Heroes and Villains What is an archetype? Psychologist Carl Jung and scholar Joseph Campbell propagated the concept of archetypes but did not create it. They both recognised the recurring pattern of character types, symbols, relationships, and situations in stories across time periods. Definition
Archetypes are common character types, symbols and relationships that appear often in stories modern and ancient. The concept of archetypes is an indispensable tool for understanding the purpose or function of characters in a story.
5 Types of Hero Willing Unwilling Anti-Hero Tragic Lone The Hero: 5 types Willing Hero This is a hero who knows he or she is a hero, and embraces this role.
Examples: King Arthur, Hercules The Hero: 5 types Unwilling Hero: This is a normal person who is thrust into a situation in which he or she must become a hero. The Unwilling Hero usually turns out to be very brave, wise, and lucky. Examples: Shrek, Neo from The Matrix, Frodo Baggins
The Hero: 5 types Anti-Hero Usually a bad boy (or girl) type, who lives on outskirts of society and is an outsider, but has a good heart. Examples: Han Solo, Huckleberry Finn, Robin Hood, Holden Caulfield, John McClain in Die Hard The Hero: 5 types Tragic Hero
A great person who has one tragic flaw which ultimately brings about his or her downfall. This kind of hero makes the audience feel pity for him or her. Examples: Hamlet, Darth Vader, Oedipus, Othello The Hero: 5 types Lone Hero Like the Anti-Hero, also usually an outsider. This hero works alone, and may be mysterious. Examples: Indiana Jones, Xena,
most American Western cowboys Archetypes We know them when we see them without even realizing that we know them. Archetypes are Identifiable Consistent Powerful
Innate (from within) Archetypes Never confuse archetypes with stereotypes. Stereotypes are Misguided Erratic Weak Archetypes in Heroic Journeys The Hero:
The GOOD main character but NOT always admirable. (Not always saving puppies from burning buildings) audience identifies with him/her willing to sacrifice on behalf of others. Examples: David in Montana, Hamlet in Hamlet, Frodo in LOR, many others
Archetypes in Heroic Journeys The Mentor: GOOD The wise advisor/teacher to the Hero.
Has two responsibilities: teaching the hero life lessons, and giving gifts (often a magical weapon) to the hero. Often the Mentor is a wise older man or woman Examples: Yoda, Morpheus (Matrix), Splinter, Cinderellas fairy godmother Archetypes in Heroic Journeys The Shadow: In direct conflict with the Hero. EVIL Represents darkness--the Dark Side.
Could also represent the fears of society. Could be a person (villain) or an idea (racism). Could be external (outside the Hero, like a villain), or internal (inside the hero, like a tragic flaw). Examples: Wicked Witch in Wizard of Oz, Claudius in Hamlet, Iago in Othello, also Hamlets indeciciveness (internal), Othellos jealousy, Racism (idea), Procrastination (internal). Archetypes in Heroic Journeys The Threshold Guardian:
EVIL obstacle in the heros way. Often an evil henchman of the Shadow.
Isnt always a charactercould be mountain, bad weather, bad luck etc. tests the heros skills/willingness to continue Can always be overcome by the Hero, and may even be turned into the Heros ally Examples: The mountain, orcs, Gollum, in LOR, Flying monkeys in Wizard of Oz Archetypes in Heroic Journeys The Herald or Harbinger:
GOOD or EVIL A messenger who gives the Hero new information. Issues challenges Announces the coming of a significant change. Influences the hero to start the journey. Examples: The messenger in Cinderella, Hagrid in
Harry Potter Archetypes in Heroic Journeys The Trickster: GOOD or EVIL
A crazy or comic characteradds comedy even in a serious story. Creates mischief just for the sake of mischief, even if it causes trouble for the Hero. Often a sidekick of Hero or Villain. Examples: The mice in Cinderella, Rafiki in Lion King, Dobby in Harry Potter, Timon and Pumbaa in The Lion King Archetypes in Heroic Journeys ????????????
The Shapeshifter Mysterious, alliances are unclearSometimes actually changes shapes (the love interest?) The Hero often wonders: Is he/she on my side or not? We find out at the end of the story Lures the Hero on to his/her doom or reward Examples: Sauruman and Gollum in LOR, Ursula in Little Mermaid, Prof. Snape in Harry Potter,
Toutefois, la qualité de l'écriture reste stable tout au long de l'année. À propos des habiletés syntaxiques, seuls les élèves appartenant à la modalité C progressent. L'avantage de cette modalité en fin d'année s'observe aussi pour les performances orthographiques.
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