B1 Topic 1 Influences on Life Which animal is in the envelope? On a piece of paper write: 1. Name of the animal 2. List 3 adaptations of that animal for its environment Ext: explain to your neighbour the advantage of each adaptation for survival B1.1 Classification Biologists classify living organisms according to how closely they are related to one another. Species groups of organisms that have many features in common Genus contains several species with

similar characteristics Family comprising of several genera Order comprising of several families Class comprising of several orders Phylum comprising of several classes King Puts Class On

Family Game show Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus

species 11vw/S2 Name the 5 kingdoms Animalia Multicellular but no cell walls no chlorophyll Protoctista Plantae Multicellular with cell walls

Chlorophyll Autotroph Fungi Unicellular with nucleus Multicellular with cell walls, no chlorophyll Saprophytic VIRUSES are classified as NON LIVING because The virus does not show the characteristics of life such as growth and feeding. Prokaryote

Unicellular with no nucleus Key words: Multicellular Unicellular Chlorophyll Nucleus Complex cell Autotroph Heterotroph Saprophytic B1.1 The Five Kingdoms Kingdom Characteristics

Animalia multicellular, no cell walls, no chlorophyll, feed heterotrophically Plantae multicellular, have cell walls, have chlorophyll, feed autotrophically Fungi multicellular, have cell walls, no chlorophyll, feed saprophytically Protoctista unicellular, have a nucleus

Prokaryota unicellular, have no nucleus VIRUSES are classified as NON LIVING because The virus does not show the characteristics of life such as growth and feeding. How are animals classified? Biologists classify living organisms according to how closely they are related to one another. B1.2 Phylum - Chordata

What is a vertebrate? ... an animal with a backbone Give some examples Vertebrates can be subdivided into five different classes: Mammal Bird Reptile How can you tell the difference? Fish Amphibian Classifying vertebrates.. Key terms: What is a vertebrate? .an animal with a backbone

..they are all in the phylum called chordata What are the three different characteristics of vertebrates? 1. oxygen intake (lungs or gills) 2. reproduction (internal / ext fertilisation, live birth) 3. thermoregulation (warm or cold blooded) Vertebrates Oxygen intake Reproduction thermoregulation Oviparous (lay eggs) Viviparous (live birth) Homeotherm/

poikilotherm B1.2 Phylum - Chordata Animals with a supporting rod running the length of their body. Example a backbone in vertebrates. How are vertebrates classified? a Oxygen absorption methods lungs, gills and skin b Reproduction internal or external fertilisation, oviparous or viviparous c Thermoregulation homeotherms and poikilotherms Key words: Chordata Animals with backbones , homeotherm can regulate temperature, poikilotherms coldblooded, oviparous animals which lay eggs, viviparous internal embryo development B1.3 Species Definition: A group of similar individuals that can interbreed

to produce fertile offspring. Limitations to this definition Some organisms reproduce asexually. Some hybrids are fertile. The Binomial System uses two names e.g. Homo sapien First name tells us the organisms are closely related Second name species name B1.2 & 1.6 Difficult Classification Some amphibians have gills as adults. Sharks use internal fertilisation unlike most other fish. Duck billed platypus and it lays eggs! Soscientists use many characteristics to classify organisms.

B1.2 & 1.6 Difficult Classification Hybridisation in Ducks Mallard ducks can hybridise with other closely related species. This produces a range of hybrids that are all fertile. Ring Species Neighbouring populations can still interbreed. The two populations at either end of the chain cannot B1.2 & 1.6 Difficult Classification Classification is difficult because of variation within a species. Variation differences between individuals The binomial system is needed to identify, study and conserve species and can be used to target conservation efforts. Scientists must collaborate using journals, peer review to

agree new classifications. B1.4 Can you use a key? Normal distribution curve B1.4 Variation e.g. height Key words: 1. Continuous Variation 2. Discontinuous

Variation e.g. eye colour, blood group B1.6 Reasons for Variety Caused by GENES or ENVIRONMENT or BOTH Organisms adapt to their habitats Mutations increase genetic variation Key words: Mutation a change in an organisms DNA B1.6 The Polar Bear 6 adaptations Feature Small ears Thick fur Large feet

Rough soles Thick blubber White fur Reason Reduce heat loss Insulation Spread weight, help swimming, stop it sinking in the snow Grip Insulation Camouflage B1.6 Pompeii Worms 4 adaptations Lives in deep sea vents 2km below sea level Has no eyes but sensitive tentacles

Covered in bacteria to survive temperature changes Lives inside a tube to avoid predators Can survive pressures of 200atm B1.7 Darwins theory of Evolution 6 stages Summarise to 6 words: variation, overproduction, competition, survival, reproduction, change 1. variation most populations of organisms contain individuals which vary slightly from one to another 2. over-production most organisms produce more young than will survive to adulthood 3. struggle for existence because populations do not generally increase rapidly in size

there must therefore be considerable competition for survival between the organisms 4. survival those with advantageous characteristics are more likely to survive this struggle 5. advantageous characteristics inherited better adapted organisms are more likely to reproduce successfully passing on the advantageous characteristics to their offspring 6. gradual change over a period of time the proportion of individuals with the advantageous characteristics in the population will increase compared with the proportion of individuals with poorly adapted characteristics, and the poorly adapted characteristics may eventually be lost New evidence from DNA research and the emergence of resistant organisms supports Darwins theory B1.8 Genes know the key words Key words: The nucleus of the cell contains chromosomes, on which genes are located.

Genes exist in alternative forms called alleles which give rise to differences in inherited characteristics Dominant will always be expressed if present Recessive will only be expressed in the absence of dominant allele Homozygous two alleles the same e.g. hh, HH Heterozygous two different alleles e.g. Hh Phenotype the outward appearance e.g. brown eyes Genotype the description of the genes e.g. BB, Bb, bb B1.9 Punnett Squares You must be able to draw these and identify genotype and phenotype of offspring. You must work out % of offspring with each characteristic. T tall t short What % of the offspring will be short?

Family Pedigree Chart and Punnett Square B1.10 Inherited Diseases 4 symptoms for each Sickle Cell Become tired easily Shortness of breath Joint pain Blocked blood vessels Cystic Fibrosis Lungs clogged with mucus Difficulty breathing Repeated infections Weight loss due to blocked ducts in digestive system B1.10 Pedigree Analysis Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele. What is the genotype of

person Z? The first generation parents? What are the chances of person X and Z having a baby with CF if they mated? B1 Topic 2 Responses to a changing environment B1.11 Homeostasis Factors controlled by homeostasis: A. Water B. Temperature C. Blood glucose Homeostasis maintenance of a constant/stable internal

environment Osmoregulation Control of body water levels (involved the Thermoregulation control of body temperature (human body temp - 37C) Hypothalamus part of the brain that monitors temperature and coordinates all the responses Vasodilation Blood vessels widen (to increase heat loss by radiation) Vasoconstriction blood vessels narrow (to reduce heat loss by radiation) Negative feedback a control mechanism that occurs when a change in one direction (e.g. getting hot) causes a response to bring the level back to normal (i.e. cooling down) Hot or cold? How do you know?

Thermoregulation B1.12, 1.13 Sensitivity, Skin sensitivity Neurone a cell that transmits electrical impulses in the nervous system. Central Nervous system (CNS) Brain and Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) - nerves connecting the sense organs and effectors to the CNS Sense organs detect changes both in and outside your body. They contain

receptor cells Eye; Ear; Skin; Mouth; Nose Stimulus Anything your body is sensitive to e.g. noise, heat, light Impulses Electrical signals in the nervous system that travel through neurones. This is called neurotransmission. Dendron extension of a neurone that carries the impulse to the cell body. It ends in many dendrites and is usually shorter than the axon. Dendrite many fine extension of a dendron that collect impulses from other neurones or receptors. Axon the long extension of a neurone that carries an impulse away from the cell body towards other neurones B1.12, 1.13 Sensitivity, Skin sensitivity Types of Neurone : 1. Sensory neurones send impulses from receptors in the sense organs to the CNS. 2. Relay neurones found in the spinal cord/brain. They link sensory and motor neurones. They have no dendron, just

dendrites on the cell body. 3. Motor neurones send impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands (effectors) B1.14 Responding to stimuli Keywords (all from previous slide B1.12 and 1.13 also needed) Reflex a response to a stimulus that does NOT require processing by the brain. The response is automatic. Examples: Blinking/ removing hand from hot surface/ knee jerk reflex/ covering ear to loud noise

Reflex Arc Connection of a sensory neurone to a motor neurone (usually via a relay neurone) that allows reflex actions to occur. Neurotransmitter Substance that diffuse across the synapse between two neurones and triggers an impulse to be generated in the neurone on the other side of the synapse. Synapse - Point at which 2 neurones meet. There is a tiny gap which cannot transmit an impulse without a neurotransmitter. Myelin Sheath fatty covering around the axons of many neurones. It speeds up transmission of impulses and help to insulate them from one another. 3 e e 5 e 2

4 6 1 1. Stimulus 2. Receptor 3. Sensory neurone 4. Relay neurone 5. Motor neurone 6. Effector B1.14 Hormones and B1.15 Diabetes

Keywords Hormone Chemical messengers that cause certain parts of the body to respond to their presence. E.g. Human Growth Hormone causes bones and muscles to grow at a faster rate during puberty. Endocrine glands Glands that produce and release hormones. Target organ an organ on which a hormone has an effect. (e.g. Insulin has an effect on the Liver) Pancreas- organ that produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin hormone that decreases blood glucose concentration by causing liver cells to convert glucose into glycogen for storage. Glucagon hormone that causes liver cells to convert glucagon back into glucose to increase blood glucose concentration

Examples of hormones and their effects Hormone Released from Effect Anti-Diuretic Hormone Oestrogen Pituitary gland Causes the kidney to make more concentrated urine Ovaries Adrenaline

Adrenal Gland Development of the female reproductive system during puberty Speeds up the heatbeat Testosterone Testes Development of the male reproductive system during puberty B1.15 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes 1. Pancreas does NOT produce insulin 2. Inject insulin daily (into the fat layer beneath

the skin) 3. Exercise and diet are used to help lower blood glucose levels too Type 2 Diabetes 4. Cells respond less well to insulin (they become resistant) 5. Control by changes in diet and exercise . 6. Risk factors of developing it are: 1. 2. 3. 4. High-fat diets Lack of exercise Getting older Obesity

Body Mass Index (BMI) used to determine obesity. The diagram shows normal blood sugar control (without diabetes) B1.18 Plant Hormones Keywords: Tropism plant growth response to a stimulus. Phototropism A plant growth response to light. Geotropism A plant growth response to gravity. Positive Tropism towards the stimulus. Negative Tropism away from the stimulus. Auxin Plant growth hormone. B1.18 Plant Hormones Auxin produced in the tip of the shoot Auxin moves to shaded side of the stem

Auxin causes cell elongation B1.18 Plant Hormones Auxin produced in the tip of the root Auxins have opposite effect in the root Auxins stop elongation and root grows down geotropism 1.8 Plant Hormones Experiments with hormones. Why do the plants respond this way? Keywords: Auxin, tip, shoot, cell elongation, bend, light, stimulus

B1.19 Uses of plant Hormones 1. Selective Weedkillers Auxin makes broad leaved plants grow out of control and die. 2. Rooting Powder Auxin makes cuttings develop roots quickly. 3. Seedless Fruit Flowers sprayed with hormones to make fruit develop but not seeds. 4. Fruit Ripening Farmers use hormones to control fruit ripening. B1 Topic 3 Problems of and solutions to a changing environment B1.20 and 1.21 Effects of drugs and reaction time Keywords Narcotic Drug that makes you feel sleepy

Addictive people can become dependent on the drug and feel they NEED it to function Recreational drug a drug used to change to way people feel e.g. alcohol Medicine a drug that helps to limit the damage caused by disease or injury Drug Types 1. Halluginogen changes the way the brain works (distorts senses) LSD/ cannabis 2. Stimulants INCREASE the speed of neurotransmission which speeds up (decreases) your reaction time. Caffeine/ cocaine/ nicotine 3. Depressants slows down the activity of neurones which causes relaxation. INCREASES reaction time Alcohol/ solvents 4. Painkillers blocks some of the impulses to reduce the pain felt. Morphine/heroin/ asprin 5. Performance enhancer improves muscle development Anabolic steroids B1.22 The damage caused by smoking Keywords

Tar sticky chemical in smoke that contains carcinogens Nicotine addictive stimulant in tobacco smoke Carcinogen something that causes cancer Carbon Monoxide toxic gas found in cigarette smoke Health issues 1. Tar a) Increased risk of developing cancers b) Reduced surface area in the lung as it coats them in sticky tar 2. Carbon Monoxide a) Less oxygen in blood causing pain in active muscles b) Blood vessel narrow reducing blood flow c) Emphysema and chronic bronchitis 3. Nicotine a) Highly addictive to hard to give up Long term studies evidence links smoking to many diseases including all cancers, respiratory diseases and circulatory diseases. B1.23 The effects of alcohol

Short term effects 1. Affects all organs as absorbed quickly 2. Slows down brain activity resulting in longer reaction times 3. Reduced negative feelings so feel happier 4. Lower inhibitions so take risks 5. Vomiting 6. Large quantities can cause unconsciousness and death (stops breathing) Long term effects 7. Cirrhosis of liver cells die and liver function fails 8. Brain damage Memory loss Blood clots 9. Addictive Cost to society 10. Violence when drunk 11. Accidents increase 12. Treatment of drink related illness

B1.24 Ethics and transplants Keywords Transplant Healthy organ taken from a donor and given to a recipient Ethical decision - uses ethical criteria to make a decision that is right or fair. Ethical criteria 1. Similar tissue (closer match give greater chance of survival) 2. Similar age (increased success) 3. Geographically close (quicker transplant = increased success rate) 4. Degree of illness (the more ill a patient the less likely they will survive) Organ donors can be: Living: live donors can donate tissues such as bone marrow or an organ such as a kidney, where there are two doing the same job. Dead: people can give permission for their organs to used if they are killed in an accident. Most organ

donors are victims of accidents. Rejection of the organ is less likely to happen if the donor is related to the recipient. Need is far greater that supply so alternatives looked at: 1. Xenotranplantation (animal donors) 2. Genetic engineering (modified animal organs) 3. Transplant tourism (looking abroad) Morals are what people think is right or wrong. Ethics are the actions people take as a result of their moral judgement. B1.25 Pathogens and infection Keywords Pathogen microorganism that causes disease Bacteria microscopic organism (some are pathogens) Salmonella/ Cholera/ E.coli Fungi organisms that feeds of dead or decaying material Athletes foot/ ring worm Viruses a particle that can infect cells and cause them to make new copies of the virus

Influenza/ chicken pox/ HIV/ HPV Protozoan a single celled protoctist Malaria How are pathogens spread? (6 ways) 1. Water - Cholera 2. Vectors (animals that spread disease) Malaria (mosquitoes) 3. Food - Salmonella 4. Contact Athletes foot 5. Airborne Influenza, colds or TB 6. Body fluid - HIV B1.26 Antiseptics and Antibiotics Keywords Antiseptics kill microbes outside the body to reduce the spread of infection Antibiotics chemicals that kill or prevent growth of bacteria and some fungi Antifungals antibiotics that only affect fungi Defence against invasion 1. Physical barriers prevent pathogens getting in

2. Chemical defences kill pathogens before they harm us Resistance Some bacteria develop natural resistance to antibiotics During antibiotic treatment 3. Less resistant bacteria killed first 4. More resistant ones remain and will re-infect if full course not taken 5. Overuse of antibiotics can cause more resistance to develop MRSA multi resistant to many antibiotics therefore very difficult to treat B1.28 Interdependence and food webs Keywords Trophic level organisms that feed at the same level Interdependence organisms in an area that depend on each other Dynamic relationship constantly changing populations Carnivores, top predators

Carnivores, both predator and prey Herbivores Plants that photosynthesize Energy is used in metabolic processes (respiration) transferred into waste energy forms e.g. heat which is lost to the environment transferred into BIOMASS as the organism grows moved to the next organism when it is eaten B1.29 Parasites and Mutualists Parasites One organism feeds off another while it is alive. Mutualists

Both organisms benefit from either food, shelter or protection. Examples 1. Tape worm (inside the body) Examples 1. Oxpecker and wild cows They take food from the intestine causing weight loss. 2. Headlice (outside the body) 3. Fleas 4. Mistletoe

Roots grow into other plants to take their water and minerals Oxpecker eats insects that are parasites to the cow 2. Cleaner fish and sharks Cleaner eats the dead skin to clean sharks 3. Legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria The bacteria help the plant to get nitrates while

they get food from the plant and protection. 4. Chemosynthetic bacteria in tube worms 5. Intestinal bacteria in humans Bacteria provide protection against pathogen and get food and place to live in return B1.30 Pollution Why did the human population grow so quickly? 1. Better food 2. Improved sanitation and living conditions 3. More medicines available Increased populations mean bigger demand on resources. More people

means more 4. food needed (increased pressure to grow crops) 5. housing and transport that uses fossil fuels (more gases pollute the air) Keywords Pollutants - a substance that harms living organisms when released into the environment. Eutrophication The addition of chemicals, like fertilizers, to water which encourages plant growth Fertiliser chemical compounds added to soil to increase the growth rate of crops

Eutrophication Phosphate and nitrates increase plant and algae growth Can destroy the ecosystem as it kills plants and animals. Eutrophication 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 B 1.31 - pollution indicators Keywords Indicator species- an organism that is particularly sensitive to or tolerant of pollution so it can be used to measure pollution levels. Lichen Mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae. Air Pollution Indicators 1. Blackspot fungus (disease of roses) is killed by sulfur dioxide 2. Lichen different species tolerate different pollutant levels. Feathery ones need clean air, crusty flatter ones can tolerate higher levels of supfur dioxide Water Pollution Indicators Different animals need varying amounts of oxygen. 3. Stonefly larvae and freshwater shrimps needs 4. Bloodworms and Sludgeworms can live with low lots of oxygen (clean rivers)

oxygen (polluted rivers) Recycling Taking materials out of waste so they can be converted in new products. This means we need less of the raw materials that could be difficult to find or expensive. 5. Metal cans Car parts, new cans 6. Paper New paper, cardboard 7. Plastic bottles Fleece clothing B1.33 The Carbon Cycle Carbon is recycled as carbon dioxide (CO2) through respiration and photosynthesis. 1. Plants absorb CO2 to produce

sugars - photosynthesis. 2. Animals and plants release CO2 when they respire 3. Burning of fossil fuels releases CO2 4. Chalk and other sedimentary rocks is formed from the fossilised remains of sea creatures. 5. When these rocks are exposed to rain (which is slightly acid), the rock dissolves and more CO2 is released. Keywords Detritivores worms and maggots that feed on dead material Decomposer organisms (bacteria and fungi) that feeds on dead material starting the process of decay

B1.34 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is needed to make biological molecules like proteins and DNA. Plants absorb nitrates from the soil Animals get nitrogen from their food. Bacteria in the Nitrogen Cycle 1. Nitrogen fixing bacteria- bacteria living in root nodules of legumes and soil. They

convert: Nitrogen gas Ammonia 2. Nitrifying bacteria converts Ammonia Nitrates 3. Denitrifying bacteria converts Nitrates Nitrites Nitrites Nitrogen gas

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