The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be ignited. (Plutarch) Degrees of Thinking Consider: 1. Students are engaged only in lower-order thinking; i.e. they receive, or recite, or participate in routine practice. In no activities during the lesson do students go beyond simple reproduction of knowledge. 2. Students are primarily engaged in routine lower-order thinking for a good share of the lesson. There is at least one significant question or activity in which some students perform some higher-order thinking. 3. Almost all students, almost all of the time are engaged in higher-order thinking. What is Higher-order thinking?
Higher-order thinking by students involves the transformation of information and ideas. This transformation occurs when students combine facts and ideas and synthesize, generalize, explain, hypothesize or arrive at some conclusion or interpretation. Manipulating information and ideas through these processes allows students to solve problems, gain understanding and discover new meaning. When students engage in the construction of knowledge, an element of uncertainty is introduced into the instructional process and the outcomes are not always predictable; in other words, the teacher is not certain what the students will produce. In helping students become producers of knowledge, the teachers main instructional task is to create activities or environments that allow them opportunities to engage in higherorder thinking. Department of Education, Queensland, 2002, p. 1) Blooms Revised Taxonomy Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives 1950s- developed by Benjamin Bloom Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking Adapted for classroom use as a planning tool
Continues to be one of the most universally applied models Provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking 1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy As a result, a number of changes were made (Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, pp. 7-8) Original Terms New Terms Evaluation Creating Synthesis Evaluating Analysis Analyzing Application Applying
Comprehension Understanding Knowledge Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8) Change in Terms The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate. The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs Some subcategories were reorganised. The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead. Comprehension became understanding and synthesis was renamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category. (http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003) ; Pohl, 2000, p. 8)
Change in Emphasis More authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment. Aimed at a broader audience. Easily applied to all levels of schooling. The revision emphasises explanation and description of subcategories. BLOOMS REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging analyzing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling information
Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding A turtle makes progress when it sticks its neck out. (Anon) Remembering The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. Recognising Listing Describing Identifying Retrieving Naming Locating
Finding Can you recall information? Remembering cont List Memorise Relate Show
Locate Distinguish Give example Reproduce Quote Repeat Label Recall Know Group Read Write Outline
Listen Group Choose Recite Review Quote Record Match Select Underline Cite Sort Recall or recognition of specific information Products include: Quiz Label Definition List
Fact Workbook Worksheet Reproduction Test Vocabulary Classroom Roles for Remembering Teacher roles Student roles
Make a story map showing the main events of the story. Make a time line of your typical day. Make a concept map of the topic. Write a list of keywords you know about. What characters were in the story? Make a chart showing Make an acrostic poem about Recite a poem you have learnt. Understanding The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. Interpreting Exemplifying Summarising Inferring Paraphrasing
Classifying Comparing Explaining Can you explain ideas or concepts? Understanding cont Restate Identify Discuss Retell Research Annotate Translate Give examples of Paraphrase Reorganise Associate Describe Report Recognise Review Observe Outline Account for Interpret
Give main idea Estimate Define Understanding of given information Products include: Recitation Example Summary Quiz Collection List Explanation Label Show and tell
Questions Compares Contrasts Examines Explains Describes Outlines Restates Translates Demonstrates Interprets Active participant Understanding: Potential Activities and Products
Write in your own words Cut out, or draw pictures to illustrate a particular event in the story. Report to the class Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events in the story. Write and perform a play based on the story. Write a brief outline to explain this story to someone else Explain why the character solved the problem in this particular way Write a summary report of the event. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a colouring book. Paraphrase this chapter in the book. Retell in your own words. Outline the main points. Applying The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. Implementing Carrying out Using Executing
Can you use the information in another familiar situation? Applying cont Translate Manipulate Exhibit Illustrate Calculate Interpret Make Practice Apply Operate Interview
Paint Change Using strategies, concepts, principles Compute and theories in new Sequence situations Show Solve Collect Demonstrate Products include: Dramatise Photograph Presentation Construct Illustration Interview Use Simulation Performance Adapt Sculpture Diary Draw
Demonstration Journal Classroom Roles for Applying Teacher roles Student roles Solves problems Demonstrates use of knowledge Calculates Compiles Completes Illustrates Constructs Active recipient Shows Facilitates
Observes Evaluates Organises Questions Applying: Potential Activities and Products Construct a model to demonstrate how it looks or works Practise a play and perform it for the class Make a diorama to illustrate an event Write a diary entry Make a scrapbook about the area of study.
Prepare invitations for a characters birthday party Make a topographic map Take and display a collection of photographs on a particular topic. Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic. Write an explanation about this topic for others. Dress a doll in national costume. Make a clay model Paint a mural using the same materials. Continue the story analyzing The learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information. Comparing Organising Deconstructing Attributing Outlining
Finding Structuring Integrating Can you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships? analyzing cont Distinguish Question Appraise
Experiment Inspect Examine Probe Separate Inquire Arrange Investigate Sift Research Calculate Criticize
Compare Contrast Survey Detect Group Order Sequence Test Debate Analyse Diagram Relate Dissect Categorise Discriminate Breaking information down into its component elements Products include: Graph Survey
Spreadsheet Database Checklist Mobile Chart Abstract Outline Report Classroom Roles for analyzing Teacher roles Student roles
Probes Guides Observes Evaluates Acts as a resource Questions Organises Dissects Discusses
Uncovers Argues Debates Thinks deeply Tests Examines Questions Calculates Investigates Inquires Active participant analyzing: Potential Activities and Products Use a Venn Diagram to show how two topics are the same and different Design a questionnaire to gather information. Survey classmates to find out what they think about a particular topic. Analyse the results. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Classify the actions of the characters in the book Create a sociogram from the narrative Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a family tree showing relationships. Devise a role-play about the study area. Write a biography of a person studied. Prepare a report about the area of study. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.
Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture. Draw a graph Complete a Decision Making Matrix to help you decide which breakfast cereal to purchase Evaluating The learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. Checking Hypothesising Critiquing Experimenting Judging Testing Detecting Monitoring Can you justify a decision or course of action?
Judging the value of Deduce ideas, materials and methods by developing Debate and applying standards Justify and criteria. Recommend Discriminate Appraise Value Products include: Probe Debate Argue Investigation Decide Panel Verdict Criticise Report Conclusion Rank Evaluation Persuasive Reject
Judges Disputes Compares Critiques Questions Argues Assesses Decides Selects Justifies Active participant Evaluating: Potential Activities and Products Write a letter to the editor
Prepare and conduct a debate Prepare a list of criteria to judge Write a persuasive speech arguing for/against Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others. Form a panel to discuss viewpoints on. Write a letter to. ..advising on changes needed. Write a half-yearly report. Prepare a case to present your view about... Complete a PMI on Evaluate the characters actions in the story Creating The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. Designing Constructing Planning Producing
Inventing Devising Making Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things? Creating cont Compose Assemble Organise
Invent Compile Forecast Devise Propose Construct Plan Prepare Develop Originate Imagine Generate Formulate Putting together ideas or elements to develop a original idea or engage in creative thinking. Improve Act Predict Produce Blend Set up Devise
Concoct Compile Products include: Film Song Story Newspaper Project Media product Plan Advertisement New game Painting Classroom Roles for Creating Teacher roles
Modifies Creates Proposes Active participant Creating: Potential Activities and Products Use the SCAMPER strategy to invent a new type of sports shoe Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a robot to do your homework. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Write about your feelings in relation to... Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about..
Design a new monetary system Develop a menu for a new restaurant using a variety of healthy foods Design a record, book or magazine cover for... Sell an idea Devise a way to... Make up a new language and use it in an example Write a jingle to advertise a new product. Practical Blooms Suitable for use with the entire class Emphasis on certain levels for different children Extend childrens thinking skills through emphasis on higher levels of the taxonomy (analysis, evaluation, creation) Possible approaches with a class could be: All children work through the remembering and understanding stages and then select at least one activity from each other level All children work through first two levels and then select activities from any other level Some children work at lower level while others work at higher levels All children select activities from any level Some activities are tagged essential while others are optional A thinking process singled out for particular attention eg. Comparing, (done with all children, small group or individual)
Some children work through the lower levels and then design their own activities at the higher levels All children write their own activities from the taxonomy (Black, 1988, p. 23). Sample Unit : Space Remembering Cut out space pictures from a magazine. Make a display or a collage. List space words (Alphabet Key). List the names of the planets in our universe. List all the things an astronaut would need for a space journey. Understanding Make your desk into a spaceship, Make an astronaut for a puppet play. Use it to tell what an astronaut does. Make a model of the planets in our solar system. Applying Keep a diary of your space adventure (5 days). What sort of instruments would you need to make space music? Make a list of questions you would like to ask an astronaut. Analyzing
Make an application form for a person applying for the job of an astronaut. Compare Galileos telescope to a modern telescope. Distinguish between the Russian and American space programs. Evaluating Compare the benefits of living on Earth and the moon. You can take three people with you to the moon. Choose and give reasons. Choose a planet you would like to live on- explain why. Creating Write a newspaper report for the following headline: Spaceship out of control. Use the SCAMPER strategy to design a new space suit. Create a game called Space Snap. Prepare a menu for your spaceship crew. Design an advertising program for trips to the moon. Sample Unit : Travel Remembering How many ways can you travel from one place to another? List and draw all the ways you know. Describe one of the vehicles from your list, draw a diagram and label the parts. Collect transport pictures from magazines- make a poster with info. Understanding
How do you get from school to home? Explain the method of travel and draw a map. Write a play about a form of modern transport. Explain how you felt the first time you rode a bicycle. Make your desk into a form of transport. Applying Explain why some vehicles are large and others small. Write a story about the uses of both. Read a story about The Little Red Engine and make up a play about it. Survey 10 other children to see what bikes they ride. Display on a chart or graph. Analyzing Make a jigsaw puzzle of children using bikes safely. What problems are there with modern forms of transport and their uses- write a report. Use a Venn Diagram to compare boats to planes, or helicopters to bicycles. Evaluating What changes would you recommend to road rules to prevent traffic accidents? Debate whether we should be able to buy fuel at a cheaper rate. Rate transport from slow to fast etc.. Creating
Invent a vehicle. Draw or construct it after careful planning. What sort of transport will there be in twenty years time? Discuss, write about it and report to the class. Write a song about traveling in different forms of transport. A good teacher makes you think even when you dont want to. (Fisher, 1998, Teaching Thinking) Blooming Questions Questioning should be used purposefully to achieve well-defines goals. Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of thinking organised by level of complexity. It gives teachers and students an opportunity to learn and practice a range of thinking and provides a simple structure for many different kinds of questions and thinking. The taxonomy involves all categories of questions. Typically a teacher would vary the level of questions within a single lesson. Lower and Higher Order Questions
Lower level questions are those at the remembering, understanding and lower level application levels of the taxonomy. Usually questions at the lower levels are appropriate for: Evaluating students preparation and comprehension Diagnosing students strengths and weaknesses Reviewing and/or summarising content Lower and Higher Order Questions Higher level questions are those requiring complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills. Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually most appropriate for: Encouraging students to think more deeply and critically Problem solving Encouraging discussions Stimulating students to seek information on their own www.oir.uiuc.edu/Did/docs/QUESTION/quest1.htm Questions for Remembering
What happened after...? How many...? What is...? Who was it that...? Can you name ...? Find the definition of Describe what happened after Who spoke to...? Which is true or false...? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 12) Questions for Understanding
Can you explain why? Can you write in your own words? How would you explain? Can you write a brief outline...? What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? Can you clarify? Can you illustrate? Does everyone act in the way that .. does? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 12) Questions for Applying Do you know of another instance where? Can you group by characteristics such as?
Which factors would you change if? What questions would you ask of? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 13) Question for analyzing Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Can you explain what must have happened when...? What are some or the problems of...? Can you distinguish between...?
What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the problem with...? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 13) Questions for Evaluating Is there a better solution to...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Can you defend your position about...? Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...? What changes to.. would you recommend?
Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..? How effective are. ..? What are the consequences..? What influence will....have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of....? Why is ....of value? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will loose? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14) Questions for Creating Can you design a...to...? Can you see a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? Why don't you devise your own way to...? What would happen if ...? How many ways can you...? Can you create new and unusual uses for...? Can you develop a proposal which would...? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14) Now its your turn Use the Blooms Matrix and these notes to plan a number of activities or questions for each level of the taxonomy. You may choose to use this terms context or
unit, or focus on next terms. Work with your teaching partner. I will copy these for our Thinking Skills Folder so everyone can share our BRILLIANT ideas. HAVE FUN! How does it all fit together? Blooms Revised Taxonomy Creating Evaluating analyzing Applying Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention Key Brick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI, Prioritising. Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram, Commonality Key, Picture Key, Y Chart, Combination Key. Blue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key,
Reverse Listing Key, Flow Chart. Graphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse Understanding Listing, PMI, Webs (Inspiration). Remembering White Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers, Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key. An integrated approach: Blooms and SMARTS Planning across six levels of thinking (Bloom) and eight different ways of knowing and understanding the world (Gardners SMARTS). Assist in achieving a balanced program of activities that cater for all students abilities and interests. Comprehensive planning. Every space on the matrix doesnt have to be filled. NOW ITS YOUR TURN! This world is but a canvas for our imaginations. (Henry David Thoreau) Bloom on the Internet Bloom's(1956) Revised Taxonomy
An excellent introduction and explanation of the revised Taxonomy by Michael Pole on the oz-TeacherNet site written for the QSITE Higher order Thinking Skills Online Course 2000. Pohl explains the terms and provides a comprehensive overview of the sub-categories, along with some suggested question starters that aim to evoke thinking specific to each level of the taxonomy. Suggested potential activities and student products are also listed. Blooms Revised Taxonomy Another useful site for teachers with useful explanations and examples of questions from the College of Education at San Diego State University. Taxonomy of Technology Integration This site compiled by the Berglund Center for Internet Studies at Pacific University, makes a valiant effort towards linking ICT (information and communication technologies) to learning via Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Anderson, et. al., 2001). The taxonomy presented on this site is designed to represent the varying cognitive processes that can be facilitated by the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning process. Critical and Creative Thinking - Bloom's Taxonomy Part of Eduscape.com, this site includes a definitive overview of critical and creative thinking as well as how Blooms domains of learning can be reflected in technology-rich projects. Many other links to Internet resources to support Blooms Taxonomy, as well as research and papers on Thinking Skills. Well worth a look. He who learns but does not think is lost (Chinese Proverb)
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