Balancing Reading in the Language Arts

Balancing Reading in the Language Arts

FAIR and RtI Florida Education: The Next Generation the DRAFT Reading Leadership March 13, 2008 Version 1.0 Team Connection Presented by: Dr. Pamela S. Craig Reading Instructional Specialist Florida Department of Education Dr. Eric J. Smith Commissioner Agenda Overview of the RLT Expectations Connecting RtI to the RLT Purpose Connecting FAIR to the RLT Purpose Developing a Literacy Action Plan Reading Leadership Teams 2.1: The purpose of the Reading Leadership Team is to create capacity of reading knowledge within the school building and focus on areas of literacy concern across the school. The principal, reading coach, mentor reading teachers, content area teachers, and other principal appointees should serve on this team which should meet at least once a month. Florida Department of Education. 2010-2011 K-12 Comprehensive Reading Plan

FCIM/RLT Connection Modify/ Revise Plan as needed Monitor Plans Effectiveness Establish a Team & Develop a Plan Research Adolescent Literacy Analyze Data Implement the Action Plan On-going Progress Professional Monitoring Development Classroom Instructional Observations Coaching PLAN Establish a Team and Develop a Plan 1. Build a learning community of committed, school-based professionals representative

all of stakeholders. 2. Study scientifically based reading research. 3. Analyze student, teacher, and school-based data 4. Develop a school-based literacy plan of action. Step 1: Formulating the Foundation Successful teams build on a solid foundation consisting of collaboratively developed and widely shared mission, vision, values, and goals Why do we exist? What kind of school do we hope to become? How must we behave in order to create the kind of school we hope to become? Eaker, R., DuFour, R., & DuFour, R. (2002). Getting Started: Reculturing Schools to Become Professional Learning Communities. Principals Role 2.1: What process will the principal use to form and maintain a Reading Leadership Team?

2.3: How will the principal promote the Reading Leadership Team as an integral part of the school literacy reform process to build a culture of reading throughout the school? Florida Department of Education. 2010-2011 K-12 Comprehensive Reading Plan Step 2: Understanding Adolescent Literacy Despite the call for todays adolescents to achieve higher levels of literacy than previous generations, approximately 8.7 million fourth through twelfth grade students struggle with the reading and writing tasks that are required of them in school. For many adolescent students, ongoing difficulties with reading and writing figure prominently in the decision to drop out of school. These indicators suggest that literacy instruction should continue beyond the elementary years and should be tailored to the more complex forms of literacy that are required of adolescent students in the middle and high school years. National Institute for Literacy. (2007). What content-area teachers should know about adolescent literacy. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Consider this There is a reason why education reformers devote so much effort to the early grades: in order to build a house, you must secure the foundation. But the opposite is true as well: there is little sense in laying a foundation unless there are plans to build something on top of it.

Students need a lot of help to raise the roof on learning, even after they learn the foundational skills of reading. Why the crisis in adolescent literacy demands a national response. (2006). Alliance for Excellent Education. Available on-line: http://www.all4ed.org/files/StrivingBrief3_numbers_02.pdf Adolescent Literacy Reform Researchers and advocates point to a number of things schools can do to help students of all ages make significant gains in literacy: Identify those who read below grade level and discern their specific learning needs. Provide intensive support for low-level readers. Make special efforts to motivate those students and engage them in reading and writing assignments that tap into their individual interests. Offer teachers high-quality professional development in various aspects of secondary literacy instruction. Heller, R. H. & Greenleaf, C. L. (2007). Literacy Instruction in Content Areas: Getting to the core of middle and high school improvement. Alliance for Excellent Education. p. 4. Step 3: Analyze Student, Teacher, and School-based Data FCAT Data Analyze current year FCAT results. Determine trends in student performance State, District, School, Grade Level, Individual Students). Identify common areas of strengths and weaknesses. FAIR Data

Grade level Tier I Class level Tier II Curriculum level Tier II Analyzing Data FCAT Test Design Review longitudinal FCAT Cluster data to determine the most highly tested benchmarks. FCAT Item Specifications Unwrap the Benchmarks Read and understand Item Specifications for an understanding of what students should know and be able to do at the end of developmental levels of grades. Other Data to Consider Professional development Disaggregated Curriculum Step 4: Developing an Action Plan Develop a data-based literacy action plan to guide ongoing decisions about instruction, programming, and resource allocation. The plan must be measurable, coherent, concrete, and comprehensible to teachers and administrators. The plan must be seen as proactive, not as compliance to a mandate, even if a mandate is

what prompted the plans development. Irvin, Meltzer, & Dukes. (2007). Taking action on adolescent literacy: An implementation guide for school leaders. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. p. 118. Plan Instructional Pacing Calendar Utilize information from DART, FCAT Test Design Document, FCAT Content Focus Reports to determine which benchmarks will be taught each month. Allocate an appropriate number of days for instruction, re-teaching, and assessing. This process will ensure that all Annually Assessed Benchmarks have been taught, assessed, and remediated prior to FCAT 2010. Plan Effective Instruction Ensure effective instruction is aligned to the Sunshine State Standards Explicitly indicate instructional delivery methods by describing the following: frequent exposure to annually assessed benchmarks opening activities vocabulary instruction, lesson objectives (aligned to SSS), essential questions (asked at the beginning of the lesson, answered by the end of the lesson), whole group and differentiated instruction,

Higher order thinking questions Reading/writing across the curriculum, literature connections, accommodations and modifications, technology, centers/learning stations, closing activity DO Implement the Action Plan Present Plan Whole faculty Departments PLCs Provide Professional Development Provide Instructional Support through Coaching. Implement Lesson Study Maintenance Utilize word walls and vocabulary notebooks to reinforce instructional terms.

Provide frequent opportunities for cooperative learning. Create learning stations that re-teach skills. Vary instructional delivery to include varying learning styles. CHECK Monitor Plans Effectiveness Monitoring Administrative walk-through forms, Instructional Coaching Logs, Teacher Data Binders, Student Progress Monitoring Tools Ensure that all students are consistently improving areas of weakness, maintaining levels of proficiency, and increasing areas of strength. CHECK cont Assessments Administer frequent and ongoing assessments: baseline, monthly, mini, mid-year Analyze assessment data to diagnose student deficiencies, reveal areas of proficiency, and highlight skill enrichment opportunities. Data Chats Conduct data chats at three levels (DistrictSchool, Administration-Teachers, TeachersStudents) to discuss student progress, and plans for re-directing the instructional focus. ACT Modify and Revise as Needed

Differentiated Instruction Redirect instructional focus to meet the individual needs of students as indicated by data results. Provide Differentiated Instruction that focuses on skill remediation, maintenance of proficiency, and enrichment. Professional Development Provide additional opportunities for professional development as determined from observations during administrative walk-throughs, evaluations, and classroom data. Assign Instructional Coaches to provide on-site training to grade levels, modeling during instructional time, and lesson planning support during common planning time. ACT cont Lesson Study Utilize Professional Learning Communities to implement book/article study, analyze data, redirect instructional focus, discuss best practices, and determine how teacher strengths can be maximized across grade levels or within subject areas. FCIM/RtI Connection Modify Instruction: Tutorial Interventions Enrichment

Evaluate: OPM Define: What is the problem? Analyze: Why is it happening Implement Tier I: Core Instruction/ Intervention RtI Multi-Tier Model: Tier I Primarily in Core Instruction Provide effective academic and behavior core instruction Effective core instruction = 80% or more of students have met tested benchmarks with core instruction. Provide differentiated instruction for at risk

students Monitor and record academic and behavior growth for all students FCAT Levels 1, 2, & 3 - FAIR Broad Screen/Progress Monitoring Tool (3 times a year). FCAT Levels 1-5 FCIM Focus-lessons and assessments. 23 Grade Level Comprehension Concern 9th Grade Data Median Percentile Percent > 40% 10th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 40% 11th Grade Median Percentile Percent >40%

12th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 40% AP1 23rd 29th 25% (98) 33% (136) 33rd 34th 38% (116) 45% (136) 29th 30th 46% (151) 50% (156) 37th ~33rd 61% (126)

55% (113) AP1 31st 34th 46th 45th 39th 38th 38th 34th Grade Level MAZE Concern Data MAZE 9th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 30% 10th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 30%

11th Grade Median Percentile Percent >30% 12th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 30% 14th 15th 17% (69) 21% (75) 22nd 19th 41% (116) 31% (82) 17th 19th 31% (102) 29% (95) 22nd

22nd 36% (76) 34% (70) Grade Level Word Analysis Word Analysis 9th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 30% 10th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 30% 11th Grade Median Percentile Percent >30% 12th Grade Median Percentile Percent > 30% 39th 30th 66% (252) 49% (181)

47th 18th 71% (202) 41% (104) 57th 18th 62% (204) 38% (116) 47th 22nd 74% (149) 37% (73) Grade Level Lexile Lexile Reader Text Measures Measures 9th Grade Median Percentile

1055 1100 855L to 1165L 1050L to 1150L 10th Grade Median Percentile 1120 1128 905L to 1195L 1100L to 1200L 11th Median Percentile 1090 1095

940L to 1210L 1100L to 1300L 12th Grade Median Percentile 1145 1120 940L to 1210L 1100L to 1300L Copyright 2010 MetaMetrics, Inc . http://www.lexile.com/about-lexile/grade-equivalent/grade-equivalent-chart/ FCAT Highly-Tested Benchmark Data FCAT Reading Grade 10 Benchmrk New Benchmark Alignment Content Focus 2009

Number of Points Possible 2008 Number of Points Possible 2007 Number of Points Possible Cluster 2: Main Idea, Plot, and Purpose A241 LA.910.1.7.3 Details/facts 6* 10* 5 A241 LA.910.1.7.3 Main idea/essential message 1

3* 3 A241 Methods of development 1 A242 Author's point of view 2 A242 LA.910.1.7.2 Author's purpose 2 E241 LA.910.2.1.5 Character development 1 E241 LA.910.2.1.7

Descriptive language 3 1 E241 LA.910.2.1.7 Figurative language 3 1 E241 LA.910.2.1.5 Plot development E241 LA.910.2.1.5 Plot development/major events Reporting Cluster Point Total 3 3 1 1

1 1 17 19 16 Data Analysis Points 9th 11th Grade: Increases Reading Comprehension (independent level). 9th Grade: Small increase in MAZE (low-level gradelevel comprehension). 10th Grade: Drop in MAZE All grades: Drop in Word Analysis Scores 9th 10th Grade: Slight increase in lexile scores; within grade level reader and text lexile expectations. 11th Grade: Slight increase in lexile scores; within grade level reader scores; below grade level text lexile scores. 12th Grade: Drop in lexile scores; within grade level reader and text lexile scores. Tier I Intervention Developed within the Reading Leadership Team in collaboration with the Reading Coach Based on an analysis of FAIR data and FCAT data, the RLT determined the following:

Implement daily reading strategy focus mini-lessons using grade level passages in language arts classes. Two weeks of selective highlighting and two weeks of margin notes. Content area classrooms incorporate selected reading strategies within daily classroom instructional practices using content-specific texts. Two weeks of selective highlighting and two weeks of margin notes. At the end of each two week period, students will take reading benchmark assessments focused on identifying relevant details to determine main idea in language arts classes. Tier I Sample Focus Calendar Sunday Monday 31 27 Friday 3 4 Details/ facts Details/ facts

Details/ facts Details/ facts Selective Highlighting Selective Highlighting Selective Highlighting Selective Highlighting 8 9 10 11 Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/

facts 14 15 16 17 18 Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/ facts Margin Notes Margin Notes Margin Notes Margin Notes Margin Notes

21 22 23 24 25 Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/ facts Details/ facts Margin Notes Margin Notes Margin Notes Margin Notes 28

29 30 FAIR ONGOING PROGRESS MONITORING FAIR ONGOING PROGRESS MONITORING 7 Selective Highlighting 20 Thursday 2 Labor Day 13 Wednesday 1 Teacher Data Chats in PLCs

6 Tuesday Selective Highlighting Selective Highlighting Saturday 5 12 Main Idea Benchmark Assessment 19 26 Main Idea Benchmark Assessment Field Day 31 What is the relationship between School Pacing Guide, Focus Calendar & RtI? Problem Identification and Analysis Act

OPM Assessments Content Benchmarks Core Curriculum Pacing Guides Intervention Design Problem Solving Intervention Analysis Check Plan Instructional Practices & Materials FAIR Focus Calendar Do Intervention Implementation 32 RtI Multi-Tier Model: Tier II Provide intensive, research-based interventions focused on remediation of identified problem

Interventions can be standard protocol or determined through a problem-solving process Interventions are typically highly structured and are provided in a small group setting Interventions are provided in addition to and aligned with core instruction Monitor effectiveness of Tier II interventions frequently (e.g., bi-weekly, monthly) Determined by Reading Teachers in Collaboration with the Reading Coach Effective Tier II Intervention= 70% of students receiving a specific Tier II intervention are making adequate progress toward benchmark/goal (e.g., FAIR Toolkit) Change intervention plan if effectiveness criteria is not met 33

Tier II Cont Students who meet benchmarks as a result of Tier II interventions are reintegrated into Tier I core instruction with support provided through differentiation Students who do not respond adequately to effective Tier II intervention may be identified for individual problem-solving and Tier III intervention 34 Intervention Classroom Data Score AP1 AP2 AP1 AP2 39th 32nd 45% Percent 28% 28% Percent (25) > 30%

(10) (16) > 30% 65% (35) 63% (35) 37th Median 39th 32nd 39% Percent 22% 31% Percent (29) > 30% (17) (24) > 30% 79% (59) 67% (50) 57th Median 62nd 49th 80% Percent 37% 46% Percent (45) >30%

(21) (10) >30% 94% (53) 86% (18) Comprehension 54th Percent 79% (45) >40% Teacher 4 Median 32/38 29th Percent 27% > 40% (21) Teacher 3 Median 57/57 29th Percent 27% > 40% (14) Teacher 2 Median 77/76 AP1

AP2 MAZE Teacher 1 Median 54/56 Score Percent >40% 38th Median Median Score Word Analysis 15th 16th Median 23rd 18th 18th 30th Median

1st 1st Median 3rd 4th Median 12th 2nd 3% (1) 5% (2) Percent >30% 0 0 Percent >30% 26% (8) 13%

(5) Analyze Class Data to Determine Grouping Grouping Students Box 1 Box 2 + 4 Box 2 + 5 Box 3 + 4 Box 3 + 5 Reading Intervention Classes Action Plan Concerns Data Goals Plan Evaluation ILA courses do not have a core curriculum Observation and review of curriculum.

Develop a more specific curriculum w/appropriat e materials and support for teachers. Use the MS/HS Phonics Inventory for pre/post test to design word study activities. Student fluency data notebooks **Provide time for ILA teachers to analyze data and plan activities and tests one period a week facilitated by Reading Coaches. Teachers meet with students every two weeks to conduct fluency probes and provide fluency instruction. The Reading Coaches will model and coteach fluency probes with ILA teachers. Students work with partners to improve fluency daily. Teacher tests. MS/HS Phonics Inventory post test.

Reading Intervention Classes Action Plan Concerns Data Building Grade Level Comprehension Teachers using FORF Goals Growth in reading comprehension FCAT 2009 on Benchmark benchmar Tests k tests and FAIR Mid-Terms OPM Plan Evaluation Teachers will use Power Strategy Books to create weekly FCIM mini-lessons using Janet Allen Power Strategy Passages.

Gains in FAIR OPM Gains in students weekly fluency notebooks. Passages will be copied so students can mark text to demonstrate strategies and chunking. The same passages will be used with students to work in partners to Student work: chunk the text and partner read. appropriately chunking text. Students will keep fluency notebooks charting their cold read and daily **Student reading of the passages. copies of texts **Provide time for teachers to choose is essential** passages and Power Strategy one period a week facilitated by Reading Coaches. Reading Intervention Classes Action Plan Consistency in Word Study FAIR Data Weekly lesson plans/

activities Teachers will use the same grade-level text to choose weekly vocabulary words. Activity centers will be developed using the vocabulary acquisition strategies already taught. Weekly teacher generated assessments. **Provide time for teachers to identify specific vocabulary words during the one period a week facilitated by Reading Coaches. Building Independent Reading Stamina Lexile Scores Increase students independent lexile levels. Students use lexiled text from Janet Allen, Reading Counts or other resources with student accountability. Student Journals and/

or logs. Teachers will monitor lexile level of independent reading to increase student lexile levels every 3-4 weeks. Conferencing with students. RtI Multi-Tier Model: Tier III Determined by Individual Teachers with support from Reading Coach Determine intervention plan through an individual Problem-Solving process Interventions are intense in terms of time, focus, and group size Ensure interventions are research-based and implemented with fidelity Provide interventions in addition to and aligned with Tier I and Tier II instruction

Measure intervention effectiveness very frequently (e.g., weekly) and review data often Note: Tier III is in addition to Tier II Interventions 41 Analyze Individual Student Data to Determine Targeted Interventio n Layered and Aligned Inte Inte nsive rven tion Inte Rea rventi o din gC n las ses Co r Co nte e Inst nt A ruc

rea tion Rea din g The three tiers of service are stacked resources so that they are layered and aligned with each other. FCIM FCAT Lesson Study ANALYSIS DART 2009 Differentiated Test Design Instruction Content Focus Professional Item Development Specifications Differentiated Instruction Professional Development Maintenance Monitoring Instructional Pacing Calendar Instructional Delivery Guide

Contact DR. PAMELA S. CRAIG, [email protected]

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