APWH Study Session Politics I - White Plains Middle School
State-building, expansion and conflict Political structures and forms of governance Empires Nations and nationalism Revolts and revolutions
Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations With the development of farming and cities, political organization became much more complex.
Why? FOUNDATIONS Hunter-Gatherers and Pastoral nomads have limited political structure. Egypt and the Shang in China were highly
centralized. They developed bureaucracies, dynasties, and used religion to justify the position of the rulers. Classical empires were much more complex because they were so large. They had to invent new ways to keep their land together.
How did the classical empires accomplish this? Rome: At first a republic ruled by aristocrats w/ some shared power with the Senate and 2 consuls usually selected from the military. Later, an empire with focus on military conquest, colonization, and law codes. The ideal was to use principle of the rule of law; not the
rule by the whim of the emperor. China: Mandate of Heaven, the emperor was the Sun of Heaven housed in the Forbidden City.
Yellow Turban Revolt What causes regionalism? Mauryan and Gupta gain power through the military.
The greatest of the Mauryan kings was? Why? Meanwhile, in Africa, the Bantu-based societies and others developed stateless societies which were A. centralized.
B. decentralized. How do you know? Post-Classical World 600-1450 WEST AFRICA
Ghana and Mali Became rich by taxing traders
Powerful military (see a pattern here?) Mali first major leader Sundiata and later Mansa Musa Islamic Empires After Muhammads death, the government set up rule by a Caliph.
Abu Bakr was the first caliph supported by well-trained armies Aided by the weaknesses of the Persian and Byzantine empires Pastoral nomads which means they are a _________ ___________? Protect trade routes. Sounds familiar doesnt it?
Organized into regional Khanates which were politically controlled by a relative with one main ruler known as the Great Khan. TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES
Equalfield system Strong support for transportation and communication Meritocracy Religion played a role Took tribute from their
neighbors Hegemony over neighbors Expanded meritocracy Didnt emphasize the
military as much so not as much hegemony Trade, communication and transportation still important
YUAN Dynasty ruled by collecting tribute called Tax Farming. This outsourcing of tax collection led to corruption and rebellion and ultimately to their downfall. Who really had the power in
Japan? What do these names have in common? Fujiwara, Minamoto, Tokugawa The feudal system was less centralized than some areas, but more powerful than a local government. Political values emphasized
what? European Feudalism established political and military relationships. Byzantium Justinian law codes the biggest legacy. The ruler was absolute in power and controlled the
church as well. Russia Copied Justinian law codes and organized into a state by the 10thc. in Kiev. THE AMERICAS Maya: city-states w/ no central govt.
Aztecs: central monarch in Tenochtitlan who didnt have absolute power; a council of aristocrats made many decisions; no elaborate bureaucracy Inca: highly powerful centralized govt. the Inca owned all of the land; elaborate bureaucracy; road system enforced Incas
power; quipu kept records 1450-1750 Power of nomads decreased because of sea trades rising importance. Major maritime powers were? Major Gunpowder Empires were?
The Ming defeat the Yuan. Establish trade and bureaucracy again! Send out trade expeditions to start collecting tribute again! Afraid of another invasion from the North and Westagain! Begin to isolate themselves, because Confucian bureaucrats were xenophobic.
Suffered from inept rulers who were isolated from the empire in the Forbidden City.again! Invaded by outsidersagain! Manchu take the name Qingused Mandate of Heaven to justify again! WESTERN EUROPE
The pope remained politically powerful. Treaty of Tordesillas! Kings begin to shake off feudalism and become more centralized by taking on absolutism. In Spain and Portugal they support exploration. Name those kings! Later, so do France and England.
Magna Carta 1215 listed the rights of the nobility and created Parliament. King Henry VIII Church and takes over the monasteries separates from the Catholic church. Elizabeth I defeats the Spanish
Armada. After the English Civil War the power of the king is limited by the.of 1688 It greatly limited the power of the king AND allowed wealthier merchants to participate in the government Louis XIV said, Lstat cest moi!
I AM THE STATE! Absolutely! Kings were not gods, but they were His lieutenants on earth. He greatly weakened the power of the nobles and the feudal system.
Absolutists Russia and Peter the Great Wanted to westernize Reformed military and created the navy Reorganized
bureaucracy/took titles away from nobles Ottoman Empire under Suleyman the Magnificent (sultan)
Used captured Christian boys as skilled soldiers and bureaucratsJanissaries Grand Vizier 1750-1914:
European Hegemony! The Balance of Power shifted after centuries of domination from Asia! Absolutism vs. Enlightenment New Economic and Social Ideas=Democracy
1450-1750 ALL kingdoms in Europe, Muslim Empires and China were absolutist. They held on to their power claiming Divine Right (Europe) or Mandate of Heaven (China)
What Changed and Why? 21st century more internationally based due to internet and unprecedented globalization Multi national corporations Greenpeace and Green Movements Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch Ideologies and Revolutions Black Nationalist Movements Feminist Movements Iranian Revolution: Ayatollah Khomeini
Gorbachev w/ Louis Vuitton Bag Ideologies and Revolutions Communism: Russia=Lenin; China= Mao Zedong Fascism: developed in Italy=Mussolini; Hitler=Germany takes it and makes Nazism
Stalinism: collectivization of agriculture little resemblance to Marxism USSR and Gorbachev: Perestroika=eco. reforms; Glasnost=more openness loosened censorship China: Mao, Great Leap Forward (not); Cultural Revolution; Deng Xiaoping institutes socialist market economy or market Socialism; Tiananmen Square
Latin America: Mexico nationalist movement with the revolution of 1910, new Constitution 1917, accept idea of being Mexican (Villa and Zapata) The rest of Latin America becomes controlled by *authoritarian regimes with violent repression; many inspired by communism after WWII
Brazil= Vargas Argentina=Peron Cuba=Castro Chile=Pinochet *Caudillos, Juntas, Oligarchical rule Nationalist Movements Part II
or Decolonization Movements Educated western elites lead the movements Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya African National Congress in South Africa anti-Apartheid India gets independence Mohandas Gandhi (Mahatma) 1947
Southeast Asia: Indonesia throw off Dutch 1949; Philippines break from US 1946; Burma from Britain 1948; Indochina/ Vietnam 1975 Ho Chi Minh 1945-1991 USA and our allies vs. USSR and their allies Started before the end of WWII
Yalta Conference Postdam Conference NATO World War II Total War!
Causes left over from the last war Allied Powers: US, Great Britain, France, USSR Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, Italy Results in beginning of the Cold War and the United Nations Total War!
Causes: nationalism, militarism, imperialism, Industrialization, alliances Treaty of Versailles: Germany lost territory, military and they have to pay for it ALL
Ottoman Empire done! A-H no longer a hyphen! Japan gets Germanys colonies in Asia President Wilsons
14 Points and the idea of self determination League of Nations New countries created: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia
1914-Present World Wars and the concept of Total War The Cold War The Nationalist Movements Part II New Ideologies and Revolutions Globalization
MEIJI RESTORATION Opium Wars 1839-1842 Qing Dynasty Treaty of Nanjing Spheres of Influence Taiping Rebellion
O God of Battles! Steel My Soldiers' Hearts! 10 October 1857 Berlin Conference 1884-5 The COMPLETE takeover of an
area with domination economically, politically, and socio-culturally Otto von Bismarck
Declared the beginning of the German Empire German y Second Reich
First was HRE Led to more competition among states. Created more nationalist movements. Count Cavour in the north; occupied by
Austria Italy Garibaldi in the south; occupied by Spain
Other political reforms Social Darwinism: poor people are lazy and less intelligent and deserve their status; rich people are hard working and smart and deserve their status Marxism: The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels said there would be a rev of the
Proletariat Nationalism: new political concept of the nation; a feeling of identity among common groups of peopl Abolition of slave trade then slavery
Male suffrage Political Reforms Womens rights especially
suffrage Universal education Labor laws especially
child labor Results of Revolutions Enlightenment philosophy continued to spread and inspire Revolutions with the concepts of democracy, liberty, equality, and justice Conservatism: wanted to return to absolutism, disapproved
of revs, but would accept a constitutional monarchy Liberalism: wanted republican democracy, elected legislature and freedom from oppression more than equality Radicalism: wanted drastic changes in the govt., emphasized equality more than freedom; to narrow the gap between rich and poor ex: Jacobins and later Marxists
South America led by Creole elites such as: Simon Bolivar in the north and in the south Jose de San Martin (1821) Brazil 1822 Mexico 1821 Father Miguel Hidalgo Benito Juarez modeled the constitution
after the US, but after his death a series of dictators. Haitian (a.k.a. Saint Domingue) Revolution Led by Toussaint LOverture a former slave Napoleon sent the army to put down the rebels. Napoleon withdraws as many in his army died of
yellow fever and couldnt fight the guerilla tactics used by the Haitians. LOverture died, Haiti gets independence 1804 Jefferson buys Lousiana from Napoleon 1803; the French had to have money to finance the fighting. Congress of Vienna 1815: Objective? To Restore the Balance of Power
Conservatives tried to put ideas of liberty back in the box. What are the three estates? The French Revolution
Ancien Regime Absolutist power for the king Louis XVI called the Estates-General, but the bourgeoisie take control and declare the National Assembly Write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Radical stage with Jacobins
called the Reign of Terror Napoleon seized the govt. American Revolution: New political thought Upset with new taxes and trade controls
Restrictions on moving west Declaration of Independence Constitution based on Enlightenment principles, but limited the right to vote and kept slavery
American French Haitian Latin American John Lockes Social Contract said that people had the right to overthrow the government if it was bad.
French philosophes Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau spread the new ideas to France which was the picture of absolutism. New wealth led to the rise of the bourgeoisie who had no power. These self-made men were literate and supported the ideas of the Enlightenment. Afterall, they wanted the power to go with their money. Why should the do nothing aristocrats get all the
power? The Enlightenment a.k.a. The Age of Reason led to serious questioning of absolutist govts. This was influenced by previous eras such as Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation and the Scientific Rev.
The idea that people COULD figure things out and come up with better governments. Forces for Political Change Concept of nation-state shifted loyalties from a king or noble to a nation Britain and the Netherlands both had
constitutional monarchies Industrial Rev. led to economic changes and the demands for political change by the end of the 19th c. Colonies in the New World
Spain and Portugal Developed large bureaucracies in urban areas Brought concepts of feudalism and absolutism with them
English colonies had no bureaucracies Colonists et up their own structures like representative bodies and ran their own
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