"Knowledge is knowing that a tomato is a fruit. Wisdom is knowing that a tomato doesn't belong in a fruit salad." - Miles Kingston I learned very early the difference between knowing the name of something and knowing something. - Richard P. Feynman Biological Molecules Chapters 3 Organic Chemistry Carbon is the backbone of life Earths crust = 0.05% carbon Earths atmosphere = 0.01% carbon Organisms = 18% carbon w/ water and 50% w/out water
Carbon forms covalent bonds with many different elements High bonding capacity Four electrons in outer shell Forms long, stable chains Carbon Cycle Organic Chemistry Carbon molecules: hydrocarbons Organic Chemistry
Molecular models Carbon atom (unless labeled) Double bond = 2 shared e- Caffeine (C8H10N4O2) Organic Chemistry Functional groups: a group of atoms that determines how an molecule functions or interacts with other molecules Cause molecules to become electrically charged or polarized, increasing their bonding capacity Functional Group
O Carboxyl (-COOH) = O P O- Structural Formula
Found In Fatty acids, amino acids Hydroxyl (-OH) O- Alcohols, Carbohydrates Amino (-NH2) Amino acids Phosphate (-PO4)
DNA, ATP Importance of Functional Groups Ethane (nonpolar) Ethyl Alcohol (polar) Macromolecules Macromolecules: large organic molecule, usually comprising smaller molecules (monomers) joined together to form a polymer Monomers: a smaller molecule that can be combined with other
similar or identical molecules to create a polymer Polymers: a larger molecule made up of many similar or identical subunits Four major macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Monomers and Polymers Examples from common macromolecules Monomers and Polymers Dehydration reactions = bond monomers through the loss of a H2O molecule
Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Longer polymer Monomers and Polymers Hydrolysis = break polymers into monomers by adding H2O Digestion
Longer polymer Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Short polymer Unlinked monomer Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis are reversible reactions Glucose
Glucose Maltose Water C6H12O6 H2O + C6H12O6 C12H22O11 +
Carbohydrates Essential to energy production 1:2:1 ratio of Carbon:Hydrogen:Oxygen Simple carbohydrates (monomers) Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Complex
Complex Carbohydrates Starch: carbohydrate storage in plants Potatoes, carrots, rice, corn Glucose molecule s Starch Complex Carbohydrates Glycogen: carbohydrate storage in animals Stored in liver and muscles
Complex Carbohydrates Cellulose: structural carbohydrate produced in plants Most abundant carbohydrate on earth Forms cell wall Complex Carbohydrates Chitin: part of the external skeleton arthropods Arthropods Spiders, crustaceans and insects Lipids Lipids: molecules insoluble in water
Fats, oils, waxes, cholesterols and hormones Lipid function Energy storage Cushions internal organs Insulation Membrane Structure
Water storage Toxic storage Chemical Messengers Lipids Fatty acid: long hydrocarbon found in many lipids Triglyceride: lipid molecule formed by three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol Most common lipid molecule found in foods + 3H2O Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = triglyceride + water
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acid: no double bonds Saturated with H atoms Monosaturated fatty acid: one double bond between carbon atoms Polysaturated fatty acid: two or more
double bonds between carbon atoms Lipids Partially hydrogenated fats (trans) Lipids Steroids: lipid with four carbon rings Cholesterol: important in animal cell membranes Testosterone and Estrogen: hormones important to the development of different sexes in humans Lipids Phospholipids: a charged lipid composed of two fatty acids, glycerol, and a phosphate group
Nonpolar tails are hydrophobic Outside of cell Polar head is hydrophilic Inside of cell Lipids Waxes: a single fatty acid linked to a long chain alcohol Water repellant coating used by plants and animals Essential Fatty Acids
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs): cholesterol that travels from liver to body and can clog arteries of the heart Bad cholesterol Saturated fats and trans fats High-density Lipoproteins (HDLs): cholesterol that travels from body to liver, clearing cholesterol from the system
Good cholesterol Omega-3 fatty acids Two fatty acids are essential to humans Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid) Linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid) Proteins Proteins: a long, folded polypeptide Polypeptide = a chain of amino acids
Amino acid = compounds consisting of an amino and carboxyl functional group, which act as the building block (monomers) of proteins. 20 different amino acids Nine essential to humans Essential Amino Acids Essential amino acids: amino acids not synthesized by the body, which must be obtained through the diet
Nine in humans All found in animal protein Essential Amino Acid Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Theronine Tryptophan Valine Non-essential Amino Acids
Alanine Arginine Asparagine Aspartic Acid Cysteine Glutamic Acid Glutamine Glycine Proline Serine Tyrosine Protein Structure Amino acids interact and take shape. Different order of amino acid sequence results in
different protein shapes Multiple polypeptides come together to form final shape (quaternary structure) Protein structure is essential to its function! Primary structur e Secondar y structure Tertiary structur
e Quaternar y structure Protein Function Type of Protein Role Example Enzymes Quicken chemical reactions Sucrase: Positions sucrose in a way that it can be
broken down into glucose and fructose Hormones Chemical messengers Growth hormone: Stimulates growth of bones Transport Move other molecules Hemoglobin: Transports oxygen throughout blood Contractile Movement
Protective Healing; defense against invaders Structural Mechanical support Storage Stores nutrients Toxins Defense, predation
Communication Cell signaling Myosin and actin: Proteins in muscle fibers that allow muscles to contract Fibrinogen: Stops bleeding Antibodies: Combat microbial invaders Keratin: Hair, collagen, and cartilage Ovalbumin: Egg white, stores nutrients for embryos Bacterial diphtheria toxin Glycoprotein: Receptor on cell surface Enzymes
Proteins that accelerate chemical reactions Catalysts: chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction Denatured Proteins Protein shape can be altered, disrupting function of protein Denaturing: loss of protein shape due to external stress or interaction with hazardous compounds Temperature, pH Protein Synthesis DNA is copied (transcription) and translated to make proteins
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are large molecules made up of nucleotides Nucleotides: Organic molecules that serve as the building blocks (monomers) of nucleic acids, and are made up of a phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogenous base DNA and RNA
Instructions for making proteins ATP Energy transfer Nucleic Acids Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): primary information bearing molecule of life, composed of two linked chains of nucleotides (double helix) Nitrogenous bases: Adenine Thymine
Cytosine Guanine Uracil (RNA) Nucleic Acids Ribonucleic acid (RNA): active in protein synthesis and also forms part of ribosomes Uracil nucleotide instead of Thymine Check Your Understanding 1. T or F Hydrolysis reactions breakdown polymers into monomers by adding water 2. Which of the following is a form of carbohydrate storage in plants? a. Glycogen
b. Cellulose c. Chitin d. Starch e. More than one of the above Check Your Understanding 4. Which of the following is an example of a polymer? a. Glucose b. Polypeptide c. Nucleotides d. Amino acids e. More than one of the above Check Your Understanding Provide an example of a monomer and a polymer for each of the fur major macromolecules.
Monomer Polymer Metabolic Pathways Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism Catabolic pathway: breakdown larger molecules into smaller molecules Usually requires energy and heat
Anabolic pathway: builds new molecules out of products of catabolic pathway Usually releases energy Nutritional Requirements Nutrient: a substance that either provides energy, helps regulate the bodys physical processes, or provides the body with structural building blocks. Six Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates Amino acids Fatty acids Vitamins Minerals Water
Nutritional Requirements Lipids, carbohydrates and proteins provide energy! 1 Calorie (Cal) = 1kcal = 4.184 joules Energy required to heat 1 kg of H2O 1C Energy producing nutrients 4 __ Cal/g protein
Overnourished Not enough calories Too many calories Malnourished Missing one or more essential nutrients
Essential Vitamins Vitamins: Organic compounds that aid in chemical reactions within the body 13 Essential Vitamins Fat soluble: A, D, E, K Water soluble: co-enzymes B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate (folic acid), vitamin B12, biotin and pantothenic acid), vitamin C Essential Minerals Minerals: chemical elements needed by the body to form bodily structure or facilitate chemical reactions
Major Minerals (more than 100mg/day for normal body function) Mineral Sources Function Calcium (Ca) Dairy products, leafy green vegetables Maintenance of bones, muscle contraction, nerve signaling Chloride (Cl)
Table salt Water balance, digestion Phosphorus (P) Dairy products, meat, whole grains Component of bone, nucleic acids, ATP Potassium (K) Fruits and vegetables, dairy
products Nerve signaling, fluid balance Sodium (Na) Table salt Nerve signaling, fluid balance Digestive System Digestive tract Breakdown food and absorb macro and micronutrients
Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Rectum Digestive System Site of Macromolecule CarbsDigestion Protei Nuclei Fats n Mouth Stomac
h Small intestin e c acids Digestive System Site of Macromolecule CarbsDigestion Protei Nuclei Fats n Mouth Stomac h Small
intestin e Initial Main c acids Digestive System Site of Macromolecule CarbsDigestion Protei Nuclei Fats n Mouth Stomac
h Small intestin e Initial Initial Main Main c acids Digestive System Site of Macromolecule CarbsDigestion Protei Nuclei Fats
n Mouth Stomac h Small intestin e c acids Initial Initial Main Main
Initial Main Digestive System Site of Macromolecule CarbsDigestion Protei Nuclei Fats n Mouth Stomac h Small intestin e c acids
Initial Initial Initial Main Main Initial Main Main The Mouth Mechanical
Produces insulin Secretes enzymes and buffers Increase pH Produces bile Fat digestion Regulates nutrients Receives toxins Gallbladder
Stores bile Absorption in the Small Intestine Intestinal folds, villi and microvilli increase surface area 200-300m2 Monosaccharides, amino acids and monoglycerides
absorbed through epithelial cells villi Hepatic portal vein carries blood with nutrients to liver Negative Feedback Loop Homeostasis of blood glucose levels are maintained by the Pancreas. High blood glucose levels 1. 2.
3. Pancreas secretes insulin Insulin facilitates conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage Glucose level in blood decreases Low blood glucose levels 1. 2. 3. Pancreas secretes glucagon Glucagon facilitates breakdown of glycogen into glucose
Blood glucose levels increase Absorption in the Large Intestine Large intestine includes colon, cecum and rectum. Cecum: fermentation of plant material
Absorbs water Forms feces Function insignificant in humans Appendix: minor role in immunity, may store good bacteria Summary of Macronutrient Digestion Summary of Digestive System Check Your Understanding 1. The initial site of protein breakdown is in the _________.
a. mouth b. muscles c. stomach d. small intestine e. liver 2. Which of the following contains the greatest amount of Calories per gram? a. Fat b. Protein c. Carbohydrates d. Potato chips Check Your Understanding 3. Describe the process of a negative feedback loop using blood glucose as an example.
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