BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia Emotion and Memory Complexities Emotion is both an experience to be remembered and a mediator of memory. Emotion affects recall and recognition in opposite ways, and has different effects
on explicit and implicit memory. This is the same dissociation seen earlier. Emotion itself is a complex phenomena: Moods vs discrete emotions, what is emotion? Classical Conditioning Classical
conditioning involves a form of memory because associations are formed and used in the future. Conditioning is strengthened by strong emotion. LeDoux decorticated rats and showed that learning persisted but could not be unlearned, so amygdala is essential. LeDouxs Two Roads High
road goes from a stimulus to the sensory thalamus to the sensory cortex and then back to the amygdala. The cortex processes sensory information first Low road goes from the emotional stimulus to the sensory thalamus and then directly to the amygdala.
No cortical involvement Implications of Two Roads Subsequent learning can permit the cortex access via the high road to overrule the activation of the amygdala: Interpretation Unlearning
When fast response is essential to survival, the low road is very fast and motivates an automatic response. Amygdala as the Hub Rhinal Cortex (transition) Memories Sensory
Extinction The Cortex Works Through the Hippocampus Visual Cortex Auditory Cortex Transition Cortex (perirhinal, parahippocampal, entorhinal)
Hippocampus Somatic Cortex Two Systems Emotional Situation Amygdala System
Implicit Emotional Memory Hippocampal System Explicit Memory About Emotional Situation Intersection of Two Systems Immediate Conscious Experience (working memory)
Amygdala-dependent emotional arousal (current) Hippocampal-dependent explicit memory (past emotions) Role of Adrenaline Adrenaline is produced by stimulation of the hypothalamus by the amydala.
Adrenaline forms stronger memories by stimulating the hippocampus and amygdala (as well as many other areas). LTP is enhanced. Mood-Dependent Memory Mood affect encoding (as described earlier). Later, mood affects recall as a statedependent or context effect.
Mood-dependent recall requires strong emotion and is most obvious in autobiographical memory. Other memory phenomena contribute (e.g., causal belonging & associations). Memory About Emotion Includes
the same semantic organizational structures as other categories. Basic, subordinate and superordinate levels. Fuzzy boundaries, prototypes. Schemas and scripts for the evoking and expression of emotion (cultural).
Body Memory Body and other sense memory is an example of classical conditioning. The response is in the brain, not the body, but evoked via sensory stimulation. Senses can evoke powerful memories of past experiences through such associations.
PTSD Includes repetition compulsion and occurs as a dysfunctional response to perceived threat. Intrusive memories may be distortions affected by an internal conflict or concern. Triggering is classical conditioning.
CRE = Enterobacteriaceae resistant to one of the carbepenems (Doripenem, imipenem or meropenem) and third generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime) Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - 2012 CRE Toolkit, CDC. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the U.S., 2013. CDC
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