Battle of Trafalgar Lord Viscount Horatio Nelson Nelsons Coat of Arms Colin Schunke r Admiral Villeneuve The Battle of Trafalgar 1 Call to Arms! ENGLAND EXPECTS DO
HIS THAT EVERY MAN WILL D U T Y The Battle of Trafalgar 2
Other Signals TELEGRAPH FLAG (Hoisted with the earlier signal) ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY Note: This signal was not hoisted until after Nelsons Signal was taken down. The Battle of Trafalgar 3 Nelsons Legacy Britannia Rules the Waves! The Battle of Trafalgar
4 Nelsons Legacy Memorials to Lord Nelson The Battle of Trafalgar 5 Nelsons True Legacy! More Memorials to Lord Nelson The Battle of Trafalgar 6 Historical Overview Nearly 200 years after it was fought, the battle of Trafalgar is still regarded as one of
historys most decisive naval battles. In the early summer of 1805 Napoleon Bonaparte decided to invade England. The British knew that the only way to stop Napoleons plan was by defeating the French in a naval battle. The French had teamed up with the Spanish fleet to increase their chances of defeating the British. The Battle of Trafalgar 7 Historical Overview Admiral Nelson, on board HMS Victory was in command of the British fleet. His French counterpart Vice Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve, commanded the Franco-Spanish fleet. The British had blockaded the French and Spanish ports effectively immobilizing the French and Spanish fleets
Napoleon knew that to invade England meant controlling the seas and gave orders for the fleets in Brest, Toulon and Ferrol to break out After an aborted attempt Villeneuve managed to evade Nelson and sailed for the West Indies The Battle of Trafalgar 8 The British Blockade French British Bolougne ATLANTIC OCEAN Brest Rochefort Ferrol
Toulon Cadiz British Blockading Fleet The Battle of Trafalgar 9 The Chase ATLANTIC Villeneuve OCEAN NORTH AMERICA Bermuda Villeneuve Arrives Martinique 16th May Departs 10th June Martinique
Villeneuve escapes Departs CadizToulon 30th EUROPE 9th April for March Toulon Ferrol the West Azores Indies Cadiz Nelson Departs Trafalgar Nelson sets Cadiz on 10th off in Canary May in pursuit pursuit Islands Nelson Arrives of Villeneuve
mistakenly Martinique 4th June towards Departs 13th June Egypt. AFRICA Cape SOUTH AMERICA Verde Villeneuv e Nelson The Battle of Trafalgar 10 The Final Blockade Cape St. Vincent
Nelson arrived off Cadiz to join Collingwood Communicatio n chain of Ships Nelsons frigates watched while he cruised off shore in an attempt to draw the Combined Fleet The Frigates Main body of Nelsons Fleet In response to a threat from landward Napoleon ordered Villeneuve to sail into the Mediterranean to support operations
Combined French & Spanish Fleets Cadiz Cape Trafalga r Straits of Gibraltar The impending battle was looming The Battle of Trafalgar 11 Battle Plan and Tactics Opposing fleets usually sailed into battle in line ahead in two parallel lines.
Each ship would then take on one of the opposing ships. Broadsides would be fired between the combatants. The battle was won or lost dependent on the skill of the gunners or when they struck their colors or the opposing fleet just sailed away from the battle. These tactics seldom resulted in a decisive victory for either side although casualties were high. Nelson broke from tradition and broke his fleet into three groups. The Battle of Trafalgar 12 Nelsons Touch Nelson expected to be outnumbered 46 ships to 40 Nelson summonsed his captains and outlined his plan; they were pleased with the innovative plan The plan was to divide the British
fleet into three separate lines Two major lines of 16 ships each An advanced squadron of eight The two 16 ship units were to divide the enemy line in half, thus concentrating 32 British versus 23 enemy ships. The other 8 British ships were to engage in a separate battle with the other half of the enemy line One of the two 16 ship units attacked sections of the enemy line the other would attack the enemy at right angles, break through the lines and cut off retreat Dangerous tacticsbut they paid off These tactics were to change the course of naval warfare as it was known then The Battle of Trafalgar 13 Breaking The Line
Above: British ship crosses battle line of Franco-Spanish fleet. Spics WIN D Limey Bastards The Battle of Trafalgar 14 Tactics Traditional Broadside Tactics The Battle of Trafalgar Nelsons Raking Tactics
15 A Typical Ship of the Line Above:: Example of a triple deck Ship of the Line. The Battle of Trafalgar 16 A Typical Ship of the Line The Battle of Trafalgar 17 A Typical Ship of the Line HMS VICTORY HMS VICTORY Type: 'First rate' ship-of-the-line.
The British naval term "first rate" applied to a ship with at least 100 guns. Crew: 820 REDOUTABLE LE REDOUTABLE Type: 'Third rate', with 74 guns. Smaller than the Victory, her name translates as "formidable, tremendous - with an element of fear". Crew: 634 The Battle of Trafalgar 18 Canon Used at Trafalgar A typical 32 pounder fired a shot just under 6 in diameter and with a
full charge of 10 lb 11oz could make an extreme range of 2000 yds A carronade on the other hand was short barreled with limited range. Being lighter it was mounted on a higher deck Victorys 2x68 pounder carronades were mounted on the focsle and unleashed a storm of grapeshot into the French flagship Ammunition consisted of roundshot canister grapeshot, bar shot and chain shot, each for a particular purpose The Battle of Trafalgar 19 Firepower Using 32,24,18,12 pound canons and 68 pound smashers capable of firing both shot and grape shot which inflicted serious injuries and considerable damage to ships and men on both sides An 18 pound shot at 30 yards would penetrate 4xoak planks 32.5 thick showering splinters up to 30 yards A 32 pounder fired with grape shot from 300 yards could penetrate 4 of oak Muskets with a range of 200yds were used by both opposing forces mainly by the Marines which inflicted heavy casualties from sharp shooters strategically positioned in the rigging
Cutlass, tomahawks pikes, and pistols (range 30 yds) were the main weapon used by boarding parties Prepare to repel boarders meant fierce and heavy hand-tohand fighting which often resulted in horrendous wounds more often than not resulting in a slow agonizing death The Battle of Trafalgar 20 The Commanders Above: Lord Nelson Above: Admiral Pierre Villeneuve The Battle of Trafalgar Above: Admiral Collingwood 21
Prelude to Battle The Spanish fleet was demoralized at being blockaded for such a long period inactivity had taken its toll The Combined fleet sailed with 1700 sick men on board The Spanish ships were manned mostly by soldiers and beggars pressed ganged from the slums of Cadiz Spanish gunners had never fired from a rolling ship Spanish Captains resented being under the command of a French Admiral Villeneuve did not have the confidence of Napoleon and was to be replaced by Rosily The British Jack Tars were seasoned campaigners They were aggressive fighting men by instinct Ruled by strict discipline from autocratic Captains they were magnificent sailors and excellent gunners Out numbered and out gunned they were spoiling for a fight. This signal gave them the resolve The French and Spanish are out at last, they outnumber us in ships and guns and men: we are on the eve of the greatest sea fight in history." The Battle of Trafalgar
22 The Opposing Fleets 1200hrs 21st October, 1805 ATLANTIC OCEAN C. Trafalgar French & Spanish Line Collingwood's Column Nelson's Column The Two Columns The Battle of Trafalgar 23 The Opposing Fleets 1200hrs 21st October, 1805
The Battle of Trafalgar 24 The Commencement of Battle The Battle of Trafalgar 25 The Battle There was an impending sense of doom as Nelson believed he would not survive the battle He wrote his Will in anticipation of his death As the Combined Fleet sailed slowly in light winds and although Villeneuve guessed what form Nelsons attack would take he failed to specify any defensive tactics to his captains The Combined Fleet had the Neptuno in the rear and the San Juan de Nepomuceno in the van Villeneuve on the Bucentaure was signaled by the Hermione that the British fleet was in sight and instead of continuing to Gibraltar
decided to return to Cadiz The Combined Fleet had to reform the line of battle in the opposite direction The first shot was fired at noon by the Fougueux at the Royal Sovereign who then returned fire 15 minutes later raking the Santa Anna from stem to stern inflicting heavy casualties Nelson in freshly laundered uniform with ribbons and medals then ordered the famous message ENGLAND EXPECTS THAT EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY The Battle of Trafalgar 26 The Battle 1200hrs 21st October, 1805 Africa Neptuno Scipion Intrepide Formidable
Duguay - Trouin Mont-Blanc Rayo Frigate s San Francisco de Asis San Augustin Heros Santissima Trinidad Weather Column Admiral Nelson Bucentaure Redoubtable San Justo Neptune Santa Anna San Leandro Fouguex
Indompable WIN D Pluton Monarca Algersiras Bahama Lee Column Admiral Collingwood Montanes Aigle Swiftsure Argonaughte San Ildefonso Argonaugta Achille Principe de Asturias San Juan Nepomuceno Berwick
The Battle of Trafalgar Frogs Spics Limey Bastards 27 Close Quarter Engagement 1300 hrs 21st October, 1805 San Francisco de Asis Santissma Trinidad ATLANTIC OCEAN Victory Redoutable Bucentaure
Temeraraire Fougueux C. Trafalgar Royal Sovereign Principe de Asturias Pluton Frogs Spics Limey Bastards The Battle of Trafalgar 28 Battle of Trafalgar 1245hrs 21st October, 1805
Close Action Around 1300hrs Bucentaure Neptune (FR) Neptune (BR) Victory Redoubtable Temeraire The Battle of Trafalgar 29 Battle of Trafalgar 1300hrs 21st October, 1805 Santissma
Trinidad Close Action Around 1330hrs Bucentaure Neptune (BR) Frogs Victory Spics Limey Bastards Neptune (FR) Redoubtable Temeraire The Battle of Trafalgar 30
The Final Blow The battle see sawed all day with individual skirmishes taking place The dying wind and with masts shot away engagement was determined by who drifted by Much bravery was noted on that day The Intrepide was singled out by the British captains for her bravery in the face of overwhelming odds Finally the British ships gained the upper hand with the Combined fleet either striking their colors or sailing away Meanwhile the surgeons were doing their best for Nelson Captain Hardy reported to Nelson that the battle was won Those immortal words were spoken by Nelson Thank God I have done my duty He succumbed to his wounds and died at 1630 The Battle of Trafalgar 31
Fatalities and Casualties The speed at which the Royal Navy gun crews loaded and fired was much higher than the Combined fleet a factor in higher casualty figures for the enemy The Battle of Trafalgar 32 Fatalities and Casualties The British lost 449 men killed with 1249 wounded some of whom subsequently died; this translated to just over 25% or 3 wounded for every one killed The Combined Fleet lost 4408 men killed and 2545 wounded or 55%;for every four wounded 5 were killed For those days it was a very high kill rate The Battle of Trafalgar 33
The Fleets Ships (Guns) BritishBritish Victory (100) Tmraire(98) Neptune (98) Conqueror (74) Leviathan (74) Britannia (100) Ajax (74) Orion (74) Agamemnon (64) Minotaur (74) Spartiate (74) Africa (64) Royal Sovereign (100) Belleisle (74) Tonnant (80) Mars (74) Bellerophon (74) Colossus (74)
Neptune (80) Redoubtable (74) Aigle (74) Algsiras(74) Swift-sure (74) Argonaute (74) Achille (74) Berwick (74) The Battle of Trafalgar Spanish Spanish Ships (Guns) Neptuno (80) Rayo (100) San Francisco de Asis (74) San Augustin (74) Santissima Trinidad (136) San Leandro (64) San Justo (74) Santa Ana (120) Monarca (74)
Bahama (74) Montans(74) Argonauta (80) San Ildefonso (74) Principe de Asturias (118) San Juan Nepomuceno (74) 34 The Victor of Trafalgar Nelson lost his life in Trafalgar but he won a tremendous victory for England. It is one of historys turning points which led to British domination of the seas for arguably over 150 years. The HMS Victory remains a commissioned RN vessel to this day. Trafalgar Day is celebrated
each year with great pomp and ceremony The Battle of Trafalgar 35 Battle of Trafalgar Thankyou for your attention I will attempt to answer any Questions?? The Battle of Trafalgar 36
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