Body Fluids -

Body Fluids -

Body Fluids Jayanti Tokkas1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav3* Department of Biochemistry, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana, India 2 Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India 3 Nutritional Biotechnology, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute, Mohali, India 1 *Corresponding author: [email protected] Body Fluids Total amount of fluid in the human body is approximately 70% of body weight

Body fluid has been divided into two compartments Intracellular fluid (ICF) Inside the cells 55% of total body water Extracellular fluid Outside the cells 45% of total body water

Body Fluid Compartments Extracellular fluid includes Interstitial fluid Plasma Present between the cells Approximately 80% of ECF

Present in blood Approximately 20% of ECF Also includes Lymph synovial fluid aqueous humor cerebrospinal fluid vitreous body, endolymph, perilymph, pleural, pericardial

and peritoneal fluids Body Fluid Compartments Barriers separate ICF, interstitial fluid and plasma Plasma membrane Separates ICF from surrounding interstitial fluid Blood

vessel wall Separate interstitial fluid from plasma Composition of body fluids Organic substances Inorganic substances Glucose Sodium

Amino Potassium acids Fatty acids Hormones Enzymes Calcium Magnesium Chloride Phophate Sulphate Difference

ECF ICF Most abundant cation - Na+, Most abundant cation - K+

muscle contraction Impulse transmission fluid and electrolyte balance Most abundant anion - Cl Na+ Regulates osmotic pressure Forms HCl in gastric acid

Resting membrane potential Action potentials Maintains intracellular volume Regulation of pH Anion are proteins and phosphates (HPO42-) /K+ pumps play major role in keeping K+ high inside cells and Na+

high outside cell Sodium Na+ Most abundant ion in ECF 90% of extracellular cations Plays pivotal role in fluid and electrolyte balance as it accounts for half of the osmolarity of ECF Chloride Cl-

Most prevalent anion in ECF Moves easily between ECF and ICF because most plasma membranes contain Cl- leakage channels and transporters Can help balance levels of anions in different fluids Bicarbonate HCO3- Second most prevalent extracellular anion Concentration increases in blood passing through systemic capillaries picking up carbon dioxide Chloride shift helps maintain correct balance of anions in

ECF and ICF Potassium K+ Most abundant cation in ICF Establish resting membrane potential in neurons and muscle fibers Maintains normal ICF fluid volume Helps regulate pH of body fluids when exchanged for H+ Magnesium

Mg2+ in ICF (45%) or ECF (1%) Second most common intracellular cation Cofactor for certain enzymes and sodium-potassium pump Essential for synaptic transmission, normal neuromuscular activity and myocardial function Specialized Fluids of the Body Lymph

Milk Cerebrospinal Amniotic fluid fluid Aqueous humor Sweat Tears Lymph Clear and colorless fluid 96% water and 4% solids

Solids Proteins Lipids Glucose mainly

NPN 5-15% Chylomicrons Lipoproteins Carbohydrates 2-6% of solids albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, prothrombin, clotting factors, antibodies, enzymes Urea and creatinine

Electrolytes Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonates Functions of Lymph Return protein from tissue spaces into blood Redistribution of fluid Removal of bacteria, toxins and other foreign bodies from tissues

Maintain structural and functional integrity of tissue Route for intestinal fat absorption Transport lymphocytes Milk Secreted by mammary glands Complete natural food 83-87% water and 13-17% solids Solids Carbohydrates

Lipids Caesin (80%), Lactalbumin Enzymes (proteases, xanthine oxidase,lysozyme), immunoglobulins Minerals

Triacylglyerols Palmitic acid, myristic acid, stearic acid, lauric acid, butyric acid,oleic acid Proteins Lactose Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Cl Vitamins Fat and water soluble vitamins except Vit - C

Functions of Milk Milk sugar provides galactose, a structural unit for growing infant. In intestine, it gets metabolized to lactic acid which eliminates harmful bacteria. Source of protein, mineral and vitamins Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Clear, colorless liquid formed within the cavities of brain and around spinal cord %00ml CSF is formed everyday At any given time, there is 120-150ml CSF in the system

CSF is completely replaced about three times a day. Functions of CSF Hydrolic shock absorber Regulation of intracranial pressure Influences the hunger sensation and eating behaviours Amniotic Fluid Liquid produced by membranes and fetus Volume of fluid increases with gestational age Clear with some desquamated fetal cell and

a little lipid. Functions of AF Physical protection to the fetus Medium for exchange of various chemical Aqueous Humor Fluid that fills the interior chamber of eye Secreted by ciliary body, enters anterior chamber Blockade in the flow of aqueous humor causes

glaucoma due to increased intraocular pressure. Posterior chamber of eye is filled with vitrous humor which contains a gel (vitrous body of hyaluronic acid secreted by retina) Sweat Secretion of sweat gland Regulates body temperature by cooling and evaporation Sweat glands controlled by ANS, Adrenal cortical steroid - which affect the quantity of electrolyte present Sweat

Insensible perspiration amounts to 800-1200ml/day Volume of sweat produced/day during muscular exercise at elevated temperature may range from 10-14l, which may lead to water and electrolyte imbalance Water content of sweat varies from 99.2-99.7% pH 4.7 to 7.5 Total non protein nitrogen (urea) varies from 0.071% per hour during copius sweating Sweat Electrolyte

Na+ K+ Cl- in sweat varies 12.6-127 meq/l 5-32 meq/l 8.5-85 meq/l Tears Produced by lachrymal glands Isotonic but becomes hypertonic due to evaporation as fluid passes over the cornea

When the tear flow is copius, fluid is isotonic Under stimulus with a slow rate of tear flow, the fluid is about 25m osm hypertonic Copius Rapid tear flow induction Tears pH 7 to 7.6 due to loss of CO2 Protein content is 0.6 to 0.18g/dl with an albumin/globulin ratio of 1:5 or 2:1 Small amount of mucin is also present Lysozyme lyses the cells of a number of micro-organisms by breaking down the polysaccharides of their outer layer Functions of Tears Lysozyme

protects eye from infectious agents Lubricate the surface of the cornea Fill the irregularities of the corneal surface to improve optical properties Protects eyes from injury

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