unique? Four ways to identify a place on earth by its location.
1. Place name Toponym or name to distinguish them from others. Some names reflect historyNew York Some reflect the founder-Alvin-Alvin Morgan Some are reflective-Three Rivers Site 2. Site- physical character of a place Climate Topography soil water resources
Vegetation elevation Sense of place-you perceive Characteristics of a place differently Based on personal beliefs. . Situation 3. Situation-location of a place relative to another place or surroundings.. This characteristic refers to relative location.
Spatial interaction Historically-settlers, explorers created interaction between locations based on distance and proximity. Distance Decay-the farther away one group is from
another group, the less likely they are to interact with each other. Electronic communication Has lessened this concept. Click icon to add picture Human Environment Interaction
People and their environment. Space time compression The shrinking time distance between locations because of improved methods of transportation and communication. Environmental Modification Changes to environment to suit people.
Cultural Ecology How do humans adapt to the environment? Environmental determinism Holds that human behavior, individually and collectively is affected controlled or determined by the physical environment Possibilism
The natural environment merely serves to limit the range of choices available to a culture. The choices they make are based on members needs and what technology is available to them. Distribution vs. density? Distribution-the arrangement of a feature in space
Density-frequency in which something occurs Distribution, cont. Concentration-the extent of a features spread over space. Are they clustered (close together)? Are they dispersed (far apart) ? Concentration is not the same as density. You can have the same density but different concentrations. Think housing in communities.
Distribution, cont. Movement People and Ideas get around!!!! What connects people and places How do people move from one place To another? Globalization A force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something
worldwide in scope. Human activities are rarely confined to one location. Multinational Corporation-located in more than one country. Can affect the culture of other nations. Regions The organization of the earths surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas.
Types of regions There are three types of regions: 1. Formal region 2. Functional Region 3. Vernacular or perceptual region 1. Formal Region Other wise known as uniform or homogeneous region. Everyone within the region shares in common
one or more distinctive characteristics. Distinct boundaries exist. 2. Functional Region Functional or Nodal Regions are organized around a core, node or focal point. Geographers use functional regions to display information about economic areas. Newspaper circulation TV Station reception area People in our are who follow the Texans.
3. Perceptual or Vernacular Regions They are places that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity. The reflect feelings and images more than any objective reality.
4 Level Analysis to study Geographic Phenomena Level Description Key Questions 1. Comprehension Establish the basic info clearly
What, when, where, scale? 2. Identification Identify and describe patterns in phenomena Are the phenomena connected?
3. Explanation Explain how individual Why is something phenomena might form where it is? How did a pattern something get where it is? 4. Prediction Explain why a pattern
is important, and predict, what it might lead to So what? What if? What are the effects? Patterns and Processes Looking at the earth
Continents County State/province/territory
Islands Oceans The World The Science of Mapmaking Cartographer-A person who
makes maps How do you know where things are without a map? Maps Maps-a two dimensional or flat scale model of the earths surface Globe-scale model of the earth Great Circle Route-shortest
distance between 2 points on the earth Maps and Map Symbols Scale Compass Rose Symbols Title Key/Legend Color Scale
Scale can also be by area or region Local State Regional National Small scale refers to world maps or maps of large regions such as continents
or large nations , because the representative fraction is relatively small. the world map, which is a small scale map, might be on a scale of 1:100,000,000. Large scale maps show smaller areas in more detail, such as county maps or town plans might. For instance a town plan, which is a large scale map, might
be on a scale of 1:10,000. Map Projections Projections are the scientific method of transferring locations on the Earths surface to a flat map. Think of a projection of
making the skin of an orange lay flat. Four types of distortions can occur: 1. shape of an area is distorted. 2. distance between two points may increase or decrease. 3. relative size of different
areas may be altered. 4. Direction from one place to another can be distorted. Contemporary Tools for Mapping Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Information on a location is stored in layers.
Layers can be viewed individually or combined. Remote Sensing Remote sensing satellites scan the earth. Google maps Global Positioning
Systems (GPS) Accurately determines the precise position of something on earth. Originally designed for aircraft and ships, now available for autos. World Regions and Sub-regions
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