Argumentative Writing Writing Effective Introductions

Argumentative Writing Writing Effective Introductions

Argument Writing Grade 8 Copyright 2015 by Write Score LLC Focus Argumentative Writing with textual evidence Claims and Counterclaims in Argumentative Writing Argumentative papers call the thesis a CLAIM. A claim is always DEBATABLE. They also must present the opposing viewpoint which is called a COUNTERCLAIM.

FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence Lets review argumentative writing. Many essays follow this pattern. Introduction (An introduction can be more than one paragraph if the content requires.) a hook or grabber to get the audiences attention a claim This is your FOCUS. To maintain FOCUS, always support your claim. a mention of a counterclaim These do not have to be in this order. an overview of how the claim will be proven Body Paragraphs of Evidence and Elaboration

Topic sentence Introduce Evidence Elaborate on Evidence Transition to next paragraph The Counterclaim paragraph Standards require that you acknowledge the opposing side, but you do not need to refute it. This brief paragraph can then be shortened to a sentence and included in one of the earlier paragraphs, or you can work on a true counterclaim which offers a rebuttal, or a reason why this claim is not as worthy. Do not go into much detail but name a counterclaim and briefly explain your reason why the counterclaim is faulty. Conclusion Reinforce that your claim has been proven. Give the essay a sense of completeness and closure Leave an impression on the reader FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence

The body includes as many paragraphs as it takes to provide complete support taking into account the assignment and word / time limitations. How to keep a paper FOCUSED The CLAIM is developed and maintained throughout. There is very little or no loosely related material. All evidence and supporting ideas are clear and convincing and support your claim. The opposing or alternate claim is clearly addressed. FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence FOCUSThe Thesis To maintain FOCUS in a paper, start with a clear thesis.

Prompt: Read the articles Junk Food in Schools: A Harmless Pleasure and Junk Food in Schools: A Factor in Child Obesity. Write an essay in which you argue for or against junk food being available in schools. Use details and evidence from the passage to support your response. FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence Prompt: Write an essay in which you argue for or against junk food being available in schools. Thesis A: Junk food is

being consumed by students in record numbers. Thesis B: Junk food should be eliminated from schools because the obesity rate is too high and these foods lead to less productive learning. Thesis C: Junk food is a quick solution to long days where lunch is only half an hour and students who need more calories are given options. Read each of these thesis statements and discuss what

the rest of the paper will look like based on this one sentence. Which of these is the best thesis? Which is too narrow? Which is too broad? FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence FOCUSThe Rest of the Paper Next, draft a general outline of your paper to help you maintain focus. FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence The Outline INTRODUCTION:

Thesis: Junk food should be eliminated from schools because the obesity rate is too high and these foods lead to less productive learning. Mention counterclaim: People claim that students need to be responsible for their own eating habits and that students have healthy choices they can make. BODY: Point 1: Obesity rates are very high for US children. Evidence from the text: Childhood obesity has significantly risen in the United States within the last several decades. Point 2: Sugar is bad for learning. Evidence from the text: Too much sugar and salt may make an individual feel jumpy, then lethargic, as the sugar moves through their system. Counterclaim Paragraph: Even though people might think a little bit of junk food in the day will not be too harmful, it is definitely not contributing to the well-being of students. CONCLUSION: Wrap up the essay

FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence Write Each Body Paragraph Well do the first one together Topic Sentence(s): Name one point supporting your thesis. Introduce and State Evidence: Provide evidence (reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and/or quotations) from the text to support your claim. Elaborate on Evidence: Show how the evidence proves the point you are trying to make in this paragraph. Give more detail. Concluding Sentence / Transition: End your paragraph with a concluding sentence that wraps up this paragraph and moves into your next point. FOCUS Argumentative writing with textual evidence Sample Body 1 Paragraph:

In the United States, obesity rates are extremely high for children. According to the article Junk Food in Schools: A Factor in Childhood Obesity, One of every three children is now considered overweight or obese. One in three! That means that in a class of 21 students, seven of them will be overweight or obese. This number is just way too high. The proportion of overweight children eventually transfers to adults, and we dont need a society in which one third of people are obese. Schools need to do their part to help students with healthy eating habits, beginning by taking the junk food option out of the cafeteria. Doing so can help society, and it can even help with students learning. Sample Body 1 Paragraph: In the United States, obesity rates are extremely high for children. According to the article Junk Food in Schools: A Factor in Childhood Obesity, One of every three

children is now considered overweight or obese. One in three! That means that in a class of 21 students, seven of them will be overweight or obese. This number is just way too high. The proportion of overweight children eventually transfers to adults, and we dont need a society in which one third of people are obese. Schools need to do their part to help students with healthy eating habits, beginning by taking the junk food option out of the cafeteria. Doing so can help society, and it can even help with students learning. FIND & IDENTIFY:

Topic Sentence(s) Evidence Elaboration Wrap Up (with Transition) Sample Body 1 Paragraph: In the United States, obesity rates are extremely high for children. According to the article Junk Food in Schools: A Factor in Childhood Obesity, One of every three children is now considered overweight or obese. One in three! That means that in a class of 21 students, seven of them will be overweight or obese. This number is just way too high. The proportion of overweight children eventually transfers to adults, and we dont need a society in which one third of

people are obese. Schools need to do their part to help students with healthy eating habits, beginning by taking the junk food option out of the cafeteria. Doing so can help society, and it can even help with students learning. FIND & IDENTIFY: Topic Sentence(s) Evidence Elaboration Wrap Up (with Transition)

Now, finish each body paragraph and then write a conclusion. Share your essay with a partner and check for FOCUS. FOCUS Informational writing with textual evidence

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