1600-1750 THE BAROQUE TIME PERIOD Baroque Scientific Discovery Galileo Newton
Giant Composers J. S. Bach Handel Baroque: Three Periods early: opera homophonic texture
middle: instrumental music late: polyphony Characteristics of Baroque Music
Unity of Mood: a piece usually expresses one mood Rhythm: patterns are repeated through out the beat is emphasized Melody: repeated
Baroque Dynamics Terraced Dynamics: alternation between loud and soft dynamics organ and harpsichord could not crescendo Basso Continuo
Common type of accompaniment Bass line with improvised chords cello or bassoon on bass harpsichord or organ on harmony Basso continuo The Baroque Orchestra
small (10 to 40 players) basso continuo and violin family strings brass, woodwinds and percussion used occasionally tone color was subordinate to the melody, rhythm or harmony The Baroque Orchestra Baroque Forms
movements: a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition. Music in Baroque Society Music written to order: demand for new music.
Main source of diversion in the courts of the aristocracy. Music Directors job Pay and prestige were high compositions were performed Still a servant of the patron Music in Baroque Society Church musicians earned less than the court and lower status
supplemented with weddings and funerals Town musicians Opera houses The Elements of Opera opera: a drama in which some or all of the
lines are sung to an orchestral accompaniment libretto: the text of the opera librettist: the one who writes the libretto overture or prelude: the orchestral introduction to an opera Opera Singing Styles
aria: a song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment recitative: a vocal line that imitates speech, accompanied by basso continuo ensembles: compositions for two or more singers Opera Origins
Florentine Camerata Attempt to recreate the Greek tragedy singing followed the rhythm and pitch fluctuations of speech homophonic: soloist and simple chordal accompaniment (basso continuo) polyphony rejected because it would obscure the
text Early operas: based on the Greek myth Euridice by Jacopo Peri, the earliest opera that has been preserved. Orfeo by Claudo Monteverdi, the first great opera
Early operas: Written for nobility: 1637 first public opera house in Venice (San Cassiano) Use of castrato male hero women's roles only in church-dominated areas
Claudio Monteverdi b. Cremona, Italy Court of Mantua, singer, violinist, director Composer at St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice The Baroque Sonata
a composition in several movements for one to eight instruments (during the early baroque) any instrumental soloist with basso continuo trio sonata two melodic instruments basso continuo
Antonio Vivaldi The Red Priest Antonio Vivaldi - Life son of violinist at St. Mark's in Venice priest - "The Red Priest
Violin teacher, composer, conductor at girl's orphanage forgotten after his death best known for his 450+ concerti and concerti grossi The Concerto and Concerto Grosso Concerto: piece for instrumental soloist, string orchestra, and basso continuo
Concerto Grosso: piece for instrumental soloists, string orchestra, and basso continuo The Concerto Grosso: Performers Soloists between two and four best paid, better players
tutti String orchestra basso continuo harpsichord cello The Concerto Ritornello form
Three Movements 1. fast: ritornello form: based on alternation of tutti and solo sections 2. Slow 3. fast & ritornello form The Four Seasons
Four concerti for violin and orchestra Summer Fall Winter Spring Listening: "La Primavera", (Spring)
Movement one. Spring has arrived, and full of joy The birds greet it with their happy song. The streams, swept by gentle breezes, Flow along with a sweet murmur.
Covering the sky with a black cloak, Thunder and lightning come to announce the season. When all is quiet again, the little birds Return to their lovely song. Spring Concerto Three movements fast, in ritornello form slow
fast Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) b. in Eisenach, Germany long line of musicians four sons became musicians
Arnstadt: Church organist Muhlhausen: Church organist Weimar: Court organist/conductor Cthen: Court organist/conductor The Fugue: terminology
a polyphonic composition based on one theme called a subject written for three, four or five voices labeled SATB whether sung or played the different voices imitate the subject Subject: the melody or theme of a fugue theme: a short melody used to build a
larger composition The Fugue: terminology the answer is the subject in the dominant countersubject: a different melodic idea which always appears with the subject
episode: transitional section stretto: close imitation. pedal point: a single held-out tone, usually in the bass Bach in Leipzig - duties Cantor at St. Thomas Church music at four municipal churches rehearsed, conducted, and composed and
extended work for each Sunday Music education of 55 students at St. Thomas School Oversaw stadtpfeiffers (Musicians Guild) Bach in Leipzig - duties director of Leipzig Collegium Musicum
student organization weekly concerts at a coffeehouse Organ performer and technician greatest organist and composer of organ fugues known for improvisation: music created at the same time as it is performed Bach
Deeply religious (Lutheran) 20 children by two wives Blind from cataracs Today is Buried in St. Thomas Church Forgotten at his death Mendelssohn, 1829, St. Matthew Passion
Bach - Church Cantatas most of his vocal music if sacred No difference between sacred and secular forms used operatic forms such as aria and recitative in sacred cantatas Italian Concerto
French Suite All genres except opera The Chorale and Church Cantata chorale: hymn tune sung to a religious text chorale prelude: a short composition played
by the organist and based on a hymn tune cantata: for chorus, vocal soloists, organ and small orchestra Cantata
written for chorus, vocal soloists, organ and small orchestra. text from the Bible or familiar hymns used to reinforce the sermon half-hour included choruses, recitatives, arias, and duets. (all are also found in opera) Bach composed about 295 cantatas
Cantata No. 140: Mvt. 4, the tenor chorale uses ritornello form contrast of string ritornello and slow chorale melody Bach - St. Thomas Church George Friderick Handel
George Frideric Handel b. Halle, Germany (one month before Bach) Hamburg: opera Italy Elector Georg Ludwig of Hanover
Handel in London favorite of Queen Anne Royal Academy of Music - Italian Operas English Oratorios after failure of Italian Opera Blind - from cataracs
Buried in Westminster Abbey Handel - Music Instrumental suites organ concerti concerti grossi
Vocal Music 39 Italian operas Oratorios (mostly in English) The Oratorio a large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra
uses choruses, arias, duets, recitatives, and orchestral interludes chorus acts as commentary last approximately 2 hours The Oratorio
set to a narrative text no acting or scenery most are biblical originally performed in prayer halls called oratorios Handel - Oratorios
generally Old Testament for the paying public, not church have plots, but no scenery or acting chorus is the focus Messiah - Three Acts Christmas "Ev'ry Valley Shall Be Exalted"
aria for tenor use of word painting For unto Us a Child Is Born Rondo form borrowed from an Italian duet "No, I will not trust you, blind love, cruel Beauty! You are too treacherous, too charming a deity! little difference between sacred and secular styles no copyright laws Easter
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