APA Guidelines - WKU

APA Guidelines - WKU

APA Guidelines A brief review for Organizational Leadership Learning Objectives Expectations of graduate level writing Introduce and define APA format Provide general guidelines for APA formatted paper Outline specific format and style requirements, with references to the appropriate pages in the APA manual (6th Ed.)

NOTE: This is an overview, not everything. Please use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Associate (6th edition) to answer all questions. This should be used for all writing assignments, unless the professor says otherwise. What is APA? The American Psychological Associate (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences. APA Regulates: Stylistics

In-text Citations References APA Documentation Style The Basics General Instructions for Preparing a Paper Section 8.03, p. 228

Typeface 12 point Times New Roman Double Spaced Margins are 1 inch on all sides Page numbers in upper right-hand corner, starting on title page Two spaces at the end of a sentence, recommended

Remember, title of paper is repeated on first line of text (Page two, generally). Title Page The header now includes the Running head: IN UPPER CASE (max of 50 characters, including spaces) But on subsequent pages the words - Running head is not there. In Word 2007+, once you are in header, use different first page tool to create this.

Title Page Title Name Institutional Affiliation Title Page Set up Running Head and Page Number Your Running head will appear flush left while the page number will

appear in the upper right hand corner of each page. Note: Upper case R and lower case h, not italicized, with the colon. For Page 1 (Title Page) Step 1 - Select Insert > Header Step 2 - Click on Header. From the box that appears, go to the bottom and select Edit Header. Click Different First Page in the Options section. Step 3 - Select Page Number, Top of page and from the list given, choose the page number that is top right (Plain Number 3).

Step 4 -The number one (1) will appear on your page to the right. Type "Running head:", and, in caps, your abbreviated title. Hit the space bar once. From the Position section on the toolbar, click on "Insert Alignment Tab." From the box that appears, choose "Right. Close the Header box using the link in the top right corner. Set up Running Head and Page Number For Page 2: Step 1 - Select Insert > Header Step 2 - Click on Header. From the box that appears, go to the bottom and

select Edit Header. Step 3 - Select Page Number, Top of page and from the list given, choose the page number that is top right (Plain Number 3). Step 4 -The number two (2) will appear on your page to the right. Type, in caps, your abbreviated title (do not type "Running head:. Hit the space bar once. From the Position section on the toolbar, click on "Insert Alignment Tab." From the box that appears, choose "Right." Close the Header box using the link in the top right corner. Levels Use levels consecutively, meaning that, if your paper has three levels, use levels 1, 2, and 3

Levels have slightly different formatting NOTE: 1. You probably will not use this many headings in a paper (unless you are composing lengthy work like a thesis/dissertation). 2. The Introduction does not need a heading.

3. There should be (at least) 2 subheadings/subsection under a heading; if not, it isnt needed. Remember, you must have 2 or more subsections Parenthetical & Intext References Pages 174 - 179 Parenthetical & In-text References Whenever you summarize, paraphrase or quote another author, you MUST include source.

A parenthetical reference will usually have the author's last name (or an abbreviated title if no author) and the publishing date of the work. A page number (or paragraph number for electronic sources without pages) is included if the borrowed material is a quotation. These parts act as tags to inform the reader what information has been borrowed and from whom. When you write (Hunt, Hughey & Burke, 2010) at the end of the sentence, the reader know that you have borrowed or summarized ideas from an article by Hunt, Hughey and Burke published in 2010 and that the full citation to that work can be found in the Reference list at the end of your paper. Citing within text For the specifics of citing references in text, refer to Sections 6.11 through 6.21 in the APA Manual. Paraphrasing within text:

In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwins most effective metaphors. Author cited in text: Gould (1989) attributed Darwins success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor. Author not cited in text: As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989). Multiple works within same parenthesis Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kammil, 1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990) confirm the use of metaphors increases learning. One work with multiple authors First citation in text: Wasserstein, Zappula, Rosen, German, and Rock (1994) found. . .

The use of metaphors was found to be helpful (Wasserstein, Zappula, Rosen, German, & Rock, 1994) Subsequent citations (3 or more authors): Wasserstein and colleagues (1994) found Wasserstein et al. (1994) found The use of metaphors was found to be helpful (Wasserstein et al., 1994) *(See Table 6.1 of the APA Manual)

Citation from secondary source Text: Seidenberg and McCellands study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993). Reference page: Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608. Use sparingly! In-Text Citations New section about electronic sources without pagination in APA Manual (6th edition).

para. should be used for electronic sources without pagination in place of (Golan, 2007, para. 3). If no para. number, cite heading and number of paragraphs after it (Discussion section, para.1). Common Knowledge in APA Papers Source: APA Manual, p. 169 All facts which are not common knowledge to the general population must be cited. Facts that are consistently found in multiple references are considered common knowledge, even if it is a piece of information you personally did not know prior to your research.

Examples: Sante Fe is the capital of New Mexico Leukemia is a form of cancer. Abraham Lincoln was the US President during the Civil War. You would not need to cite, for example, that pneumonia is a respiratory illness that often results in hospitalization. However, you would want to cite the source for the percentage of women who are diagnosed every year with breast cancer, which would not be common knowledge for every reader. Common Knowledge??? In both 2000 and 2001, the most popular name given to baby girls in the United States was Emily. Common Knowledge or Needs Citation? NEEDS CITATION. Although readers may have anecdotal evidence of the popularity of

particular baby names, certain knowledge of the number one name generally requires investigation. The source should be cited. Babe Ruths record for home runs in a single season was not broken for decades. Common Knowledge or Needs Citation? COMMON KNOWLEDGE. This fact is widely known even outside of the field of baseball (or sports), information about major records in sports is found in many different sources. When the Homestead Act took effect, granting 160 acres of western land to any head of a householdmale or female who would live there and improve it for five years, women filed 10% of the claims. Common Knowledge or Needs Citation?

NEEDS CITATION. While the existence of the Homestead Act might be considered common knowledge, the statistical fact that women filed 10% of the claims must be cited. Quoting and Paraphrasing Pages 170 - 173 Using quotations appropriately Limit your use of quotations. Do not quote excessively. Often you can integrate words or phrases from a source into your own sentence structure. As researchers continue to face a number of unknowns about obesity, it may be helpful to envision treating the disorder as Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) suggested, in the same manner as any other chronic disease (p. 592). Use the ellipsis mark to condense a quoted passage. What remains must be grammatically complete.

Roman (2003) reported that social factors are nearly as significant as individual metabolism in the formation of dietary habits of adolescents (p.345). Ordinarily, do not use an ellipsis mark at the beginning or at the end of a quotation (unless dropped words are at the end of the final quoted sentence--- put ellipsis dots before the closing quotation marks). Quotes within text Direct quote from author: Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life to express the other form of interconnectedness-genealogical rather than ecological-and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life (p.14).

Direct quote without name of author: Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life to express the other form of interconnectedness-genealogical rather than ecological (Gould, 1989, p.14). Punctuation Tips for Parenthetical References Periods & Commas Periods or commas usually go inside the quotation marks. (This is true even if the original quoted material did not end with a period or a comma). Thompson (1998, p. 32) describes Esme as "a real charmer." Exception: If there is a parenthetical citation immediately after the quote,

the period or comma goes after the parenthetical citation. Thompson (1998) describes Esme as "a real charmer" (p. 32). Question Marks, Exclamation Points If the quote itself ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark, include it inside the quotation marks. Here's a passage from a book: Will not a righteous God visit for these things?

Here's the passage quoted in a sentence: When Douglass (1845) asks, "Will not a righteous God visit for these things?" he raises the question of doubt about the future salvation of the "Christian slaveholders (p. 55). If you want to use a quoted statement in a question or exclamation of your own, then the question mark or the exclamation mark goes outside the quotation marks. Heres a a passage from a book: The grave is at the door. Here's the passage quoted in a sentence: How can we take Douglass seriously when he indulges in excessively romanticized language such as "The grave is at the door" (Douglass, 1845, p. 55)? Quotes within Quotes

One of the messiest types of quotes to punctuate is a quote within a quote. Sometimes you may want to use quoted dialogue or a quote that includes a word set off by quotation marks. To mark a quotation within the text, enclose it in single quotation marks: ' . Here's a passage from a book: I got hold of a book entitled "The Columbian Orator." Here's the passage quoted in a sentence: Because Douglass "got hold of a book entitled 'The Columbian Orator,'" he was able to learn how to read and broaden his mind. Notice that the comma at the end of the quote goes inside the single and double quotes.

Block Quotes Setting off long quotations. When you quote forty or more words, set off the quotation by indenting it one-half inch from the left margin and do not single space. Introduce by an informative sentence, usually followed by a colon. Quotation marks are not needed. Block quotes APA prefers that you set off long quotes (40 or more words) in what is called a "block quote," which physically separates the quote from the rest of the paragraph.

To create a block quote: Indent the whole block of text five spaces from the regular margin. The block quote is usually preceded by a colon. There are no quotation marks around the quoted text. Give the parenthetical reference at the end of the block quote, then start a new line and continue typing your paper. Using Brackets

Brackets allow you to insert your own words into quoted material to clarify a confusing reference or to make the quoted words fit grammatically into the context of your writing. When writers insert or alter words in a direct quotation, square brackets[ ]are placed around the change. Additionally, use to indicate an error such as a misspelling in a quotation. --- [sic] Original: "I returned there yesterday, 2 hours after it happened" Original direct quotation beginning with an upper case letter:

Quote: The criminal admitted: "I returned [to the crime scene] yesterday, 2 hours after [the murder] happened The heavy cognitive workload of driving suggests that any secondary task has the potential to affect driver behavior (Salvucci and Taatgen 108). Integrated quotation with brackets used correctly to indicate a change in letter case: Salvucci and Taatgen propose that [t]he heavy cognitive workload of driving suggests that any secondary task has the potential to affect driver behavior (108). Signal Phrases Use Signal Phrases. Whenever you include a direct quote, a paraphrase, or a summary in your paper, prepare readers for it with a signal phrase.

Marking boundaries. Avoid dropping quotations into your text without warning. Signal phrases mark the boundaries between source material and your own words and ideas. As researchers Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) have explained, obesity was once considered either a moral failing or evidence or underlying psychopathology (p. 592). To avoid monotony, try to vary both the language and the placement of your signal phrase. Signal phrases introduce someone elses work they signal that the words and ideas that are about to be offered belong to someone other

than the author of the paper. In-Text Citation and Signal Phrases In-text citations are the parenthetical pieces of information that appear usually at the end of a quote, paraphrase, or summary (though they sometimes appear before). A simple rule: Author or Title, Year, and Page: what isnt signaled up front must be cited at the end. Limited signal, everything in citation . . . end of paraphrased sentence, in which you convey the author's ideas in your own words (Krepp, 1985, p. 103). " . . . end of quoted sentence" (Krepp, 1985, p. 103).

Author and year in signal, page in citation In 1985, Krepp reported that . . . (p. 103). Krepp (1985) tells us that . . . (p. 103). According to Krepp (1985), ". . ." (p. 103). Documenting sources at SNHU: APA style. (n.d.). Southern New Hampshire University. Retrieved September 17, 2007 from http://acadweb.snhu.edu/documenting_sources/apa.htm#Use%20a%20citation%20when %20you%20paraphrase Signal Phrases and In-Text Citation (continued) Multiple Authors signaled (Alphabetical) Studies (Jones, 1966; Krepp, 1985; Smith, 1973) have shown that . . .

No Author ("Stocks Lose Again," 1991, p. B16). According to the news article Stocks Lose Again (1991) end paraphrase or quote (p. B16). No Page Number Provide other information in signal phrase When citing a statistic and other specific facts, a signal phrase is often not necessary but there is nothing wrong, however, with using a signal phrase. In purely financial term, the drugs cost more than $3 a day on average (Duenwald, 2004). Duenwald (2004) pointed out that in purely financial terms, the drugs cost more than $3 a day on average. Here's a list of signal phrases that help introduce quotes, summaries or

paraphrases (from St. Martin's Guide): admits, agrees, argues, asserts, believes, claims, compares, confirms, contends, denies, emphasizes, insists, notes, observes, points out, reasons, refutes, rejects, reports, responds, replies, suggests, thinks, writes In addition to the above list of verbs, there are other phrases you might use: In _____'s words... According to ____'s (notes, study, narrative, novel, etc.)... References References

References are listed on separate page. Only citations that appear in the text should appear on the reference page. Everything cited in the text should appear on the reference page. References are double-spaced, flush left with subsequent lines indented 5 spaces.

Pages 180-224. Documentation Refers to the References list at the end of the paper The List is labeled References (centered, no font changes) starts at the top of a new page

continues page numbering from the last page of text is alphabetical is double spaced Uses a hanging indent (1/2 inch can be formatted from the Paragraph dialog box in MS Word) Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket guide to APA style (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. General Rules: Include the doi (digital object identifier) if available for online sources. If no doi is available,

include the URL for the website (if applicable). It is no longer necessary to include the database title or access date if the article is retrieved from a subscription source. Titles of books and journals appear in italics. Article titles and titles of book chapters, essays, and short stories do NOT appear in "quotes." If an author isn't given, begin with the corporate author (the sponsoring organization) or the title.

Give the initials of the author's first and middle name rather than spelling out the full name. If there are multiple authors, the single-author entries with the same surname precede the multiple-author entries If you have multiple works written by the same author, arrange your citations by the years of publications with the earliest date appearing first. If the works have the same year of publication alphabetize by title. Include the publisher's city and abbreviated state, except if the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the name of the university.

CAUTION! Use Only Professionally Respected Material Be careful if searching the Web in general: make sure that the material you plan to use is respected, scholarly, and valid. Do NOT use Wikipedia. Ebsco Host and ERIC are respected repositories of scholarly materials. Do NOT Self-Plagiarize.

Do NOT Plagiarize. Periodicals General format: Author, A. A (year, add month and date of publication for daily or weekly publications). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue), pages. Example: Little, D. W. (200l). Leading change: Creating the future for education technology. Syllabus International, 15(5), 22-24. Book, edition, multiple authors General format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (number ed.). Location City, State Abbreviation: Publisher. Example: Anderson, A. B., Smith, S. D., & Jones, J. C. (1978). A distant mirror: The calamitous fourteenth century (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Knopf.

Chapter in Book General format: Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher. Example: James, J. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Note with references to chapters in the book that the Author of chapterlast name, initials Editor of bookinitials and last name 1. Pages of chapteruse pp. 2. Chapternot in italics 3. Bookitalics

References: Electronic Sources Add as much information as print sources in the same order. Do not need the retrieval date unless source may change over time. Add Retrieved from before a URL Shotton, M. A. (1998). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk.asp No period at end Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

DOIs are unique strings of numbers used to identify online articles content and provide a persistent link to their location on the Internet. 1. When DOIs are present, no longer have to include URL. 2. When DOIs are not present, include URL Typically located on first page of electronic journal article, near copyright notice; also on the database landing page for article Use for BOTH electronic and print if available Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

doi comes last No period at end Online periodical when DOI is present General format: Author, A. A. (date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(number), page numbers. doi: xx.xxxxxxx Example: Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225 Online article when DOI is not present General format: Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article Title of Journal,

volume(number), page numbers. Retrieved from URL Example: Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and selfesteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap Documenting Authors One Author: Koch Jr., R. T. (2004). Two Authors: Stewart, T., & Biffle, G. (1999). Three to Six Authors

Wells, H. G., Lovecraft, H. P., Potter, H. J., Rowling, J. K., & Kirk, J. T. (2005). More than Six Authors Smith, M., Flanagan, F., Judd, A., Burstyn, E., Bullock, S., Knight, S., et al. (2002). Same author? List by Year. Same year? Alphabetize by source title and add a letter to the year (1984a). Documenting Books Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of book. City: Publisher. Sample: Perrin, R. (2007). Pocket guide to APA style (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Internationally recognized cities do not need two letter state abbreviations. Publishers do not need Co. Ltd., etc. Documenting Edited Collections Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Eds.). (Date of publication). Title of book. City: Publisher. Model for an essay in an edited collection: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In A.A. Author (Ed.), Title of book (pp. ##-##). City: Publisher.

Sample: McCabe, S. (2005). Psychopharmacology and other biologic treatments. In M. A. Boyd (Ed.), Psychiatric nursing: Contemporary practice (pp.124138). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins. Documenting Journals Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number if available), page numbers. Sample: Koch Jr., R. T. (2006). Building connections through reflective writing. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 10(3), 208-213. Documenting Online Journals

Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved month date, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Sample: Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved February 20, 2001, from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html Print and Online: Whitmeyer, J.M. (2000). Power through appointment [Electronic version]. Social Science Research, 29, 535-555.

Documenting Websites Model for an authored document that is a whole site: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article/document. Retrieved month date, year, from http://Web address Model for an authored page/article from a site: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article/document. Title of Site. Retrieved month date, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Sample (no author, article found on resource website): Nebraska school nurse honored during 100th Anniversary Celebration. (2007).

Answers4Families. Retrieved September 26, 2007, from http://nncf.unl.edu/nurses/info/anniversary.html No Author? List page title or article title first. No page title? List site title. Personal Communications Such as: Private letters Memos Email(s) Non-archived discussion boards Personal interviews Phone conversations Cite personal communications in text only. You do not have to include in

the Reference list. Give initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible. APA Manual:6.20 Most of the original slides from this PowerPoint come from: Burke, Monica (2016). APA writing workshop handout powerpoint [PDF Document]. Dr. Burke was kind enough to let me use the PowerPoint, and gave permission for me to use direct slides. Resources American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

Hacker, D. & Sommers, N. (2012). A Pocket Style Manual (6th ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Bedford/St. Martins. APA Website: www.apastyle.org http://www.liberty.edu/media/2030/APApresentation.ppt http://gseacademic.harvard.edu/~instruct/articulate/apa_mod/ APA_Module1/player.html www.aug.edu/elcse/2010APAGuidelinesPPT.ppt http://www.lib.usm.edu/legacy/tutorials/apatutorial Additional Information SAMPLE PAPER http://www.liberty.edu/media/2030/Sample_APA_Paper_UWP.pdf REVIEW OF LITERATURE http://www.liberty.edu/media/2030/Literature_Review_Handout_Final.pdf

FYI http://isites.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do?keyword=apa_exposed http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.aspx https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Part I: Introduction

    Part I: Introduction

    Attacks * Session hijacking: The details Attacker is on segment where traffic passes from Alice to Bob Attacker sniffs packets Sees TCP packets between Bob and Alice and their sequence numbers Attacker jumps in, sending TCP packets to Bob; source...
  • Auburn University Parking and Traffic Presenters Catherine Love,

    Auburn University Parking and Traffic Presenters Catherine Love,

    Rod Turochy, Faculty. Rebecca Retzlaff, Faculty. Joseph Kemble, Faculty. Charlene LeBleu, Faculty. Ways Faculty Can Participate . and Influence the Master Plan Update. Full University Senate Presentation(s): Facilities Management has offered to present draft options for the various planning elements...
  • The African Development Bank Financing Mechanisms for Renewable

    The African Development Bank Financing Mechanisms for Renewable

    Addresses climate change and environmental issues by incorporating them into Bank Group supported operations. Policy. Programs. Project. Ensuring access . to energy and . bringing Africa . on a low-carbon . growth path. The Bank's Medium-Term Strategy (2008-2012) identifies Climate...
  • Connecting the Dots Education, Data and Implementation of the ...

    Connecting the Dots Education, Data and Implementation of the ...

    Connecting the DotsEducation, Data and Implementation of the CAUTI-LTC Program. Cohort 4. July 30, 2015. HRET Staff Members. Helen Plass AJ Rolle. Sue Collier Amanda Wilkins
  • Glencoe Precalculus

    Glencoe Precalculus

    Example 4 Use Reference Angles to Find Trigonometric Values Answer: tan 150° = -tan 30° In Quadrant II, tan θ is negative. tan 30° Example 4 Use Reference Angles to Find Trigonometric Values C. Find the exact value of ....
  • Klasse 2-5 Heute ist Freitag, der 17. Februar

    Klasse 2-5 Heute ist Freitag, der 17. Februar

    SchweizerSprachen. Wieviele offizielle Sprachen gibt es in der Schweiz? Vier. Deutsch. Hochdeutsch und Schwyzerdütsch, der schweizerische Dialekt „Grüezi mitenand!" - „Uf Widerluege!"
  • 7장 소프트웨어 공학과 IPT - Tistory

    7장 소프트웨어 공학과 IPT - Tistory

    7장 소프트웨어 공학과 IPT. ... 총괄 도표(Overview Diagram) : 시스템 또는 프로그램의 개괄적인 사항을 입력, 처리, 출력의 관계로 도형 목차에 나타난 전체적인 기능을 하나의 도표로 나타낸 것 ... 체제배경도(Context Diagram), 자료 ...
  • Current Treatment Options in MDS Dick Wells MD,

    Current Treatment Options in MDS Dick Wells MD,

    Other options for high risk MDS Hypomethylating drugs Vidaza (Pharmion) Dacogen (MGI Pharma) What they do: "Rehabilitate" bone marrow cells in MDS by changing their pattern of gene expression Hypomethylating drugs: Clinical trials Vidaza and Dacogen beat supportive care Major...