Ativity 12 - Spotlights | Web services at PCC

Ativity 12 - Spotlights | Web services at PCC

Lab Exercise 13 Histology of Nervous Tissue Portland Community College BI 231 Major divisions of the nervous system Central nervous system (CNS)- brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)comprises all nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to muscles, glands and receptors. 2 Nerves Cranial nerves are those that are connected to the brain

Spinal nerves are connected to the spinal cord. Both contain sensory information from receptors and send motor signals. 3 Motor (Efferent) Neurons Efferent = Away from CNS These are neurons that carry information from CNS to

the body Groups of axons running together are the Nerves when they are outside the CNS and Tracts inside the brain and spinal cord The cell bodies are clustered in groups in the CNS and are called nuclei Brain gray matter is made up of millions of nuclei. It is gray because there is no myelin around the cell bodies These axons exit the spinal cord on the ventral side 4

Motor (efferent) division of PNS Somatic nervous system- contains efferent neurons extending from the CNS to skeletal muscle. Autonomic nervous system- contains efferent neurons from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and

glands 5 Sensory (Afferent) Neurons Afferent = Toward the CNS These carry sensory information from the body to the CNS (brain and spinal cord) Their axons run in the same group as the motor neurons (nerves=groups of axons) Their cell bodies are clustered outside of the spinal cord and are called ganglia These axons enter the spinal cord on the dorsal

side 6 Sensory (afferent) division Afferent neurons that receive stimuli from somatic sensory receptors that detect general sensations Receive stimuli from visceral sensory receptors Special sensory receptors that detect special sensations

(smell, taste, vision, hearing, equilibrium) 7 Organization of nervous system 8 Neuron

9 Myelin Some axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath Multilayered lipid and protein covering formed by Schwann cells around axons Oligodendrocytes in the CNS The covering is the plasma membrane of the Schwann Cell The Schwann Cell can cover more than one axon Insulates axon

10 Nodes of Ranvier Areas between Schwann Cells that do not contain Myelin Involved in saltatory conduction 11 Dendri te Nucleu

s Axon Hillock Neuron Cell Body Axo n 12 Schwan

Cell Myelin Sheath Axon Node of Ranvier Telodendri Axon Terminal (Synaptic

a end 13 Classification Sensory (afferent) neurons conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors Motor ( efferent) neurons conduct nerve impulses from the CNS

Interneurons form links between sensory and motor 14 Multipolar Neuron Cell Body Axon

Dendrites (trigger zone) Most common type of neuron Interneurons and motor neurons 15 Anaxonic Neurons A small number of multipolar neurons

contain only dendrites or Cannot distinguish dendrites from axons Functions are poorly understood. 16 Bipolar Neuron Dendrite

(trigger zone) Cell Body Axon Location: special senses (smell, vision, hearing) 17

Unipolar Neuron Dendrite (trigger zone) Cell Body Axon All are sensory afferent Cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglia

18 Association or Interneurons Neurons between the afferent and efferent neurons. Are only in the CNS 19 Neuron Fascicle

Axon Myelin Sheath Node of Ranvier Perineurium Epineurium 20 Glial Cells

Associated with neurons Provide Supportive scaffolding Segregate and insulate neurons Outnumber neurons by 10 to 1 21 Supporting Cells in the CNS

Astrocytes Star Shaped Many functions Regulates levels of O2 , & CO2 Exchanges between capillaries and neurons (blood-brain barrier) Nutrient transfer 22 Supporting Cells in the CNS

Microglia Protect CNS from disease-causing organisms Monitor the health of neurons Act as phagocytes eating microorganisms and debris 23 Ependymal cells

These cells are modified epithelial cells that line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of spinal cord. Facilitate circulation of CSF 24 Supporting Cells in the CNS

Oligodendrocytes Produce the myelin sheath which provides the electrical insulation for some neurons in the CNS 25 Supporting Cells in the PNS Schwann Cells

Form the myelin sheath around axons in the PNS 26 Satellite cells Surround neuron cell bodies in peripheral ganglia and regulate levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide and

nutrients. 27 The synapse Axons generate action potentials which are transmitted across synapses Formed by presynaptic membrane and postsynaptic membrane on an effector cell

The synaptic cleft is a narrow space that separates these 28 The End 29

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