Biology Notes Cell Energy Part 1 Pages 639-655 Standard ____ 3.1 Relate the structure of each of the major
plant organs and tissues to physiological processes Essential Question: 1. How have the structures and functions of plants enabled them to survive? I. Plants
Plants = multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that have cell _____ and carry out ______________ walls photosynthesis e.g. ferns, everglades, pine trees, flowers,
maple trees, fruit trees, etc. eukaryote = cells that have a ________ nucleus II. Plant Organs A. Roots
water and _________ nutrients roots function to absorb _____ into the plant as well as to anchor the plant in soil the ____ in order to function properly, plants need to N __,
P __, K ___, Ca and uptake specific minerals: __, Mg ___ N and __ this is why most fertilizers contain __
P root hairs = tiny cellular projections from increase the surface area of roots that ________ absorption for water and nutrients from the soil
B. Stems stems function to transport food and water roots to leaves and support branches from _____ and leaves C. Leaves leaves function to provide a broad, flat
light absorption surface for _____ D. Flowers IF a plant has flowers, it is the reproductive center ________ some flowers are colored brightly to encourage
pollination by insects ____________ E. Fruits ovary of that IF a plant has fruit, it is the mature _______ plant
F. Cones ovary of that IF a plant has cones, it is the female ______ plant III. Plant Tissue Systems A. Dermal Tissue = tissue that functions as the supports and
outer skin of a plant that _________ environment protects the plant from the ____________ the outer surface of epidermal cells found in dermal tissue is covered in a waterproof waxy cuticle coat called the _______
B. Vascular Tissue = specialized tissue water ______ divided into subsystems that moves and nutrients throughout the plant plant found in the innermost part of the _____ SUBSYSTEMS: 1. Xylem = specialized waterproof vascular
water in a plant tissue that moves ______ composed of long, thin ______ tubes which allow the capillary action and water to move by ________ cohesion
________ What waterproof nutrient would compose the building material of xylem cells? ______ lipids Transpiration = the release of water vapor stomata from _______
plants through the ________ 2. Phloem = specialized vascular tissue that nutrients in a moves food, minerals, and ________ plant C. Ground Tissue = specialized tissue found
dermal and ________ vascular tissues within between _______ a plant D. Meristimatic Tissue = specialized tissue near the cells are bottom of a plant where new plant ______
made IV Plant Cell Types 1. Parenchyma Cells = ground tissue cells that storage and are mainly used for ________ _______________ photosynthesis
in leaves, these cells are where the chloroplasts are found ____________ in roots and stems, these cells store ________ glucose and other foods manufactured by photosynthesis or absorbed through the roots
2. Collenchyma Cells = ground tissue cells that flexible and have semi-thick cell _____ walls are _______ used to support the plant e.g. celery strings 3. Sclerenchyma Cells = ground tissue cells that are characterized by rigid, thick cell walls that
_______ protect and support the plant Where would you find more sclerenchyma stems cells, stems or leaves? ______ V. Plant Growth A plant grows as more cells are added to the
roots and ______ stems of a plant _____ when new cells are added to the plant by mitosis they are called __________ meristems ________, apical meristem = a group of meristems near
root the bottom of the _____ the apical meristem is considered an area of fragile new cells which the plant protects with root a tough covering of cells known as the _____ cap
V. Leaf Structure & Photosynthesis The overall function of a leaf is to perform photosynthesis and provide the plant with needed nutrients. The structure of a plant enables it to perform this task: leaf that blade = the broad, flat section of the ____ collects sunlight
petiole = the thin stalk that connects the blade to the ______ stem ______ seed = IF a plant produces _______, seeds the overall embryo
purpose is to protect the _________ A. Components of the Leaf 1. Upper Epidermis the upper outer layer of the leaf which can sometimes be coated with a cuticle used to protect the leaf waxy _______
2. Mesophyll = specialized ground tissue within parenchyma the leaf composed mainly of ____________ cells and the main site of _______________ photosynthesis palisade mesophyll = tightly packed mesophyll that mainly absorbs _____ light
spongy mesophyll = loosely packed tissue with mainly ____ air spaces that connect to the outer part of the leaf 3. Vascular Tissue (xylem & phloem) 4. Lower Epidermis the under outer layer of the leaf composed of epidermal cells and stomata
stomata = pore like openings on the CO2 into underside of the leaf which allow ____ the leaf and _______ oxygen out of the leaf guard cells = specialized cells that make up a stoma when guard cells are open during the day
photosynthesis can take place _______________ when guard cells are closed at night, photosynthesis cannot take place _______________
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