Biology in the 21St Century - Council Rock School District
BIOLOGY IN THE 21 Section 1: The Study of Life ST CENTURY st Why would biology in the 21 Section 2: Unifying Themes of Biology New information, reinterpretation of century be any different from Section 3: Scientific Thinking and Processes old information,
new technology, new the biology of the 1990s? techniques all of these can change Section 4: Biologists Tools and Technology how a biologist thinks and interprets Section 5: Biology and Your Future biological processes. All notes adapted from: Biology Stephen Nowicki McDougal Littell Division Houghton Mifflin Company Unless otherwise noted, all images are from Office.com Online Clipart (2013) THE STUDY OF LIFE **** Earth: Incredible Diversity Of Life. Found in hot acidic water of Yellowstone National Park
Found in darkest, deepest oceans and the ice of Antarctica. Variety of shapes and sizes: Plants: tiny mosses to giant redwoods Animals: honey pot ants to blue whales Worker honeypot ants / Tom D. / License Photos by Susan Sachs Lipman & Michael Lipman THE STUDY OF LIFE Biosphere
All living things and all the places they are found on Earth make up the biosphere. Every part is connected (CONTINUED) Air, Water, Land and even the inside of your nose (home to bacteria/fungi) Biodiversity The variety of life (across the biosphere) is called biodiversity. Biodiversity is greater as you get closer to the equator.
Consistently warmer temperatures (compared to large temperature changes) This provides larger, more consistent food supply for more species THE STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED) Species is a particular type of living thing that can reproduce by interbreeding. 2 million identified Tens of millions remain to be discovered
Over one half of the know species are insects Every year about 10,000 new species are discovered. Expanding your knowledge: A daughter species is a new species, evolved from a parent species, having most of the parents genetic information. Pseudoextinction: extinction of the parent species when the daughter species still exist. Example: Dinosaurs pseudoextinct some of their descendants, birds, survive today. APPLY: Explain Biodiversity in terms of species STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED)
**** Organisms and Shared Characteristics An organism is any individual living thing, and Biology is the study of all forms of life. Characteristics of living things 1. Cells: All organisms are made of one or more cells. A cell is the basic unit of life Unicellular (single celled) Multicellular Multicellular Image from: http:// www.tutorvista.com/biology/unicellular-and-multicellular (many cells) Images from: http:// www.biologycorner.com/bio1/notes_plantlikeprotists.html
STUDY OF LIFE Unicellular (CONTINUED) (single celled) Images from: http:// www.biologycorner.com/bio1/notes_plantlikeprotists.ht ml One cell carries out all the necessary functions of life Multicellular (many cells) Single vs
Multi Cell Video 1m:49s Different cells have different functions, specialized functions to carry out the necessary functions of life. Muscle cells contract and relax Stomach cells secrete digestive juices Brain cells interpret sensory information Multicellular Image from: http:// www.tutorvista.com/biology/unicellular -and-multicellular THE STUDY OF LIFE
(CONTINUED) 2. Need For Energy: all organisms need a source of energy, which is the ability to cause a change or do work. Chemical Energy is the form of energy used Plants use sunlight (light energy) and convert it to chemical energy Some organisms, like animals use other organisms as their source of energy. FoodChain Image from: http://www.ck12.org/ck12/images?id=350637 THE STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED)
Producers make their own food Primary consumers eat plants. Secondary consumers eat other organisms. FoodChain Image from: http:// www.ck12.org/ck12/images?id=350637 Metabolism: the chemical process that builds up or breaks down materials. THE STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED)
3. Response to environment: all organisms must react to their environment to survive. Stimuli is a physical factor to which organisms must respond. Light, touch, temperature are a few, but there are many others. Turtle image from: www.grit.com Flower pot image from: www.sciencephoto.com Sunflower Image from: http:// www.wonderwhizkids.com/index.php/biology/p lant-form-and-function/plant-responses THE STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED) 4. Reproduction and Development: All organisms must be able to produce new individuals or reproduce.
Reproducing allows organism to pass on of genetic material Genetic material is in a molecule called DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Development allows organisms to change, mature and gain the ability to reproduce. THE STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED) Asexual Reproduction Worksheet
Asexual Reproduction Video 2m:16sec Asexual reproduction: one cell divides into two Identical genetic material to the original cell. Budding Hydra Cutting Plant Fission Planaria Planaria Image from: http:// sciencealive-flatworms.blogspot.com/2011_09_2 5_archive.html
Hydra Image from: www.desktopclass.com Fig Tree Image from: http:// figs4fun.com/basics2.html THE STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED) Sexual reproduction: combining of genetic material from both parents. The offspring shares genetic material from both parents. The offspring is genetically unique Whale Picture from: www.123rf.com Dog picture from: www.cutestpaw.com
THE STUDY OF LIFE (CONTINUED) Summarize: The criteria for life is Made of cells Unicellular Multicellular Eats Producer
Consumer Primary Secondary Consumer Uses Energy Reproduces Asexual Sexual
Develops (change) Grows (size/numbers) Adapts helps it to better survive Responds to its environment (cause / effect) SUMMARIZE: What characteristics are shared by all living things? (hint, you should have 4) VOCABULARY TO KNOW (1.1 - THE STUDY OF LIFE) TERM TO KNOW DEFINITION TO KNOW
Biodiversity A variety of life within an area. Biology Scientific study of all forms of life. Biosphere All organisms and the part of the Earth where they exist. Cell Basis unit of life. DNA Molecule that stores genetic information in all organisms. Metabolism All chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism.
Organism Any individual living thing. Species Group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. UNIFYING THEMES OF BIOLOGY Levels of Life Systems of Related Parts A system is an organized group of related parts, like a car, that work together as a whole One Heart cell = chemicals and processes that make heart muscle, valves, arteries, veins, resulting in the circulatory system.
Systems exist on all levels in biology Unseen Molecules Cells viewed only by a microscope Entire biosphere UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) Ecosystem is a physical environment with different species that interact with one another and with non-living things.
Two organisms that interact can be part of a system, such as with an ecosystem. Ecosystems can be large regions (desert) or small areas (individual tree) Different biologist study different systems DNA = chemical interactions Bird behavior might be predator/prey interactions Most biologist study across different system levels CONNECT: Describe how your biology class could be considered a system.
UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) Structure and Function are Related Organisms have parts that perform specific functions, based on their structure Teeth help organisms eat but the shape helps in different ways. Molar teeth are flat for grinding, incisors are pointed for tearing Incisor Canine Molar https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=BdxWN_xBa6k UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED)
Structure and function are related on the level of chemicals in cells Specific Protein Molecules for example: Membrane Channels a tube like structure extends through membranes so things can pass Enzymes shaped differently based on what they attach to allow chemical processes to occur. www.chem4kids.com- UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED)
Structure and function are related on the level of the cell Brain cells process information have branches that receive information from other cells Red blood cells carry oxygen small, diskshaped to fit through small blood vessels. Structure and function are related on the level of the organism Your feet are flat and help you walk, easily, on various surfaces Beetles tarsi/feet, have sharp prongs to grip smooth or vertical surfaces. entnemdept.ufl.edu- www.timesofmalta.com-
INFER: Do you think heart muscle has the same structure as arm muscle? EXPLAIN WHY or WHY NOT. UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) Organisms Maintain Homeostasis Homeostasis the maintaining of constant internal conditions; cells perform within a limited range of conditions. Breakdowns can be life-threatening Negative feedback causes a response that often returns the system back to its original state
Body temperature drops Muscles shiver blood vessels near the surface constrict body temperature rises. Some animals move from place to place, but still to help regulate body temperature. UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) Polar bears maintain homeostasis because their hair has a hollow shaft which helps it to retain heat. This hollow shaft is transparent and polar bears appear white due to reflecting visible light.
The structure of the polar bears hair is related to its function, as the thickness offers insulation and the hollow core allow trapped air to be kept warm by body heat. Polar Bears Hollow hair shaft SUMMARIZE: What is homeostasis, and why is it important? UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) Evolution Explains Unity and Diversity Evolution is the change in living things over
time, more specifically in the genetic makeup. Scientific evidence including fossil records and genetic comparisons of species shows evolution is continuing today. Occurs through natural selection of adaptations Genetic or inherited traits help an individual species to survive more successfully than another within its environment. Two populations may develop different traits, and potentially form different species. UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED)
Adaptation is an inherited trait that gives an advantage to individual organisms and is passed on to future generations. Examples: Orchids (flower) produce flowers that look like insects, this then lures other insects to the flower and this helps pollinate the flower (reproducing) Thorn bugs sit on flower stems, appearing to look like a thorn, making them less likely to be eaten by other predators. This allows the thorn bug better opportunities to reproduce. www.flowerweb.com
smashinglistz.blogspot.com UNIFYING THEMES IN BIOLOGY (CONTINUED) Evolution is a unifying theme because it accounts for the unity and diversity of life. Unity of life How organisms are similar or related to one another, have similar structures and / or functions Diversity How organisms are different from each other, possibly due to evolution, natural selection and genetic traits changing. ********************************************************* *** Acclimation is when an individual take time to adjust to a new environmental condition.
Example: climber stay in some areas a little longer until they can acclimate to the oxygen levels. ANALYZE: How does evolution lead to both the diversity and the unity of life? VOCABULARY TO KNOW (1.2 UNIFYING THEMES OF BIOLOGY) TERM TO KNOW DEFINITION TO KNOW Adaptation Inherited trait that is selected for, over time, because it allows organisms to better survive in their environment. Ecosystem Collection of organisms and nonliving things, such as climate, soil, water and rocks, in an area.
Evolution Changes in a species over time; process of biological change by which decedents come to differ from their ancestors. Homeostasis Regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism. System Changing, organized group or related parts that interact to form a whole. SCIENTIFIC THINKING AND PROCESSES BIOLOGY IS A PROCESS OF INQUIRY Observation, Data, and Hypothesis Careful and systematic observation (using senses)
Data can / should be analyzed Qualitative data descriptions of a phenomenon often for reporting what happened, now HOW. Quantitative data characteristics that can be measured often used to tell HOW something happens. Hypothesis is a proposed answer to a scientific question. This must be testable (experiment) and often more than once. SCIENTIFIC THINKING AND PROCESSES (CONTINUED)
Observing Scientist make observations and examine prior research Evaluating results Scientists evaluate the data and conclusions presented by other scientists Forming Hypothesis Scientist ask questions and try to explain observations Analyzing Data Scientist analyze their data to draw conclusions about their research Testing Hypothesis Scientist collect data that they use to support or reject a hypotheis SYNTHESIZE: Where in the cycle would retesting a
hypothesis fit? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER SYNTHESIZE: Why is there no one correct process of scientific investigation? SCIENTIFIC THINKING AND PROCESSES (CONTINUED) Using Experiments to Test A Hypothesis Independent Variables what is manipulated or changed during the experiment. One per experiment Dependent Variable the experimental data
These changes depend upon the independent variable. The effect are measured Constant The part of the experiment that does not change. It is used to measure and compare the changes of the dependent variable. SCIENTIFIC THINKING AND PROCESSES (CONTINUED) EXAMPLE: Question Independent Dependent
Control Does heating a cup of water allow it to dissolve more sugar? Temperature of the water Amount of sugar that dissolves completely Stirring Type of sugar Does fertilizer make a plant grow bigger? Amount of fertilizer Growth of the
plant Same type of: fertilizer pot plant type of soil amount of soil Same water and light Measurements at the same time INFER: How do experiments show cause and effect relationships? SCIENTIFIC THINKING AND PROCESSES (CONTINUED) Theories Explain Wide Range of Observations.
Supported by large amounts of data and many observations Not easily accepted Often not proved Subject to change based on new evidence May eventually be accepted by the scientific community. SUMMARIZE: What is a scientific theory? VOCABULARY TO KNOW (1.3 SCIENTIFIC THINKING AND PROCESS)
TERM TO KNOW DEFINITION TO KNOW Constant Condition that is controlled so that it does not change during an experiment. Data Observations and measurements recorded during an experiment. Dependent Variable Experimental data collected through observation and measurement. Experiment Process that test a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions. Hypothesis Proposed explanation or answer to a scientific question.
Independent Variable Condition or factor that is manipulated by a scientist during an experiment. Observation Using the senses to study the world; using tools to collect measurements; examining previous research results. Theory Proposed explanation for a wide variety of observations and experimental results. BIOLOGISTS TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY Imaging Technologies = New Views 1600 Invention of the Microscope
450 years ago suddenly able to study living things at a new level. Microscope Enlarges images Light microscopes light passes through the specimen Electron Microscope beams of electrons, higher magnifications, used in a vacuum and cant be living organisms. Microsope Image: micro.magnet.fsu.edu BIOLOGISTS TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY(CONTINUED) SEM Scanning Electron Microscope
TEM Transmission Electron Microscope Scans the surface and are deflected, computer makes 3-D image Transmits through specimen, makes 2-dimension image Medical Imaging is not limited to microscopes X-Ray Images x-rays pass through soft tissue, absorbed by bone and muscle. MRI Magnetic resonance imaging uses magnetic field, cross-section image Functional MRI shows brain activity images
COMPARE AND CONTRAST: How do SEMs and TEMs produce different images of the same specimen? BIOLOGISTS TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY(CONTINUED) Complex Systems Are Modeled on Computers Computer based technology has greatly expanded biological research. Computers can model systems within in organisms Computer can assist with more complex systems
How medicines impact the body Predicting how fast or how far a flu or disease may spread Computer models can be used when actual experiments are not safe, ethical, or practical. INFER: What are some reasons why biologist use computer models? BIOLOGISTS TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY(CONTINUED) Molecular Genetics Rise to New Studies Greatest leap forward, in knowledge of life, happened in genetics. 40 years how genetic code works to changing genes and implanting genes into different species
Molecular Genetics Studying DNA on a molecular level; to study evolution, ecology, biochemistry and other areas Genomics compares genes within and across species. Scientist look for gene patterns, such as with cancers and diseases What does the term genetic mean to you? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER VOCABULARY TO KNOW (1.4 BIOLOGY TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY) TERM TO KNOW DEFINITION TO KNOW
Gene A specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein. Genomics Study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species. Microscope A tool that provides an enlarged image of an object Molecular Genetics Study of DNA structure and function on the molecular level BIOLOGY AND YOUR FUTURE Your Health & The Environments Health Your knowledge of biology can help you make informed decisions, in your future,
both for personal and societal issues. Healthy choices for you Food choices, allergies, food poisoning, clean water, diseases, cancers, are all understood with biology. Sunscreen, exercise, alcohol, drugs, tobacco, body chemistry issues; some are beneficial , others dangerous. BIOLOGY AND YOUR FUTURE (CONTINUED) Biology and the world around you Issues with one species, in an area, could
have direct impacts on other species, including the humans, in the area. Researching environmental issues, such as pollution, biodiversity, habitat and land preservation are not just scientist decisions, but belong to everyone; understanding how wo make decisions, based on evidence, is important. CONNECT: How might biology help you to better understand environmental issues? BIOLOGY AND YOUR FUTURE (CONTINUED) Biotechnology Great Promise, Many Issues
The use and application of living things and biological processes. Some have been used for a long time others are newer. Microorganisms to make cheese and bread DNA testing (forensic science), finding alternate energy sources Benefits And Risk Selective breeding choosing which organism to breed Transgenic organisms have altered or mixed genes Insulin, antibodies and proteins, GMOs PREDICT:
How might genetically modified crops affect biodiversity? BIOLOGY AND YOUR FUTURE (CONTINUED) Benefits and Ethical Considerations Human genetic screening analyzing a persons genes to identify variation. Screen for diseases or genetic disorders Ethical concerns based on how the data is used and shared BIOLOGY AND YOUR FUTURE (CONTINUED)
Biology present many unanswered questions 50 year ago - Structure of DNA discovered TODAY Entire human DNA sequence known Many questions unanswered Many questions unasked One interesting question Can live exist on planets other than Earth? Methane worms live in frozen methane gas at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. Because some organisms can live in such
extreme environments, some scientist hypothesize that life exist, or once existed , on the planet Mars EVALUATE: Do you think technology can help answer all biological questions? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER VOCABULARY TO KNOW (1.5 BIOLOGY AND YOUR FUTURE) TERM TO KNOW DEFINITION TO KNOW Biotechnology Use and application of living things and biological processes Transgenic Organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species. CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY TERMS
Section 1.1 Biodiversity Biology Biosphere Cell DNA Metabolism Organism Species A variety of life within an area. Scientific study of all forms of life. All organisms and the part of the Earth where they exist. Basis unit of life. Molecule that stores genetic information in all organisms. All chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism. Any individual living thing. Group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. SECTION 1.2 Adaptation Ecosystem Evolution Inherited trait that is selected for, over time, because it allows organisms to better survive in their environment.
Collection of organisms and nonliving things, such as climate, soil, water and rocks, in an area. Changes in a species over time; process of biological change by which decedents come to differ from their ancestors. Homeostasis System Regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism. Changing, organized group or related parts that interact to form a whole. Section 1.3 Constant Data Dependent Variable Experiment Hypothesis Independent Variable Observation Condition that is controlled so that it does not change during an experiment. Observations and measurements recorded during an experiment. Experimental data collected through observation and measurement. Process that test a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions. Proposed explanation or answer to a scientific question. Condition or factor that is manipulated by a scientist during an experiment. Using the senses to study the world; using tools to collect measurements; examining previous research results.
Theory Proposed explanation for a wide variety of observations and experimental results. Section 1.4 Gene Genomics Microscope Molecular Genetics A specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein. Study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species. A tool that provides an enlarged image of an object Study of DNA structure and function on the molecular level Section 1.5 Biotechnology Transgenic Use and application of living things and biological processes Organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species.
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