An-Najah National University Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering FAMO A 3-Axis Multi Tool CNC Machine Supervised by : Dr. Salameh Abdul Fattah Fahid Yaseen Omar Moumar Mahmoud Diab
CONTENTS Introduction Mechanical Design Motors
Control Results & Analysis Discussion Conclusions and Recommendations INTRODUCTION
Overview of CNC machine What do we mean by CNC ? CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled machine Basic Components Machine
Control System Open loop Close loop OBJECTIVES & MOTIVATIONS To achieve very high accuracy To reduce time and effort needed.
To design a more flexible production system Reducing error probabilities in a way devolves to zero error. Able to perform many shapes. Mechanical Design The Mechanical design consists of two main parts: The Frame
The Transmission System Frame The frame of the machine is made of HDF wood. We designed the frame using AutoCAD. We cut the frame pieces using a CNC milling machine.
We assembled the pieces together. 3D Drawing by AutoCAD Transmission System We will talk about : Sliders and bearings Rails
Pulley and Belt Sliders and Bearings Sliders and Bearings Constrain motion to one degree of freedom motion only Greatly reduces friction between moving parts
We used linear ball bearing sliders Sliders In our project we used the following ball bearing sliders. LMK8 flange ball bearing slider SC8UU ball bearing slider. Rails Rails are the part that the slider moves along. Rails provide free linear motion in one direction
Frictionless to make motion very smooth Chrome-plated steel shaft Pulley and Belt Belts Transmit motion from motor pulley to the counter pulley.
Provide constant tension Pulley and Belt GT2 20 teeth timing pulley GT2 timing belt Motors What is a Stepper Motor ? DC motors that move in discrete steps
Multiple coils (phases) By energizing each phase in sequence, the motor will rotate, one step at a time Motors What are stepper motors good for ?
Precise positioning Speed Control Low speed High torque Motors Advantages
High torque at startup Easy to control Easy to implement Can be used for both open-loop and closed-loop systems
High precision and Reliability Excellent response time Motors Disadvantages Requires a dedicated control circuit
High current consumption Torque reduced at high speed Hard to control at high speeds Control Hardware
Arduino Uno GRBL Shield Stepper motor drivers ( A4988) Computer
Software GRBL and XLoader Universal Gcode Sender MakerCAM Control
What is GRBL ? Open source software Runs on Arduino Takes Gcode and turns it to motor signals What is Gcode ?
The most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language. It is a way for you to tell the machine to move to various points at a desired speed. The Arduino and the shield. The Arduino, the shield and the drivers Control
How get this to work ? Upload GRBL software to Arduino Using XLoader Streaming G-Code There are many programs that can be used one of which is Universal G-Code sender. Advantages Universal Gcode Sender
User friendly interface Sending Gcode Commands Sending Gcode Files Visualizing
Micro Steps Control Speed Control G-Code CAD to Gcode CAD models can be created using many programs. These drawings can later be turned to G-Codes.
Discussion Problems 1. Changing the primary idea of the project 2. Material of the frame of the machine. 3.
Final processing of wood 4. Cutting the wood into the frame 5. Wrong dimensions 6. The Corners 7.
Accuracy of the Y-axis Changing the primary idea of the project The first idea was to create a 2-axis hot wire the idea was changed to make a 3-axis multi tool CNC machine Material of the frame of the machine Stainless steel, Aluminum, Acrylic plastic and wood
We chose processed wood Final processing of wood Although the wood used is already processed but after being subjected to humidity or liquids for extended periods of time painting the wood with car paint that works as an insulator Cutting the wood into the frame
cuting the wood with primitive tools Afterwards, we redesigned the project for better balance and cut the parts of the frame at a CNC workshop to get maximum accuracy Wrong dimensions After cutting the wood into shape, we realized that the
thickness of the wood was not as ordered (16mm) but it was (17mm). This lead to some problems in fitting the pieces together. To solve the problem we had to use a file to smoothen the edges and curves of the pieces Accuracy of the Y-axis At first we had one motor running each axis
We solved this problem by adding another motor to the other side of the y-axis How to Improve In the future To make the machine as industrial as possible we are going to replace the wood frame with a stainless steel or Aluminum frame. The z-axis links will be higher so that there will be more space for the z-axis to travel. Better motors and control system will be used for a larger scale machine.
The transmission system will be replaced with screw and gears mechanism. Conclusion The round cross-sectional rails are not the best choice to go with accurate industrial machines, but we had to go with what was available and affordable. But on the other hand, the linear rails arent too bad to be used because they linear smooth and frictionless motion.
A better alternative would be to use the rack and pinion mechanism or the gear and screw type of mechanisms. The stepper motor is the best choice for automated and computerized motion due to its ease of use and high accuracy and reliability. Its very easy to control and install into automated systems. Conclusion The Arduino is the best attractive choice of a controller, because its very cheap and easy to deal with. Sensors can be
connected to Arduino directly and also its very basic programs and simple algorithms. We found out for the first time that the Arduino can host a CNC GRBL shield to receive G-Codes and send pulses to control steppers very accurately using micro-stepping motor driver. Recommendations For industrial purposes a better controller must be used, because the Arduino isnt designed to be put in an industrial environment. Mach3 Interface board or PLC are recommended.
An industrial machine should be made of better materials than wood such as Aluminum and Stainless steel. A screw and gear mechanism is the best choice for both accuracy and endurance. Larger and stronger motors must be used to handle the high torques and bending forces.
A set of industrial motor drivers must be used to handle the high currents the motors will draw. Thank you
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