Inside Outside From Table 26.5 m 286 mM 246 mM 351 mM 135 mM
1018 mOsm 93 0 Na+ ClUrea Others O sm
Na+ 286 mM Cl246 mM Others 135 mM 667 mOsm Internal [Na+] Internal [Urea] Internal Osmolarity Ureo-osmoconformer
External Osmolarity But Urea is Bad! Chaotropic Binds strongly to proteins, releasing water and disrupts tertiary structure Effects of solute concentration
on enzyme function Km Urea Concentration Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) CH3 H3C
N+ O- CH3 Counteracting Solutes Fig 26.10 From Table 26.5
O sm m Na+ 286 mM Cl246 mM Urea 351 mM TMAO 71 mM Others 64 mM
1018 mOsm Outside 93 0 Inside Ureo-Osmoconformation in sharks
Urea is used to make up the osmotic gap between internal and external concentration Requires high protein diet for manufacturing Urea TMAO acts as a counteracting solute to preserve protein function in high concentrations of urea.
Why would you soak shark prior to cooking it? The situation for a marine teleost Fig 27.7b Gills as exchange organs CO2 & O2
Used to remove the salts that are ingested with food and water (and absorbed through gill surfaces) Major site for this in marine teleosts How many ions?
Total daily flux estimated for intertidal Xiphister atropurpureus in seawater Na+: 110 mM/kg fish/day
0.25g for a 10 g fish (2.5% bw) Cl-: 72 mM / kg fish/day ~10-40 g 0.25 g
Water: 2480 ml/kg fish/day 24.8 g water for a 10 g fish (!) Evans (1967) J. Exp. Biol. 47: 525-534 Chloride cells Water Apical
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