BIOLOGY 2404a FLORA AND VEGETATION OF ONTARIO https ...
BIOLOGY 2404a FLORA AND VEGETATION OF ONTARIO https://instruct.uwo.ca/bi ology/2404a Fall 2009 Lecture 3 Dr. R. Greg Thorn Department of Biology, UWO TODAYS OUTLINE Taxonomy, systematics and phylogenetics New views of the evolutionary
relationships of photosynthetic organisms TAXONOMY & SYSTEMATICS Both have to do with classifying and naming organisms Taxonomy is now often regarded as the poor cousin or antiquated version of systematics you wont find many university departments of Plant Taxonomy, but you might find a few university courses with that name Folk taxonomies all around the world, people have recognized and named the organisms that are
considered useful or dangerous, and often grouped them in some way TAXONOMY Gk taxis arrangement + nomos management/law Webster: the science of classification of objects Raven et al: the science of the classification of organisms Judd et al: Theory and practice of grouping individuals into species, arranging species into larger groups, and giving these groups names, thus producing a
classification SYSTEMATICS Gk systema system + atikos about Webster: the science or method of classifying, especially taxonomy Raven: Scientific study of the kinds of organisms and the relationships between them Judd: The science of organismal diversity, frequently used in a sense roughly equivalent to taxonomy
TAXONOMY vs SYSTEMATICS If there is any difference, it is that systematics (post-Darwin) is concerned with creating a classification that reflects evolutionary relationships. Taxonomists have in the past frequently created classifications of convenience, consisting of easy-torecognize groups based on patterns of overall similarity Since ~no taxonomists now classify in the absence of evolutionary evidence, the two terms are essentially equal Why base classification on evolution?
Knowing the identity of something (or someone) its name is potentially informative of what it does, where it lives, etc., as well as what it looks like Because related organisms share many traits (e.g., biochemical pathways, structure, morphology), a classification that is based on evolutionary relationships has potential to be more predictive than one that is not Naming systems Folk taxonomies: names range from single words to phrases e.g., the plant with
leaves used for poison arrows Early European classifications e.g., herbals of 15th to 18th C used polynomials Polyporus esculentus, ex ingenti, perenni, & tuberosa radice in singulos menses plerumque nascens .... (Micheli 1729) Fries (1821) changed and shortened this to Polyporus tuberaster (now the type species of the genus Polyporus) Karl von Linn (aka Carolus Linnaeus) Linnaeus 1753, borrowing from Casper
Bauhin 150 years earlier, used binomials in his Species Plantarum Linnaeus did not come up with either binomials or the complete Linnaean hierarchy that we use today, but he did systematically apply binomial nomenclature and a consistent hierarchy to encyclopedic compendia of known organisms (not much on Fungi) The compleat naturalist: a life of Linnaeus (QH44.B54 1971) The Linnaean Hierarchy Dumb kings play chess on fine green sods [or make up your own memory
device] Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species* [subspecies/variety, f.sp.] The singular of species is species The plural of genus is genera The plural of phylum is phyla * The new guideline is to write ALL Latin names (i.e., all ranks) in italics or underlined Taxon Names The names of many groups above genera have common (diagnostic) endings, depending on the group of organisms
Taxon/ Fungi Algae Plants Suffix Phylum Class Order -mycota mycetes -ales -phyta
phyceae -ales -phyta -opsida -ales HOW do you create a classification? Traditional taxonomy: expert studies group, usually based on morphology, and uses personal judgement to assign individuals to species, species to genera, genera to families, etc. (criteria are not
necessarily explicit) Numerical taxonomy or phenetics: character states of individuals are codified or quantified, and similarity is used as criterion of relatedness Phylogenetic systematics or cladistics: relatedness is based on patterns of shared derived character states (= synapomorphies) What makes a GOOD (evolutionary) classification? Every taxon (named group) should be monophyletic
Know these terms: Monophyletic Polyphyletic Paraphyletic Synapomorphy, symplesiomorphy, convergence, homoplasy A phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes [Lecture 2, slide 3; also slide 7 of plants] Thank goodness we dont have to study all these groups! Our classification comes from Palmer et al. (2004, Amer. J. Bot. 91:14371445) and the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Website Names change! The species epithets, generic names, and even family placements of many familiar plants have changed in recent years. One name may be found to be a later synonym of another - the older one has priority E.g., Dentaria laciniata is now Cardamine concatenata. Classification at the generic or family
level may change with new evidence such as DNA sequences E.g., the maple family, Aceraceae, and horsechestnut family, Hippocastanaceae, are now included in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae. Acer saccharum remains the sugar maple.
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