Barriers & Solutions to SWPBIS Implementation in High School

Barriers & Solutions to SWPBIS Implementation in High School

Think, Pair, Share On a scale of 0-5 please rank your knowledge of SWPBIS 0 represents no knowledge 5 represents a veteran team member or PBIS coach What do you think would make SWPBIS implementation (or any innovation) in high schools more complex than implementation in lower grades? PBIS in High Schools Christopher Pinkney, Portland State University [email protected] Special Thanks to Brigid Flannery and Mimi Kato of the University of Oregon What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support? School-wide PBIS is: a decision-making framework that guides selection, integration, and implementation of the best evidence-based academic and behavioral practices for improving important academic and behavior outcomes for all students.

Evidence-based features of SW-PBIS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual interventions. Administrative leadership Team-based implementation (Systems that support effective practices) PBIS Implementation Framework We organize our resources Multi-Tier Mapping, Gap Analysis So kids get help early Actions based on outcomes (data!), not procedures We do stuff thats likely to work Evidence-Based interventions

We provide supports to staff to do it right Fidelity: Benchmarks of Quality And make sure theyre successful Coaching and Support Progress monitoring and performance feedback Problem-Solving process Increasing levels of intensity Three tiered model for student supports get these tiers of support These students

+ in order to meet benchmarks. = The goal of the tiers is student success, not labeling. Implementation in High Schools High Schools have implemented SWPBIS A number of schools struggle during implementation Many high schools take a year or so in planning before implementing practices Adoption/Implementation of any initiative Understand and attend to the key features of the initiative Core Features of Implementation


BELONGING FRESHMEN SUPPORT Contextual Influences Size Culture Developmental Level Large number of students Large building- campus Large number of faculty/staff Multiple administrators - team Size

Departments/Divisions Multiple resources - people Multiple resources course options Multiple resources student supports in order to get a staff of this size to all work together as departmentalized and as spread out we dont see each other enough and I dont think we have enough time to really get to know each other [and] what we all want BEFORE YOU ADD ONE MORE THING. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Organize what you have Examine who uses Evaluate impact Make sure everyone knows Get everyone involved PBIS in Secondary Schools Examine Current Condition Terms of Reference Resource Mapping Working Smarter to support staff Working Smarter to support students What kind of school to you want your school to be?

What are the outcomes you seek? 12 Language/Communication Pedagogical approach teach content Culture Philosophy about Discipline Focus on public & high stakes outcomes even though were not really asking them to make a huge change, its more like a shiftthats probably the biggest challengejust getting teachers to buy in to the fact that [PBIS] makes a difference for kids. I think in the elementary, [the teacher] would never think to send the student out of the room, because they see themselves as the person whos responsible

for re-teaching the expectationsI dont think [high school] people buy in to their role in teaching [expectations] . Activity: Getting Teachers on the Same Page Words have meaning What do they mean to you? Discipline Suspension Office Referral Bullying Graduation Requirements 15

impulses vs planning* Social Peer influence Judgment/risk taking* Operate from emotions/anger* Role in decision making Developmental Level Age of technology Need for autonomy EWS Freshmen/Sophomore drop out The Adolescent Brain David Dobbs: National Geographic Brain is not fully developed until age 25

Clumsy at first but as it develops it gets better at balancing impulse, desire, goals, self-interest, rules, ethics, and even altruism, generating behavior that is more complex more sensible. Frontal Lobes are not fully connected (access is slower) Is that a good idea?, What is the consequence of this action? Nerve cells are sluggish- thin layer of myelin (white matter) Think insulation for electrical wiring 17 Adaptive- Adolescent Story Teen brain is less as a rough draft than as an exquisitely sensitive, highly adaptable creature wired almost perfectly for the job of moving from the safety of home into the complicated world outside. Sensation seeking: the neural buzz- not necessarily impulsive Love of novelty Upside is that it increases circle of friends Risk Taking

Teens take more risks not because they don't understand the dangers but because they weigh risk versus reward differently: In situations where risk can get them something they want, they value the reward more heavily than adults do. 18 Contextual Influences Foundational Systems Size Culture Leadership Developmental Level am representation, Te schedules Administrative role

Communication Team Broad Membership Similar Membership but Targeted Recruitment Supported by stipends, FTE, planning period, etc. Consistent Administrative participation on team but Identify team member as liaison with administrative team Student Teams/Groups: Have a Clear Purpose POWER Crew Student Led Language Initiative Leadership Class Adhoc Groups Size

Culture Developmental level At the secondary level, because theres more of us [administrators], not all of us are on the same page as far as knowledge base of PBIS. I thinkthats a huge hurdle. ... if they could go to another administrator and get a response thats different, you know it would break down the system. Administration Linkage to the Leadership Team Who makes what decisions; Communication Transparent to staff Keep all administrators on board what is their role

Make public statement of support Obtain faculty/staff consensus Establish and support schoolwide leadership team Guide decision making/problem solving Reinforcement of leadership team and faculty Size Culture Developmental level Meetings Regular Meetings Scheduling more difficult Small leadership group with adhoc groups or members

Team meeting norms and procedures Additional Planning time Mid year and summer planning days Staff paid for their time Size Culture Developmental level Common Behavior Concerns Texting and emailing during instruction Talking during instruction Eating, drinking and gum chewing Late arrival, early departure Starting an activity before listening to the instructions or set up Inappropriate attire t

e g r a t a y l f a ti o n g e r Id o What is your teams role and responsibility? How will you connect your SIP goals or other district

school initiatives with PBIS? What does your data tell you? 25 Foundational Systems Contextual Influences Size Culture Leadership Developmental Level Who Studennts, Staff, Administratio What Language, Message How - Traditional Communication

Much of the happiness and sadness we experience flows from our ability to communicate. Jim Knight, Unmistakable Impact, p. 208 communication Need to have the same information Dont assume about students or staff Gallery Walk News letters, trainings etc Yeah buts All need to listen need similar language Have a common goal Size Culture

Developmental level It's as simple as this. When people don't unload their opinions and feel like they've been listened to, they won't really get on board. Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable Culture/Philosophy/Attitude Yeah but.. Expensive, time consuming/ effortful Unnecessary they should know how to behave by now Inappropriate Rewards are fine for elementary school but are ineffective and inappropriate in middle or high school. The use of rewards will damage intrinsic motivation and actually result in reduction of desired behaviors. I dont believe in bribing students to learn

Resistance to role as supervisor or teaching behavior Im here to teach content, not behavior elementary and middle schools we can make suggestions and theyre more likely to run with it and be have to be patient until they [high schools] get there, without forcing them to do it earlier than theyre ready ... Quick Slips Behavior Grid Warning/Reteach Teacher handled, no documentation required, teacher discretion for consequences and personal documentation

Minor Offense Major Offense Teacher handled, referral form completed, teacher assigns own or building consequence (building consequence examples: lunch or after school detention, time in office, community service, etc.) Referral form completed. Administrator assigns consequence (with teacher input). Administrator communicates to teacher about situation. Expected Behaviors LANGUAGE Offensive remarks or gestures in a

casual manner inappropriate sexual connotations; putdowns to a particular subgroup Repeated pattern of any inappropriate language Swearing used to harass, intimidate, show defiance, create an unsafe climate Language that is socially appropriate I am frustrated. I dont like that. I hate it when that happens. Thats different.

DISRUPTION Noise making; talk-outs/side-talk; attention-getting behaviors (silly answers, class clowning, etc.); bugging others Repeated pattern of any disruptive behaviors; misuse of cell phone/electronic devices in class [Phones and electronic devices to be confiscated and taken to office] Behavior that stops the learning in class; defiant repetition of behavior following correction Cooperative behaviors Turn taking

Contributing appropriately to class discussions and activities Cell phones off & away during instructional time Communication Strategies Connecting with Staff Handbooks Surveys; Gallery Walk Staff Meetings (Department meetings, later start) Embedded Staff Development sessions Newsletters Personal 1:1 contact Size Culture

Developmental level Communication Strategies Connecting with Administrative Team Administrator on Leadership Team Administrative Team liaison Communication Plan Specific Requests for Principal participation Announcements Time at Staff Meetings Attendance at Leadership Meetings Funds Space in Student Handbook Size Culture Developmental level

Communication Plan Communication Strategies Connecting with Students Student Teams/Groups: Have a Clear Purpose POWER Crew Student Led Language Initiative Leadership Class Existing groups for smaller projects Student Surveys Student Handbook Studentled Lesson Plans / Assemblies Outline Yearly Calendar: Work with ASB

Size Culture Developmental level Communication: PRIDE Stories For any Communication What? Be specific: have a targeted message (will change over time) Link message to broader events/themes How? Make it Predictable, Consistent and Frequent

Tailor to your Audience Utilize multiple formats Always encourage two way communication Contextual Influences Foundational Systems Amoun t of data Type of data Access t o data Size Culture Leadership Developmental

Level Communication DO WE HAVE AN EFFICIENT DATA SYSTEM? Are we collecting the right information? What, when, where, who (why?) Is data collection & entry efficient? Less than 15 sec to fill out, less than 30 sec to enter Do we get data in the right format? Graphic format Do we get the data at the right time? Before and during meetings Data no more than 24 hours old Are data used for decision-making by all?

Data presented to all faculty at least monthly Data available for whole school, small group and individual student evaluation Data collected on FIDELITY (what we do) as well as IMPACT (student behavior) Common HS Behavior Concerns Texting and emailing during instruction Talking during instruction Eating, drinking and gum chewing Late arrival, early departure Starting an activity before listening to the instructions or set up Inappropriate attire Homework completion By group: Freshmen By area: Athletic Events; Common areas Size Culture

Developmental level Types of Outcome Data State test results Achievement GPA Engagement Attendance Graduation/Dropout Behavior Office Referrals Suspension/Expulsion Sounds Easy, Right? Right.. LOTS of data Many separate data systems

Behavior Grades/Credit Accumulation Attendance Collected for reporting by district, NOT for use by schools/teams Cant manipulate Dont know what is where Not consistently up to date/accurate Staff dont believe the data Early Warning Indicators On-Track On-Track Indicators At-Risk for Off Track Off-Track

Highly OffTrack Extremely Off-Track Course Performance in Core Subjects GPA Credits FCAT Level 3 or above or concordant scores within the same school

year Level 2 on FCAT Attendance Meeting all graduation requirements Cs or better in all areas 2.5 or more Meeting credit graduation requirement for grad plan year Lacking 1 graduation

requirement 2.0 to 2.49 Behind 1 Credits Lacking 2 graduation requirements Failing 1-3 classes Less than 2.0 10% absences per quarter or semester Lacking 2 or more graduation

requirements Currently failing 3 or more classes Meeting no graduation requirements 2-3 Years Behind Less than or equal to 1.5 Behind 3 credits Not passed both sections of 10th grade FCAT or retakes No concordant scores Behind 4 or Not passed 10th

more credits grade FCAT or retakes No concordant scores Not meeting cohort graduation plan 20% or more absences per quarter or semester Less than or equal to 1.0 Not passed 10th grade FCAT or retakes No concordant

scores Office Discipline Referrals 4% or less absences per quarter or semester 3 or less Level I and/or minor referrals 5% or more absences per quarter or semester 4 or less Level

I and/or minor referrals Level II ODRs per semester 5 or more Level I and/or Level II ODRs per semester 15% or more absences per quarter or semester 5 or more Level II ODRs for fighting/ profanity/ disruption per semester Established

pattern of severe behavior Level II & III ODRs Additional Factors Disengagement No extra curricular involvement Substance Abuse High Mobility Mental health issues Free/Reduced lunch Foster/group home Transient/ Homeless Parent

unemployment Student employment Changes in behavior/ appearance More recent traumatic event Missed guidance appointments No show for yearbook picture Early Warning Indicators Overall GPA 2.5 or more Course Failure (HW

completion & Test Scores) C or better in all courses Attendance (school day/individual class) 4% or fewer absences per quarter (95% or better) On-Track Additional Considerations No extra-curricular involvement Substance Abuse Return from Suspension 2.0 to 2.49 At-Risk for

D in one or more courses 5% or more absences per quarter (90-94.9%) High Mobility Mental health issues Off Track On-Track Indicators Free/Reduced lunch Less than 2.0 F in 1-2 courses 10% absences per quarter OR 3 in a single class (8589.9%) Foster/group home Transient/Homeless Parent unemployment Student

employment Off-Track Changes in behavior/ appearance Less than or equal to 1.5 F in 3-4 courses 15% or more absences per quarter OR more than 3 in a single class (80 84.9%) Less than or equal to 1.0 F in 5 or more courses 20% or more absences per quarter (Below 80%) Highly OffTrack

Extremely Off-Track More recent traumatic event Data Goals Set a transparent school goal Make it public Post progress Attendance on Office Door Language ODRs in main hall with construction paper graphs High School Implementation of SWPBIS HS Contextual Influences Key Foundational

Systems Core Features of Implementation Key HS Focus Areas SOCIAL BEHAVIOR ACADEMIC SUCCESS Size Culture Developmental Level COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

DATA SYSTEMS LEADERSHIP SYSTEMS School Engageme nt and Success PERSONALIZATION / SCHOOL BELONGING FRESHMEN SUPPORT Foundation Systems work Together Leadership Communication Data

Integrated System : Tardies Why? Tardies were a consistent schoolwide problem Identified through Quick Slips data What? Clarified policy/definition with staff & students All School Assembly Tardy Obstacle Course Teachers encouraged to recognize on time behavior Implemented Tardy Sweeps Monitored data Shared data weekly with staff via email Results STRA TEGY !

decreased tardies by 37% in 6 weeks; maintained decrease over time Tardy focus: Utilized multiple systems Communication: Clarifying policies with staff, emphasizing value of accuracy Communication: Student Assembly; Lesson Plan Acknowledgements: Teachers were encouraged to recognize on-time behavior New Practice: Tardy Sweeps STRA TEGY Monitored Data: tardies and shared weekly ! with staff Size Culture

Developmental level NT E M E G D E L reward Systems W O N K C A Think about language Acknowledgement systems Think about how present one consequence system with 2 sides discipline and acknowledgement

Think about philosophy kids should know but brain research says not true Not to mention implementing with thousands of students and lots of staff Big Ideas As you begin implementation of a system or practice (or get stuck), ask yourself: Did you consider impact of size, culture, developmental level of students? Did we think about communication, data and leadership systems to make us successful for this system/practice? Do the smallest things that have the biggest impact If its working dont change it If its NOT working. be honest & be humble listen Addressing Challenges Start small and establish concrete, valuable goals Make explicit connections to existing efforts Check the frequency and clarity of current appropriate messages

Use existing communication structures, facilitate frequent conversations Establish strong team and support the team Help faculty understand need and facilitate active participation Share data in visual formats, Monitor progress On-going professional development Academic Instructionstudent engagement Lessons Learned Take away message 1. Consider the HS Context in everything you do 2. Check your Foundation often 1. Secure Leadership 2. Build Ongoing Lines of Communication 3. Align Data Systems 3. Get Focused - Zoom in and Out as you enter into practices Monograph on SWPBS Implementation in High Schools: Current Practice and Future Directions ( Swain-Bradway, J., Pinkney, C., Flannery, K. B. (in press). Implementing schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports in high schools: Contextual factors and stages of implementation. Teaching Exceptional Children. Morrissey, K. L., Bohanon, H., & Fenning, P. (2010) Teaching and acknowledging expected behaviors in an urban high school. Teaching Exceptional Children. Bohanon, H., Fenning, P., Carney, . . .. (2006). Schoolwide application of positive behavior support in an urban high school: A case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, Kennedy, M., Mimmack, J, & Flannery K.B. (2012). Innovation in data-driven decision making within SWPBIS Systems: Welcome to the gallery walk. Beyond Behavior Flannery, K. B. Guest, E., & Horner , R. (2010). The principals role in establishing school-wide positive behavior support in high school. Principal Leadership Flannery, K. B., Frank, J. L., Doren, B., Kato, M.M., Fenning, P. (2013). Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in High School Settings: Analysis of Eight High Schools. The High School Journal

Flannery, K. B., Fenning, P. , Kato, M.M., & McIntosh, K. (in press). Effects of SW-PBIS and Fidelity of Implementation on Problem Behavior in High Schools. School Psychology Quarterly Contact Info and Q & A Chris Pinkney Portland State University [email protected] K. Brigid Flannery University of Oregon Mimi McGrath Kato University of Oregon [email protected] [email protected]

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