AS and A Level Chemistry A, Powerpoint, Acyl chlorides

AS and A Level Chemistry A, Powerpoint, Acyl chlorides

Acyl chlorides The acyl group Carboxylic acid RCOOH Acyl group RCO O O O R Acyl chloride RCOCl R C R C C C l O H Preparation of an acyl chloride From carboxylic acid and thionyl chloride, SOCl2 O H 3C C O + O H Ethanoic acid S O C l2 Thionyl chloride H 3C C

+ SO C l Ethanoyl chloride 2 + H C l Acyl chlorides in synthesis Acyl chlorides react with nucleophiles O R O C R O H c a r b o x y lic a c id H 2O C e s te r R 'O H O R ' O R C C l N H 3 a c y l c h lo r id e R 'N H

2 O R C N H 2 p r im a r y a m id e O R C N H R ' s e c o n d a r y a m id e Acyl chlorides Carboxylic acids and Esters Carboxylic acids using water O H 3C O + C C l e t h a n o y l c h lo r id e H 2O H 3C Water + C H C l O H e th a n o ic a c id Esters using alcohols O O H 3C

C C l e t h a n o y l c h lo r id e + C H 3C H 2C H 2 p ro p a n -1 -o l Alcohol O H H 3C C + O C H 2C H 2C H p ro p y l e th a n o a te H 2O 3 w a te r Acyl chlorides Amides Primary amides using ammonia O O H 3C + C Cl e t h a n o y l c h lo r id e 2N H 3 H 3C

C + N H 4C l N H2 p r im a r y a m id e Ammonia Secondary amides using primary amines O H 3C C O + 2C H 3N H 2 C l e t h a n o y l c h lo r id e Primary amine H 3C C N C H H s e c o n d a r y a m id e + 3 C H 3N H 3 + C l

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