Assessment of Student Progress in Reading and Writing


READABILITY FORMULAS Method of estimating the difficulty of text or reading level of a text Determined by correlating semantic and syntactic features Leveled Books, FRYE Readability Graph, Lexile Framework The Lexile Framework (available through Scholastic) System for leveling books (or

matching books to readers) Lexile levels range from 100-1300 Ex. 6th grade = 850-1300 Fry Readability Graph Readability Formula Used to determine if a textbook or trade book is appropriate for a particular grade

level See p. 307 for instructions Select 100 word passage Count # of syllables in each word Count # of sentences in the passage Plot on graph Reading Recovery Early intervention program for

struggling readers at the end of the first grade Goal to get them on grade level by 3rd grade Reading Recovery reading levels = 0-26 Informal Assessment Used to guide instruction Sometimes is an instructional tool (the assessment is the instruction) Not high-stakes

Concepts about Print or CAP Marie Clay Assessment of Basic understandings about print and the way it works Book-Orientation concepts Directionality concepts Letter/word concepts (See p. 302 for example of Scoring Sheet) Phonemic Awareness and Phonics

Monitor sound isolation, segmentation, blending, etc. through picture sorts, songs, rhyming words DIBELS (nonsense word fluency) The Names Test (Cunningham) Running Records (Marie Clay)

To assess word identification and fluency Students read text aloud while teachers make checkmarks noting the words read correctly and the miscues Calculate # of words read correctly (95 %= independent, 90-94%= instructional, and fewer than 90%= frustration level Examine miscues Examine comprehension through retelling

Miscue Analysis Miscues= unexpected responses Includes substitutions, repetitions, omissions, mispronunciation Categorize according to cueing systems: semantic (meaning is similar) graphophonic (looks similar)

syntactic (grammatically acceptable) Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) Commercial tests to assess reading levels (grade level equivalents) Includes graded word lists, graded passages, and comprehension questions Used to calculate independent, instructional, and frustrations levels Retellings

Students retell a story or expository text after reading the text silently or aloud Student retell story without assistance and then the teacher may ask open ended questions (What happened next?) Teachers analyze retelling for comprehension Cloze Procedure Used to: Determine suitability of a textbook

or trade book and/or Access comprehension Cloze Procedure 1. 2. 3. Select a passage of approximately 250 consecutive words from the text or trade book. The text should be one that the

students have not read, or tried to read, before. Type the passage using the first sentence intact and deleting every fifth word thereafter. Give students the passage and have them fill in the blanks. Allow them all of the time they need. Scoring Cloze Tests

Score by counting as correct only the exact words that were in the original text. Determine the percentage of correct answers. Less than 44%- Frustration Level (level that is too difficultthwarts or baffles student) 44%-57%- Instructional Level (level at which the student can read with teacher guidance) 57% or more- Independent level (level to be read on his or her own) Maze Procedure Similar to cloze procedure

Students are provided with 3 choices for each deleted word (or each blank) 1) correct word 2) syntactically acceptable but semantically unacceptable 3) both semantically unacceptable and syntactically unacceptable Authentic Assessment

Takes place during the teaching/learning process Does not measure language as a set of fragmented skills Oral and written language are integrated and whole Contextual/situational Assesses many types of literacy abilities in real and functional ways Continuous process

Varied process Should include students interests and beliefs Involves self-reflection and self-evaluation Observation Interaction Shadowing-following one student and

systematically recording the students instructional experiences Kidwatching-Ken Goodman Teachers explore: 1) What evidence exists that language development is occurring? 2) What does the childs unexpected production say about the childs knowledge of language? Anecdotal records- written accounts of specific incidents in the classroom Monitoring Student Progress Observations Anecdotal Notes

Conferences Rubrics Work Samples Portfolios Self-Assessment (Also See Assessment Tools p. 85) Standardized Tests Mandated tests Schools and districts use scores for comparing student achievement with previous years Comparing with national norms

and other districts Purposes To place and classify students To provide accountability To determine who needs extra help or

enrichment To create groups Standardized tests often fail to reflect current views of teaching reading and are of little use to teachers day-to-day instruction Formal Assessment-Norm Referenced

Norm-referenced- measure a students relative standing in relation to comparable groups of students across the nation or locally Authors seek reliability and validity so that schools can be confident that the tests measure what they intend to measure Results in standard scoresgrade equivalents (in years and months) and percentile ranks (position within a set of 100 scores) Criterion-Referenced

Scores are interpreted in terms of specific standards Designed to match the standards or expectations of what students should know at successive points, or benchmarks Advantage: Students do not compete with one another, but try to master certain

objectives or criterion Disadvantage: Reading can appear to be merely a set of skills that can be taught and learned in isolation Standardized Testing NO Is standardized testing beneficial to student learning? Conclusion

YES Standardized Testing Pros --wide-scale testing could bring about need reforms --can be a tool for teaching and learning as well as designing curriculum

Cons Biased Teaching to the test Students become passive rather than active learners Not always accurate representation of what the student can do Not authentic One source of information

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