BALLISTICSand FIREARMS - River Dell Regional School District ...

BALLISTICSand FIREARMS - River Dell Regional School District ...

BALLISTICS and FIREARMS A well regulated militia,

being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. 2nd Amendment to the US

Constitution Studies have shown that no two firearms, even those of the

same make and model, will produce the same unique marks on fired bullets and cartridge Manufacturing

processes, use, and abuse leave surface characteristics within the firearm that cannot be exactly reproduced in other firearms.

Taken from Firearms ID .com Two general classifications of firearms: Handguns (side arms) Rifles (shoulder weapons)

Bolt action rifle Winchester

Remington revolver haca model shotgun Remington models

CZ 75 full automatic AK 47 hese weapons are rarely examine

by a criminalist as they are found n military zones. The barrel or bore of the gun is th conduit through which the cartrid will pass.

One type of cartridge holds many balls of lead or steel called shot ands and grooves Rifling in a

105 mm cannon Databases on the patterns of spiraling grooves kept by FBI

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) Spacing and direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) of the lands and grooves

on a slug along with caliber Examiner knows exactly what The Magnus effect is the phenomenon whereby a spinning object flying in a fluid creates a

whirlpool of fluid around itself, and experiences a force perpendicular to the line of motion. Wikipedia (knuckleball) Smooth bore weapons

such as shotguns have no rifling. 9 mm rifling The cartridge is plastic, with

shot, propellant, and primer. Wads are pieces of paper, cardboard or cotton to keep materials from mixing. The primer is lit mechanically

when struck by the firing pin. Primer ignites, burns, fast and hot Sets off the propellant which Pushes the shot out of the barrel

SHOTGUN! all firearms eject spent cartridges all eject gun shot residue GSR R contains specific chemicals: d, barium and antimony, the material

rimer mixtures R shows metal content and nufacturers use metal itives in known proportions

The other type of ammunition has a single , solid projectile in a cartridge. The cartridge case is called a jacket

surrounding a metal core called the slug. A modern cartridge consists of the following: 1. the bullet itself, which

serves as the projectile; 2. the case, which holds all parts together; 3. the propellant, for example gunpowder or cordite;

4. the rim, part of the casing used for loading; 5. the primer, which ignites the propellant. Forces cause the

projectile , the slug, out the open end of the barrel. Energy is required to throw a slug which produces

noise and heat, which deforms the metals of the A gun with spiral marks in it, is rifled. The spirals on the inside of the barrel, the bore,

cause the slug to spin, keeping it traveling on a straight course. National Integrated Ballistics

Information Network Shoulder weapons with this rifling were

called rifles Handguns and rifles have the rifling. rifle bullet

samples handgun bullet samples The heated slug spins along the

rifling inside the barrel and picks up the riflings, impressions. Slug recovered at crime scene, will bear same markings on it cartridge as found on the inside of bore

only reverse of Lands are raised areas and grooves are depressions on the metal Gauge and Caliber

Of Ammunition Gauge Measure of shotguns only; shot to an equivalent slug 12 gauge shotgun packs a load

equivalent to a solid lead slug weighing 1/12 of a pound 10 gauge; load weighing 1/10 of a pound Caliber is measure of bore of

weapons; handguns and rifles Measure in 1/100ths of an inch. .45 caliber handgun bore is 45/100 of 1 inch. Magnum is not a caliber but a description of firepower of

propellant. 44 magnum and 45 caliber weapons and ammunition are not interchangeable different propellant

9 mm caliber is a metric measurement. Originally made by European gun manufacturers. Measures the caliber of a

FBI, ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms) Government agencies established databases of patterns of grooves in guns.

Lands and grooves on gun, match lands and grooves on gun and evidence is individualistic for a gun. Can also tell manufacturer, type, size of gun

Valuable forensic evidence Firing pin marks on the breach face of the cartridge reveals specific markings to

a particular gun Where cartridge Not all firearms eject cartridges.. All eject gunshot residue (GSR)

vapor, particulates, heated chemicals, lead barium, antimony If found on suspect means: -they fired weapon -were present when fired or

-handled a recently fired weapon Individual ammunitions composition varies with In the field of

forensic science, forensic ballistics is the science of analyzing firearm usage in crimes.

BALLISTICS: A STUDY IN PROJECTILE PHYSICS THERE IS A METHOD TO THE MADNESS. Energy Calculator Example: The muzzle energy of a

300 Remington Ultra Mag 180gr CoreLokt Ultra bullet propelled at 3250 feet per second is determined using the follow formula: M x V2 450400 = foot pounds energy. Step 1: Multiply M (M = bullet weight

in grains) times V2 (V2 = the square of bullet velocity in feet per second): 180 x 3250 x 3250 = 1,901,250,000 Step 2: Divide the product of step 1 by 450400: 1,901,250,000 450400

Gun powder and particles residue indicates proximity to victim and angle of entry wound.

Types of bullets Armor piercing shell of the APBC 1 Light weight ballistic cap

2 Steel alloy piercing shell 3 Desensitized bursting charge (TNT, Trinitrophenol, RDX...) 4 Fuse (set with delay to

explode inside the target) 5 Bourrelet (front) and driving band (rear) Hollow point

.357 Magnum rounds. Left: Jacketed Soft Point (JSP) round. Right: Jacketed hollow-point (JHP) round. JSP is a semi-jacketed round as the jacket does not extend to the tip.

Metal plate penetrated by an explosion Blast Test.wmv (1.65 Mb) tp://www.state.nj.us/njsp/divorg/invest/forensics.htm

state forensics labs http://njfirearms.c om/ An academy of firearm training in

http://njsp.org/about/fire_tra NJ ns.html NJ law and transportation of a firearm

Thanks to ID Firearms ATF FBI Forenic Casebook, by N.E. Genge

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