Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism

Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism Chapter 7 Regional Economies Create Differences, 1800-1820 Industrial Revolution in America Up to this point, when a

machine broke down, it stayed broken until a specialist made a specific piece to fix the individual machine. Machines could be out of commission for weeks. Industrial Revolution in America

Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry in Britain The result was dirty slums filled with poor housing, poor people, and poor health. Industrial Revolution in America

Prior to the factory system, products were made in private homes with 2-3 workers Once the spinning wheel was invented, others were adapted to fulfill other needs Industrial Revolution in

America Factories were more efficient and able to mass produce items Americas involvement in manufacturing in the early 1800s was only transporting goods on the open seas. Britain was the industrial leader.

Industrial Revolution in America The Embargo Act and the War of 1812 focused American energy on ways to improve their own industrial base instead of just shipping others goods. Industrial Revolution in

America Samuel Slater built 1st factory in New England 1793 It produced thread 20 years later factories produced all stages of cloth using water powered machines

Industrial Revolution in America With their successful factory system in Waltham, MA, Lowell opened his own factory town named Lowell The Lowell factory hired girls who usually worked 2-3

years to bring money home or find a husband Two Economic Systems Develop People in the north invested their money in manufacturing & factories. People in the south increased agricultural production, particularly

cotton, relying on slave labor Two Economic Systems Develop Soil and climate in northeast farming nearly impossible Farmers in the west raised crops and cattle Farm products were sold in cities & manufactured products sold to

farmers. VA & MD grow tobacco while states to the south produced short-staple cotton King Cotton Cotton was in great demand & highly labor intensive Slave population grew to provide labor Industrial Revolution in

America Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793 Under contract with the government to make weapons production more efficient, he is also credited with developing interchangeable parts. Two Economic Systems

Develop Large plantation owners acquired hundred of slaves Most farmers were poor whites farming a few acres Both groups pushed farther west as their lust for land increased. American System

President Madison planned to help unify America while creating a stable economy. Develop transportation systems Establish protective tariffs Resurrect National Bank The south & west would produce food needed in the industrial north A uniform currency would make American System

The idea was to intersect America with a transportation system that would allow easy trade This would benefit all sections of the nation. Roads, canals and railroads are expensive. Who would pay for them? Transportation Railroads The first locomotive, Tom

Thumb, was built in 1825 They could go wherever tracks could be built They were expensive to startup Transportation - Roads States built roads within their own state The federal government built roads to connect regions A pike was laid across the road until a toll was paid.

The toll taker then turned the pike to allow the driver to pass. Transportation - Canals Erie Canal was the 1st of several to join 2 bodies of water, usually west to east Without a current, flatboats were pulled by horses

or pushed with poles Transportation - Canals Erie Canal dug between Lake Erie & Hudson River. Most of the labor was done by Irish immigrants who worked for poor wages in dangerous conditions Tariff of 1816

Madison proposed a tariff to raise the price on imports to make domestic goods competitive The tax would be used to pay for internal improvements The south would pay more in tariffs for improvements in the north. Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism

Chapter 7 Nationalism at Center Stage Election of 1816 James Monroe 183 Rufus King - 34 James Monroe ushers n the Era of Good

Secretary of State John Quincy Adams established a foreign policy that was based on nationalism. This is a belief that national interests as a whole should be more important than what one region wants. Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Adams believed that foreign affairs

should be guided by this national interest. In 1817, Adams worked out a treaty with Great Britain that reduced the number of both countries navy ships on the Great Lakes. The United States and Great Britain also agreed to settle boundary disputes in North America. Rush-Bagot Treaty led to the complete demilitarization of Britain & America on the Great Lakes.

Convention of 1818, settled US northern border at 49 N. Two years later, Adams turned his attention to Florida. By this time, most Americans

assumed that Spanish Florida eventually would become part of the United States. Spain responded by handing over Florida to the United States in the Adams-Ons Treaty. Under the terms of the treaty, Spain also gave up any claims it had on the Oregon

Treaty. Monroe Doctrine Still in place today ! In 1823, the fifth president, President James Monroe warned European nations not to interfere with any nation in the

Americas. In return, the United States would stay out of European Affairs. This statement is called the Monroe Doctrine. The Missouri Question - Northerners were against adding Missouri to the union as a slave state because it would disrupt the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states. Illinois (1818) Alabama (1819) Indiana (1816) Mississippi (1817)

Balance of Free and Slave States (1819) Original 13 States Ohio (1803) Vermont (1791) Rhode Island

Louisiana (1812) Tennessee (1796) Kentucky (1792) New York New Hampshire Massachusetts Connecticut Virginia North Carolina South Carolina

Maryland New Jersey Pennsylvania Georgia Delaware Free States Slave States

Balance of Free and Slave States (1821) Maine (1820) Missouri Compromise Illinois (1818) Missouri was admitted to the union as a slave state, and Maine was

admitted as a free state. Original 13 States Indiana (1816) Ohio (1803) Vermont (1791) Missouri (1821) Alabama (1819) Mississippi (1817)

Louisiana (1812) Tennessee (1796) Rhode Island New York New Hampshire Kentucky (1792) Virginia North Carolina Massachusetts

Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania South Carolina Maryland Georgia Delaware Free States Slave States

An imaginary line was drawn across the southern border of Missouri at the latitude 36 30'N. 36 , 30 Slavery was allowed in the part of the Louisiana Purchase south of the 36 , 30'N. Slavery banned north of 36,30'N, except for Missouri.

Sectionalism loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country. Clermont Robert Fulton invented the steamboat in 1807 For the first time, boats could go up stream. People and goods traveled the Ohio and Mississippi

Rivers Gibbons v. Ogden Ogden believed that his route (NY-NJ) was protected by NY law When Gibbons began running the same route, Ogden sued him Supreme Court decided that only the federal govt could regulate interstate trade, not

McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 Maryland taxed a branch of the National Bank, hoping to cause it to fail The Marshall court decided that states could not tax the federal govt since it could destroy it. Supreme Courts decisions strengthened federal govts control over the economy.

Other Limits to State Powers The Supreme Court under John Marshall made 2 more decisions that limited state power Fletcher v. Peck, 1810 nullified GA law violated persons right to enter into contracts Dartmouth College v.

Woodward, 1819 states could not interfere with Election of 1820 James Monroe 231 John Q. Adams 1 Non-voting - 3 Clearly, the nation was pleased with

their president Age of Jackson Chapter 7 Section 3 Election of 1824 Five men ran for President No one received enough electoral

votes to win the election As provided in the Constitution, the House decided the winner between the top 3 vote-getters. Election of 1824 John Q. Adams was chosen as president. Andrew Jackson said that

opponent, Henry Clay, made a corrupt bargain with John Q. Adams It was never proven, but Clay became the Sec. Of State Clay Election of 1824 John Q. Adams = 84

Andrew Jackson = 99 W. Crawford = 41 Henry Clay = 37 Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson prepared for the 1828 election Old Hickory showed himself to be a shrewd politician who was

well liked, by the common man,hard fightin and hard drinkin The election of 28 was the dirtiest/meanest election in US History won 1828 election by a landslide as property restrictions were Jackso n

Jackson = 178 Adams = 83 Andrew Jackson Presidency Jacksons administration was remembered for several controversial events Spoils system Indian Removal Act Nullification crisis Destruction of National Bank

Spoils System John Q. Adams did not replace people in his administration with people that supported him, so those Jackson supporters blocked him in EVERY decision Jackson chose to replace everyone, some many times.

Spoils System His idea was based on to the victors belong the spoils, and that political supporters should be rewarded. Every president since has chosen to follow his lead. Indian Removal

Southerners backed Jackson in 1828 because of his interest in moving the Indians off prime farm land The Cherokees resisted and

tried to Cherokee,Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw Seminole Indian Removal Congress passed the Indian Removal Act Cherokee Nation took their case to the US Supreme Court (USSC case

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia) They agreed with the Cherokee & reversed the Act. John Marshall Trail of Tears Jackson ordered them moved anyway. Let Mr. Marshall enforce

it In 1838 the Cherokee were removed by force Jackson wins States Rights and the National Bank Chapter 7 Section 4

To help American industry, the 1st protective tariff was passed in 1816 It was increased in 1824 and in 1828 VP John C. Calhoun, SC, called the last tariff, the Tariff of

Abominations Tariffs Nullification Crisis Tariffs raised in the South were used for internal improvements in the North. To help his economically deprived state, Calhoun wrote the South Carolina Exposition

Nullification Crisis Calhoun stated that states had the authority to nullify (reject), any federal act it considered to be unconstitutiona l.

Calhoun Nullification Crisis Pres. Jackson: Our Union, it must be preserved V. Pres Calhoun: Our Union, next to our liberty, the most dear

Calhoun correcting Nullification Crisis SC threatened to secede from the Union Jackson threatened to bring troops into SC & hang Calhoun

Force Bill allowed Jackson to use military Nullification Crisis Henry Clay, Great Compromiser, proposed a solution to lower the tariffs over a

10 year period Conflict over states rights will continue National Bank Jackson never liked the National Bank, thinking it favored the rich & hurt the economy Although the banks

charter was not due to expire for 4 years, Clay wanted Jackson to sign a renewal to make it a campaign issue Became personal issue with Jackson Mr. Biddles Bank If Jackson vetoed the charter, he may

lose some support right before the election Jackson used it to his advantage convincing people that the bank was unfair. It became a war between him & the bank mgr. Nicholas

National Bank Jackson refused to sign the charter Charter still had 4 years but Jackson would not wait He took all the federal money out of national bank & put it in

state pet banks Mr. Biddles Bank The National Bank soon closed Jackson winsagain Whigs For the last several elections, there was essentially one political

party in America That would change with Whigs, formed to oppose Jackson Election of 1836 Martin Van Buren = 170 W. H. Harrison = 73

White = 26 D. Webster = 14 Jacksons Legacy Many Jacksons pet banks were wildcat banks, those that of made poor loans & risked bankruptcy Wildcat banks printed their own currency,

some had little collateral Jacksons Legacy Jackson chose to solve the problem by making all payments due in specie (thats gold or silver, not paper) People rushed to trade their paper currency for specie There wasnt enough gold

Panic of 1837 As news of bank closings became known, there were rushes on banks. Hundreds of banks closed their doors forever Panic of 1837 The Panic hit as Van

Buren took the oath of office His solution is to do nothing. By 1840, the Whigs are organized & run William Henry Harrison & John Election of 1840 William H. Harrison = 234 Martin Van Buren = 60

Harrison Presidency Harrison gave a very long inaugural speech on a cold, rainy, winter day He caught pneumonia and died a month later His running mate, John Tyler, became president His Accidency

Tyler was not a loyal Whig and was chosen only for the votes he brought to the ticket The Whigs were stuck with him for 4 years.

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