Quasars & AGN Some supplemental reading: GREAT compilation of review articles at http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/active_galaxies.html Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) What are they? Observational Properties Standard Model Continuum, Lines, etc.
How are they found? A variety of survey types, a zoo of AGNs Orientation and Unified Models How do they evolve? Strongly! Quasar Black Hole Masses Relationship with their host galaxies Mutual Evolution?
The (slightly) active nucleus of our galaxy Probable Black hole High velocities Large energy generation At a=275 AU P=2.8 yr 2.7 million solar masses Radio image of Sgr A* about 3 pc across, with model of surrounding disk
From: Horizons, by Seeds The (slightly) active nucleus of our galaxy The Genzel et al. movie based on NIR speckle interferometry of the Galactic core. Basic orbital mechanics confirm, to high precision, a mass of 2.6 million solar masses that the stars are
orbiting. X-ray flaring also seen. Other items from Genzels group: http:// www.mpe.mpg.de/www_ir/GC/ The (slightly) active nucleus of our galaxy FYI, here is one of the the Genzel groups individual Kband images taken at high spatial
resolution using the technique of speckle interferometry.. Other items from Genzels group: http:// www.mpe.mpg.de/www_ir/GC/ Active Galactic Nuclei: AGNs A small fraction of galaxies have extremely bright unresolved
star-like cores (active nuclei) Shown here is an HST image of NGC 7742, a so-called Seyfert galaxy after Carl Seyfert who did pioneering work in the 1940s (you might look up his original papers). NGC4151 with a range of exposures
Spectra of Stars, Spectra of AGNs Average quasar, from Brotherton et al. (2001) Stars from Horizons by Seeds Active Galactic Nuclei: AGNs Small fraction of galaxies have extremely bright unresolved star-like nuclei Very large energy generation Brightness often varies quickly
Implies small size (changes not smeared out by light-travel time) High velocities often seen (> 10,000 km/s in lines) Emission all over the electro-magnetic spectrum Jets seen emerging from galaxies Think about the implications of jets. Timescales, angular momentum. What do they imply? 3C31 Red = radio
Blue = visible Many Views of Radio Galaxy Centaurus A Many Views of Active Galaxy Centaurus A Quasar Images Theoretical Paradigm
Supermassive black hole (millions to billions of solar masses) Powered by an accretion disk. Jet mechanisms proposed, but very uncertain. Most quasars dont have strong jets. Some quasars clearly have outflowing winds not well collimated. Also, an obscuring torus seems to be present. (Unified models apply here.) AGN Accretion Old (1978!) basic accretion review paper:
http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Rees3/Rees_contents.html Accretion Disks From our text: Horizons, by Seeds Black hole is active only if gas is present to spiral into it Isolated stars just orbit black hole same as they would any other mass Gas collides, tries to slow due to friction, and so spirals in (and heats up)
Conservation of angular momentum causes gas to form a disk as it spirals in AGN Accretion Disks Modern disk paper with AGN application, Koratkar and Blaes (1999), review in PASP: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1999PASP..111....1K&db_key=AST&high=3d6571051d23256 Basic ideas follow from Shakura and Sunyaev (1973)
standard alpha thin disks, plus relativity, vertical disk structure, non-LTE, Comptonization, etc. The models of Hubeny et al. (2000) are the most advanced and available on-line: http://www.physics.ucsb.edu/~blaes/habk/ alpha-disk solutions illustrate some basic physics and arent too complicated. Check out S&S73 My post-doc Shang and I fit these models to real AGN SEDs. See these at the Wyoming AGN group webpage at http://physics.uwyo.edu/agn
Malkan (1983): Fitting the Big Blue Bump with a power-law plus an accretion disk model using three temperature zones: Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) Very nice and relatively brief review article from Quasars and Cosmology conference by Belinda Wilkes (CfA), a world expert on the subject: http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept01/Wilkes/Wilkes_contents.html Must account for physical processes producing prodigious luminosity from radio wavelengths through
the X-ray and even gamma ray regimes. Particular features of interest include radio-jets and the radio-quiet vs. radio-loud dichotomy, the big blue bump that produces the optical/UV energy peak and is thought to arise from an accretion disk, and the far infrared that represents re-radiation by hot dust. Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) Wilkes (1997): 3C 273:
Orientation and Unified Models From Horizons by Seeds As we have discussed, inner AGN structure believed to feature a black hole fed by an accretion disk. Jets may emerge along the spin axis, and the disk illuminates BLR and NLR clouds. A dense molecular torus exists on larger scales and
can obscure the central engine from certain lines of sight. Unified Models explain some of the different classes of AGN, particularly type 1 and type 2 Seyferts, via orientation. For specifics, see the Annual Reviews article by Antonucci, 1993, a bishop in the Church of Unification.
Another nice website: http://www.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/www_astro/agn/agn_unified.html Unified Models: Different Views of the Accretion Disk The torus of gas and dust can block part of our view Seyfert 2 galaxies:
Edge on view Only gas well above and below disk is visible See only slow gas narrow emission lines Seyfert 1 galaxies: Slightly tilted view Hot high velocity gas close to black hole is visible High velocities broad emission lines
BL Lac objects: Pole on view Looking right down the jet at central region Extremely bright vary on time scales of hours Quasars:
Very active AGN at large distances Can barely make out the galaxy surrounding them Were apparently more common in distant past From our text: Horizons, by Seeds Spectral differences in Seyferts Different Views of the Accretion Disk The torus of gas and dust can block part of our view
Seyfert 2 galaxies: Edge on view Only gas well above and below disk is visible See only slow gas narrow emission lines Seyfert 1 galaxies: Slightly tilted view Hot high velocity gas close to black hole is visible
High velocities broad emission lines BL Lac objects: Pole on view Looking right down the jet at central region Extremely bright vary on time scales of hours
Quasars: Very active AGN at large distances Can barely make out the galaxy surrounding them Were more common in distant past Radio Source Unification Core-dominant sources are seen jet-on, have flat radio spectra, and are variable, optically polarized and beamed. Lobe-dominant sources are not very variable, have steep radio spectra dominated by optically
thin synchrotron emission, and are not beamed strongly. Can measure orientation by various methods, e.g., LogR* = core/lobe radio flux at 5 GHz restframe (Orr & Browne 1982), also Rv which normalizes core flux with an optical magnitude (Wills and Brotherton 1995). Radio Source Unification Core dominant Lobe
dominant From Wills and Brotherton (1995), plotting Log R (which is rest-frame 5 GHz) core to lobe flux ratio), vs. the jet angle to the line of sight where the jet angle is estimated from VLBI superluminal motion. What makes an AGN active? Need a supply of gas to feed to the black hole (Black holes from 1 million to >1 billion solar masses! Scales as a few percent of galaxy bulge mass.)
Collisions disturb regular orbits of stars and gas clouds Could feed more gas to the central region Galactic orbits were less organized as galaxies were forming, also recall the hierarchical galaxy formation Expect more gas to flow to central region when galaxies are young => Quasars (quasar epoch around z=2 to z=3) Most galaxies have massive black holes in them They are just less active now because gas supply is less The AGN Zoo
Quasars (M < -23) Radio-Loud FR II Radio Galaxies (type 2 quasars) Radio-loud Quasars or just Quasars (type 1 quasars) Optically violent variables (OVVs) Radio-Quiet QSOs type 1 (broad lines) and type 2 (only narrow lines) Infrared-Loud IRAS quasars, Far-IR Galaxies, ULIRGs Low Luminosity AGNs (M > -23)
Radio-Loud FR I Radio Galaxies Bl Lac objects, AKA Blazars Radio-Quiet Seyfert Galaxies type 1 through type 2 (see QSOs) LINERs (Low ionization nuclear emission-line regions) Shields A Brief History of AGN astro-ph/9903401 Surveys/Catalogs SEDs immediately show AGNs dont look like stars
Selection by optical colors works (e.g., Sloan is best, http:// www.sdss.org, also 2dF: http://www.2dfquasar.org ) Mutliwavelength works (e.g., radio, X-ray, IR, plus optical) E.g., FIRST Bright Quasar Survey Also possible to find via Variability (e.g., MACHO) Proper Motion (lack thereof) Grism Surveys (e.g., Large Bright Quasar Survey) Older compilation catalogs like that of Veron-Cetty and Veron (2000) are being surpassed by SDSS and
2dF. http://www.obs-hp.fr/www/catalogues/veron2_9/veron2_9.html Hewett & Foltz (1994) on Quasar Surveys: http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Hewett/frames.html AGN Emission Lines Hagai Netzers section in Saas-Fee Advanced Courses 20, 1990, available online: http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/March02/Netzer/Netzer_contents.html Classic textbook on photoionization is AGN2 by Don Osterbrock, popular public tool is CLOUDY by Gary Ferland (http://thunder.pa.uky.edu/cloudy/ ). Section
9.1.2 in Combes et al. Basically, treat ionization state, heating/cooling balance, and relate emission line ratios to metallicity, density, ionizing continuum, etc. Note LOC models (Baldwin et al. 1996). AGN Emission Lines From Netzer et al. 1994 (I did the figures), on the SED and unusual
emission line profiles of the OVV 3C 279. Note the steep power-law spectrum. Optically polarization is high. There is optical beamed synchrotron radiation in this source. In many quasars, the emission line profiles are similar from line to line (consistent with optically thick BLR clouds). Not so for all objects, and especially important for figuring out BLR kinematics and dynamics
(which is still not so clear). Quasar Host Galaxies Hard to see. Why? How can you do it? HST (Bahcall, others) Near Infrared (eg., McLeod et al. 1996) AOsort of. Issues here. What are their properties? Are they related in any way to the activity? Very little known before advent of HST, AO, and large
near-IR detectors. Still a challenging type of observation. Initially thought (based on Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies) that radio properties were related to host type. Seems to have been a selection effect. Quasar Images II Ties to Host Galaxy Evolution Quasar, star-formation evolution (from Boyle and Terlevich 1998):
Ties to Host Galaxy Evolution Central black hole masses seem to correlate with host galaxy magnitude (from McLure and Dunlop 2001): Ties to Host Galaxy Evolution Central black hole masses best correlate with host galaxy stellar velocity distribution (from Ferrarese 2000): Reverberation mapping yields AGN black hole masses. A good recent review is by Peterson. More slides on this ahead!
http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept01/Peterson2/Peter_contents.html Taking a step back to fundamentals: Arguments for Black Holes in AGNs Energy Considerations Nuclear luminosities in excess of 1013 suns Gravitational release capable of converting on order 10% rest mass to energy Rapid Variability Timescales < 1 day imply very small source
Radio Jet Stability implies large, stable mass with large angular momentum Measuring Black Hole Masses in Nearby Galaxies SgrA* in the Milky Way Water Masers in NGC 4258, a few others Spatially Resolved Gas or Stellar Dynamics Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Max Planck Institutes Galactic Core Group
This plot shows the quantitative limits. Water Masers in NGC 4258 Based on Greenhill et al. (1995) Warped Disk Model Radial Velocities and Proper Motions Measure a Mass of 4x107 solar masses (20 times more
massive than SgrA*) Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy from Space Shows BH Signatures HST STIS shows evidence for a super massive black hole in M84 based on spatially resolved gas dynamics (Bower et al 1997). Can also be done by examining spatially resolved stellar absorption line profiles, plus complex 3D orbital modeling. The M-sigma Relation
Black Hole Masses are about 0.1% of the central galactic bulge mass (a big surprise to theorists) and tightest correlation is with the stellar velocity dispersion (after Gebhardt et al. 2000). Virial Mass Estimates M = f (r V2 / G) r = scale length of region V is the velocity dispersion f is a factor of order unity dependent upon geometry and kinematics
Estimates therefore require size scales and velocities, and verification to avoid pitfalls (eg. radiative acceleration). Potential Virial AGN Mass Estimators Source X-ray Fe K Radius 3-10 Rs
Broad-Line Region 600 Rs Megamasers 4x104 Rs Gas Dynamics 8x105 Rs
Stellar Dynamics 106 Rs Where Schwarzschild radius Rs = 2GM/c2 = 3x1013 M8 cm Reverberation Mapping (RM) Kaspi et al. (2000) studied bright PG quasars, particularly H, finding that R=32.9(L5100/1044 erg s-1)0.7 lt-days
For the H emitting gas. Broad lines are photoionized by the central continuum, which varies. The line flux follows the continuum with a time lag t which is set by the size of the broad-line emitting region and the speed of light. Recombination timescales are very short, BLR stable, and continuum source small and central. Does the BLR obey the Virial Theorem? Four well studied AGNs, RM of multiple emission lines shows the
expected relationship (slope = -2) between time lags and velocities (note each of the three will have different central black hole masses). NGC7469: 8.4x106 M NGC3783: 8.7x106 M Onken & Peterson (2002) NGC5548: 5.9x107 M
3C 390.3: 3.2x108 M Does the BLR obey the Virial Theorem? Ferrarese et al. (2001) RM-derived masses follow the same Msigma relationship as seen for normal galaxies that have black hole masses measured from HST spatially resolved
gas or stellar dynamics. Not more points since obtaining sigma for AGN is difficult (the AGN dilutes the stellar absorption line EWs). Good to 0.5 dex Expect that BLR Scales With Luminosity Photoionization and LOC Models (Baldwin et al. 1996) suggests that strong selection effects make line emission come
from same physical conditions (same U, n) U = Q(H)/4R2nHc ~ L/nHR2 So, for same U, nH, then expect that R ~ L0.5 How about in reality? Empirically BLR Scales With Luminosity Mentioned previously the Kaspi et al. (2000) result how R ~ L 0.7 (above). Misty Bentz et al. (2006) showed that proper correction for host galaxy leads to a slope of 0.5! This permits the possibility of using single-epoch
measurements to estimate black hole masses much easier! Vestergaard (2002) Single epoch FWHM vs. rms FWHM for H Single epoch L vs. mean L Vestergaard (2002) Single epoch BH Mass vs. RM BH mass Vestergaard (2002)
Extend Calibration to UV Line CIV 1549 This is a calibrated C IV Black Hole Mass not wholly independent should be tested at high-z, high-L Brotherton & Scoggins (2004) H and C IV Black Hole Mass Comparison All high-z sources very luminous, massive, high L/Ledd. Please excuse the color code. Brotherton & Scoggins (2004)
H and C IV Black Hole Mass Comparison All high-z sources very luminous, massive, high L/Ledd. Please excuse the color code. Using [O III] FWHM as a Proxy for * Shields et al. (2003). From Peterson (2002) Current/future Work: Real Astrophysics
Black Hole Demographics (growth with z) Is all growth as AGN? Does that produce the mass seen in relic black holes at low z? How does the M-sigma correlation arise? That is, how is black hole growth linked to the growth of galaxy bulges and star formation? How do AGN behave as a function of mass, L/Ledd, viewing angle, etc.? Our Program at Wyoming
Black Hole Masses fundamental Based on Reverberation Mapping (RM) Only 50 objects RMed, resource intensive Likely biased by orientation, other properties Get continuum, line light curves, ~12 AGN Targets include RLQs with orientation info B, V photometry at RBO, perhaps NB filters Spectroscopy at WIRO Measure time lags, etc., to measure masses Learn science, skills, contribute to astronomy!
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