BSFR - Tennessee

BSFR - Tennessee

Bulk Survey for Release (BSFR) Program Roger Fenner Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Radiological Health Presentation to Solid Waste Advisory Committee July 5, 2007 Main Objective Is The BSFR Protective of Human Health and the Environment?

SWAC Terminology BSFR Tennessee Department Of Environment And Conservation Approval Process For BSFR Programs

Radiation In Our Lives Conclusion/Comments TERMINOLOGY rem A Measurement Of The Biological Effective Dose Risk Of Suffering From Health Effects Following Exposure to Radiation. TERMINOLOGY A rem Is A Relative Large Number For The Amounts And Types Of Radiation Exposures We Will Be Discussing,

Therefore We Need To Define Two Other Terms To More Appropriately Fit Our Purposes For This Meeting. TERMINOLOGY The millirem (mrem) Is 1/1000th Of A rem. For Our Purposes It Is Easier to Remember That: 1000 mrem Are Equal To 1 rem TERMINOLOGY The Second Term Is The microrem (rem)

A microrem (rem) Is 1/1000th Of A mrem For Our Purposes It Is Easier To Remember That: 1000 rem Are Equal To 1 mrem TERMINOLOGY 1000 rem = 1 mrem TERMINOLOGY WARNING Do Not Let Yourself Be Confused If We Are Talking About Exposure

Rates. 1 mrem/hr Is Still Equal To 1000 rem/hr AND 1 mrem/yr Is Still Equal To 1000 rem/yr TERMINOLOGY The Last Term I Want to Introduce Is The Term Used To Discuss How Much Radioactivity Is in Any Type of Material Including BSFR Material. It Is The Term For What We Refer To As Activity. picoCurie (pCi)

TERMINOLOGY 1 picoCurie Is Equal To 0.037 Radioactive Decays (Disintegrations) Every Second. TERMINOLOGY For Our Purposes We Are Concerned With How Many Decays Per Second Are Associated With Each Gram Of Material. So We Will Talk About picoCuries per gram (pCi/g) TERMINOLOGY

Three Terms To Remember mrem rem pCi/g BSFR What Is BULK SURVEY FOR RELEASE? BSFR BSFR Is A Term Used to Refer To A Licensed Process That Has Been Approved By The

Tennessee Department Of Environment And Conservation (TDEC) To Allow The Disposal Of Materials With EXTREMELY LOW LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL In Class I Landfills BSFR

Example Of BSFR Materials Soils Resins Concrete Wood Asphalt Paper, Plastic, Clothing BSFR State Regulations For Protection Against Radiation (SRPAR) Rule 1200-2-5-.121

BSFR METHOD FOR GRANTING APPROVAL OF ALTERNATIVE DISPOSAL PROCEDURES BSFR This Regulatory Authority Is The Same As Provided For In NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (NRC) TITLE 10 CFR 20.2002

BSFR Applications Are Reviewed And Evaluated Based On 5 Criteria As Per This Regulation. BSFR 1. The Description Of The Waste To Be Disposed, Including The Physical And Chemical Properties. 2. Manner And Conditions Of

Waste Disposal. BSFR 3.Analysis And Evaluation Of Pertinent Information About The Environment Of The Disposal Site. BSFR 4. Analysis And Procedures To Ensure That Doses Are Maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

(ALARA) And Within The Dose Limits In SRPAR. BSFR 5. The Nature And Location Of Other Potentially Affected Licensed And Unlicensed Facilities. BSFR How Does BSFR Work? BSFR

1. Material Is Analyzed At Each Generators Site For The Chemical Constituencies And To Identify Each Radionuclide And Its Activity (pCi/g). 2. The Material Is Then Shipped According To U.S. Department Of Transportation (USDOT) Regulations To A Processor. BSFR 3. At The Processor Each Package Is Analyzed Again To Verify The Radionuclides And Their Associated Activities (pCi/g).

4. This Analysis Allows The Processor To Determine If The Material Meets The Predetermined Limits Authorized In Their Radioactive Material License For BSFR Disposal. BSFR 5. If The Material Meets The Predetermined Licensed Authorized Limits And The Container Surface Dose Rate Limits And Does Not Meet The USDOT Definition For Radioactive

Material It Is Then Shipped To The Preauthorized Landfill. BSFR 6. At the Landfill The Material Goes Through A Final Check. Only After It Passes The Final Check Is It Disposed In The Landfill. BSFR How Does TDEC Evaluate A Request For Alternative

Disposal? BSFR The Request Is Analyzed By The Licensing Staff The Same As Any Other Application. Which Includes: Qualification Of Management and Health Physics Personnel Adequacy Of Their Radiation Safety Program (Procedures, Instrumentation, Facility, Training, Etc.) COMPUTER MODEL RESRAD Is A Computer

Program Used To Evaluate The Potential Doses From Radioactive Material In The Ground COMPUTER MODEL Has Undergone Extensive Review Benchmarking Verification And Validation COMPUTER MODEL

USERS OF THE MODEL U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) U.S. Department Of Energy (USDOE) DOE Contractors COMPUTER MODEL U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers (USACE) Industrial Firms

Universities Foreign Government Agencies And Institutions (France, Spain, Germany, Russia, Taiwan, Belgium, Croatia, Malaysia, Czech Republic, Canada, and Japan) COMPUTER MODEL What Does The Computer Model Take Into Consideration? RESIDENT FARMER SCENARIO

COMPUTER MODEL COMPUTER MODEL COMPUTER MODEL Additional Safety Factors Added By TDEC COMPUTER MODEL 1. 1 mrem/yr TDEC Limit

VS 25 mrem/yr NRC Limit COMPUTER MODEL 2. TDEC Models The Landfill As Containing Uniformly Distributed BSFR Material Producing A 1 mrem/yr Dose. COMPUTER MODEL

COMPUTER MODEL 3. TDEC Has Limited Disposal Of Materials At BFI Middle Point To No More Than 5% Of The Total Waste Received. COMPUTER MODEL 4. TDEC Models For No Clean Cover Soil Placed Between The Resident Farmer And The Waste COMPUTER MODEL

COMPUTER MODEL 5. For The Unsaturated Zone Area We Only Give Credit For The Clay Liner And The Soil Buffer. (No Credit Is Given For The Plastic Liner.) COMPUTER MODEL

6. Assume All Waste Is Present At The Concentration Limit On The Day The Site Is Closed. COMPUTER MODEL These Additional Safety Factors Decrease The 1 mrem/yr Designed Dose Limit For Middle Point Significantly RADIATION IN LIFE

RADIATION IN LIFE Legislated Radiation Dose Limits For TDEC, NRC, AND ALL AGREEMENT STATES RADIATION IN LIFE GENERAL PUBLIC DOSE LIMITS Dose Limit For A Member of the General Public (TEDE) 100 mrem/yr

Dose Limit For Release Of A Licensed Facility For Unrestricted Use (NRC and some Agreement States) 25 mrem/yr RADIATION IN LIFE GENERAL PUBLIC DOSE LIMITS Dose Limit To A Member Of The General Public Allowed In Any One Hour 2 mrem Dose Limit For The Resident Farmer

Scenario From Materials Disposed At Middle Point Landfill 1 mrem/yr RADIATION IN LIFE Occupational Radiation Dose Limits Occupational Dose Limit For Minors 500 mrem/yr Occupational Dose Limit For Adult

5000 mrem/yr RADIATION IN LIFE In the United States, the Annual Estimated Average Effective Dose Equivalent From Radiation Is 360 mrem Per Adult. This Is Broken Down As: SOURCE DOSE (mrem/yr)

PERCENT OF TOTAL Radon 200 55% Cosmic 27 8%

Terrestrial 28 8% Internal 39 11% 300

82% Medical x-ray 39 11% Nuclear Medicine 14 4%

Consumer Products 10 3% Occupational 0.9 <0.3 Nuclear Fuel Cycle

<1 <0.03 Fallout <1 <0.03 Miscellaneous <1

<0.03 63 18% 360 100% Natural Total Natural

Artificial Other Total Artificial Total Artificial and Natural Background in USA Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain- 305 mrem/yr Middle Americamrem/yr Rocky Mountain Plateaumrem/yr Denver Coloradomrem/yr

325 345 365 RADIATION IN LIFE Human body You Are Made Up Of Chemicals, And It Should Be Of No Surprise That Some Of Them Are Radionuclides, Many Of Which You Ingest Daily In Your Water And Food. Here Are The Estimated Concentrations Of Radionuclides

Calculated For A 154 Pound Adult : Natural Radioactivity in the Human Body Nuclide Total Mass of Nuclide found in the Body Uranium 90 micro g

Thorium 30 micro g Potassium 40 17 mg Radium 31 pg Carbon 14

22 ng Tritium 0.06 pg Total Activity of Nuclide found in the Body pCi pCi pCi pCi

pCi pCi Daily Intake of Nuclides 30 1.9 micro g 3 3 micro g

120,000 0.39 mg 30 2.3 pg 100000 1.8 ng 600

0.003 pg RADIATION IN LIFE RADIATION IN LIFE FOOD Every Food Has Some Small Amount Of Radioactivity In It. The Common Radionuclides In Food Are Potassium 40 (40K), Radium 226 (226Ra) and Uranium 238 (238U) And The Associated Progeny.

Natural Radioactivity in Food Food Potassium (pCi/kg) Radium 226 (pCi/kg) Banana 3,520

Brazil Nuts 5,600 Carrot 3,400 0.6 2 White Potatoes 3,400

1 - 2.5 Beer 390 1 7,000 1,000 - ---

Red Meat 3,000 0.5 Lima Bean raw 4,640 2 - 5 Drinking Water

--- 0 - 0.17 RADIATION IN LIFE NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BUILDING MATERIALS Common Building Materials And Their Estimated Levels Of: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium Material

Uranium Thorium Potassium pCi/g pCi/g pCi/g Granite

1.7 0.22 Sandstone 0.2 0.19 11.2 Cement

1.2 0.57 6.4 Limestone Concrete 0.8 0.23 2.4

Sandstone Concrete 0.3 0.23 10.4 Dry wallboard 0.4

0.32 2.4 By-product gypsum 5.0 1.78 0.2

Natural gypsum 0.4 0.2 4 Wood - -

90 Clay Brick 3 1.2 18 32 Calculated Cosmic Ray Doses to a Person Flying

in Subsonic and Supersonic Aircraft Under Normal Solar Conditions Route Subsonic Flight at 36,000 ft Supersonic flight at 62,000 ft Flight Duratio n (hours)

Flight Duratio n (hours) Dose per Round Trip mrem Dose per Round Trip mrem

Los AngelesParis 11.1 4.8 3.8 3.7 Chicago-Paris 8.3

3.6 2.8 2.6 New York-Paris 7.4 3.1 2.6

2.4 New YorkLondon 7.0 2.9 2.4 2.2 Los AngelesNew York

5.2 1.9 1.9 1.3 17.4 4.4 6.2

2.1 SydneyAcapulco RADIATION IN LIFE Chest X-ray 2 mrem Heart Catheterization (Skin Dose) mrem 45000 Radiation Machine Therapy (Localized & Fractionated) mrem

6,000,000 Thyroid Dose to Treat Graves Disease mrem 10,000,000 Dose to the Rest of the Body From the Treatment of Graves Disease mrem 20,000

CONCLUSION While Sitting In This Room Today The Dose Rate Has Fluctuated Between 2 rem/hr and 6 rem/hr That Fluctuation Equates A Difference of 40 mrem/yr CONCLUSION 0.1 rem/hr Is The Equivalent Of Receiving

1 mrem/yr CONCLUSION

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